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The entries found below do not necessarily contain the BGN-approved spellings of undersea feature names. Please consult the GNS for the current official spellings.



A

Abyssal plains (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, p. 1535) – First noted as the 2900-fathom plain, this first discovery was termed “perhaps the most remarkably flat stretch of ocean floor in the Atlantic.”  Atlantis Cruise 151 shows a similar plain in the North Canary Basin.  Concerning flat plains, “The late H.W. Murray of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey had given us the following verbal communication:  ‘In the Gulf of Alaska there is a flat plain lying 140 miles offshore from Yaquina head.  It has a length of 200 miles in a northwest-southwest (sic, should read southeast) direction and lies at a depth of 1461 fathoms at its northwest end and at 1668 fathoms at its southeast end.  It seems to slope or tilt toward the continental slope, where it lies in water 200 fathoms deeper.”

Abyssal Plain, Indian Ocean  (List of Oceanic Depths, 1905…., p. 21) – Possibly first indication of an abyssal plain.  Sounded on by Sherard Osborn, Eastern Telegraph Company, May 1905.  0 24 N 53 25 E to 08 25 N 52 42 E, soundings within 1% of 2800 fathoms except 3 soundings out of 33.  130 fathoms greatest divergence at 01 23.5 N 53 17 E with depth of 2930 fathoms.

Abraham Sea Valley (Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for geographic association with Abraham Bay.

Acadia Mound (Grim 1992) – Located on the NOAA EEZ Central Slope Map.

Acapulco Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116; Fisher 1954; Heacock and Worzel 1955) – An alternate name for Middle America Trench. Krummel gives a depth of 5428 m and places this segment of the Middle America Trench at 16N.

Acapulco Trench Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 249) –

Accomac Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for the Virginia county and county seat of the same name on the Cape Charles Peninsula.

Acor Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1907…., p. 5; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Sounded on by the Princesse Alice in September 1905 with a least observed depth of 389 fathoms at 38 07 N 29 15 W. Azor Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 38 08 N 29 08 W with a least depth of 230 meters. According to Krummel, it was discovered in 1897.

Adeline Bank (Grim 1992) – Named for Adeline, Louisiana.  NOAA EEZ Sweet Bank Map.

Admiral Zenker Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks 1937) – Admiral Zenker Hohe observed by METEOR at 41 03S 5 57W with a depth of 1093m according to Maurer and Stocks 1933.  Named for Admiral Hans Paul Volkmar Zenker (1870-1932), Chief of the Naval Command, equivalent to Chief of Naval Operations of the German Navy.  Zenker was a patron and advocate of the METEOR Expedition.

Adolph Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1898…., p. 6; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – H.M.S. PENGUIN sounded on this bank on November 5, 1897 at 11 53.9 S 178 09.7 W and observed a least depth of 17 fathoms.  Note: Longitude is erroneously listed as East in tables. Termed Adolph-Tuscarora Bank by Krummel (Krummel 1907, p. 98).  He  places it at 11 49 S 178 14 W with a least depth of 26 meters. Discovered in 1897.
 
Adriatic Trough (Supan 1899) – Adriatische Mulde.

Adriatische Mulde (Supan 1899) –

Agadak Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for Agadak Island, an earlier name of Rat Island.

Agassiz Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for Alexander Agassiz who conducted researches off the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE between 1877-1880.  Agassiz introduced steel wire to oceanographic work revolutionizing over-the-side operations such as dredging.  He wrote “Three Cruises of the Blake” which was published in  1888. NOAA EEZ Mitchell Basin Map and NOAA EEZ Orca Basin Map.

Agassiz Deep (Murray 1895; Murray and Hjort 1912 ) – Off the California coast. Could be named for either Louis or Alexander Agassiz although Alexander was a colleague and good friend of John Murray’s. (Murray, J. and Johan Hjort, 1912)  A small deep centered approximately at 38N 135W. 

Agassiz Valleys (Jordan, G. F. 1962,  p. 12) – South of the Florida Keys.  Probably named for Louis Agassiz who conducted pioneering dredging cruises in this area with Louis Francois de Pourtales in the years 1868-69.   This is more likely than named for Alexander Agassiz who worked in the Central Gulf of Mexico on the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in the late 1870’s. 

Agattu Sea Valley (Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for geographic association with Agattu Island.

Agulhas Bank (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with Cape Agulhas, the dividing line between the Indian and Atlantic Ocean at 20 East Longitude. 

Agulhas Basin (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Agulhas Becken by Maurer and Stocks with a deepest observed depth of 5524m at  44 21S 15 08E.

Agulhas Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Called Agulhas Hohen at 36 51S 18 09E 1670m.

Agulhas Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Agulhasschelf.

Alaska Deep (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Named for the USS ALASKA which under the command of Commander George Belknap first sounded here in what is now known as the Peru-Chile Trench.

Alaska Rise (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Alaska Rise is a variant of Chile Rise.  This feature was first sounded on by the USS Alaska under Commander George Belknap, USN, in about 1881.

Alaskan Abyssal Plain (Shepard, F. P., 1963; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 322) – This plain lies at the base of the continental rise between the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench and the southern tip of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Its western edge is a low rise along 150W Longitude. A line of ridges and seamounts separates this abyssal plain from Tufts Abyssal Plain which lies to the south.

Albatross Bank (Vaughn 1940, U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 17 30N 67W on H.O.Chart 5487.  Named for the Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS that worked in these waters in the 1880's.

Albatross Knoll – In the southern California continental borderlands, named for the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS which conducted operations here late in the Nineteenth Century.

Albatross Plateau (Murray 1895; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958; Menard1964) – Named for the United States Fish Commission Ship ALBATROSS one of the most famous fisheries and oceanographic research vessels of all time. A variant of East Pacific Rise.

Albatross Rise (Heacock and Worzel, 1955) – A variant of East Pacific Rise.

Albrohos-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 17 49S 37 34W 42m  Variant of Abrolhos Bank and/or Abrolhos Ridge.  An old name as Charles Darwin mentions sounding the Albrolhos Shoals from HMS BEAGLE in March/April of 1832.  However, these coordinates differ substantially from the GEBCO coordinates as Abrolhos Bank is at 18 30S 3830W and Abrolhos Ridge is at 18S 37W. 

Alden Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for United States Naval Officer James Madison Alden who was among the pioneer surveyors on the United States West Coast as an Assistant in the Coast Survey and commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer ACTIVE between 1852 and 1860.

Aldrich Deep (Murray 1895, Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Admiral Pelham Aldrich who sounded at this location northeast of New Zealand in HMS Egeria in 1800's.  This feature correlates roughly with the Tonga-Kermadec Trench and is located northeast of the northern island of New Zealand and east of the Tonga Islands.

Aleut Dome (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleuten Graben (Supan 1899) – A variant of Aleutian Trench.  Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Abyssal Plain (Shepard, F. P., 1963) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Basin (Murray 1895; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard, 1964) – Named for association with Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Bench (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.
 
Aleutian Crest (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Ridge (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Trench (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) –  Termed Aleuten graben by Supan and Aleutengraben by Krummel who listed a depth of 7383 m.  Named for proximity to Aleutian Islands.

Aleut Ridge (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Aleut Trough  (upslope from trench) (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with the Aleutian Islands.

Alexa Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 252) – 11 40 S 175 30 W with a least depth of 24 meters. Apparently discovered in 1896.

Alexa Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 103) – Separates Penguin Ridge and Pandora Ridge.

Alfred Merz Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933) –  A variant of Merz Seamount observed at 48 33S 5 36E with a depth of 1585m by the METEOR. Named for Alfred Merz (1880-1925), Director of the Meereskunde in Berlin and planner, organizer, and chief scientist  of the METEOR Expedition.  Unfortunately, Merz passed away in 1925 in Buenos Aires at the beginning of the expedition.

Allegheny Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962) – Named for USS ALLEGHENY (ATA 179) which took part in surveys of these seamounts in 1962.

Alpha Rise (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) – 

Alsek Canyon (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for proximity to Alsek River which debouches in Dry Bay, Alaska.

Ambalaoe Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XVIII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Ambalaoe Basin is a small depression in the northern Banda Sea to the south of the island of Ambalaoe.

Amchitka Sea Valley (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Amchitka Island.

Ammen Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for United States Naval Officer Daniel Ammen  (1820 -1898).  Located in the Pacific Ocean centered approximately at 20N and 175W.

Ammen Deep (Petermann 1877) – Pacific Ocean. Named for naval officer Daniel Ammen (1820-1898).  Named as a result of the TUSCARORA expedition.  Ammen was the chief of the Bureau of Navigation of the Navy at the time of the TUSCARORA cruises.

Ammen Basin (Murray 1947,  Plate II) – Named for naval officer Daniel Ammen (1820-1898) who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in 1847-1848.  Located in the Gulf of Maine.

Ammen Rock (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30; Murray 1947 Plate II) – 4 fathoms.  Located in the Gulf of Maine.  Named by Lieutenant Commanding Charles Henry Davis of the BIBB for naval officer Daniel Ammen (1820-1898) who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in 1847-1848.  Ammen searched for this rock unsuccessfully on a contract fishing vessel in 1847 and returned on the BIBB the following year when the rock was positioned by the BIBB.  It was found earlier by fishermen and the hydrographers of the BIBB merely referred to the fishing fleet anchored in the vicinity to find and position the rock.

Ammen Swell (Murray 1947 Plate II) – Located in the Gulf of Maine. Named for naval officer Daniel Ammen (1820-1898) who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in 1847-1848. Daniel Ammen was  born in Ohio, 15 May 1820. He was appointed midshipman 7 July 1836, and served as passed midshipman in the Wilkes exploring expedition, in the Mediterranean, in the East India squadron, and on the coast survey. As lieutenant (from 4 November 1849) he was attached to a commission to select a naval station on the Pacific coast, accompanied the expedition to Paraguay River in 1853-'54, and was on the steam frigate "Merrimac" in 1859-'60. In 1861, at the outbreak of the civil war, he was executive officer of the North Atlantic blockading squadron. At the reduction of Port Royal, 7 November 1861, he commanded the "Seneca," and was sent ashore to hoist the flag over the surrendered forts, and hold them till the army took possession. He was promoted to be commander 21 February 1863, was assigned to the monitor " Patapsco," and participated in the attack on Fort Macallister, 3 March 1863. In May 1864, he was dispatched to the Pacific in command of 220 seamen as passengers on board a California steamer. Two days out from New York a well-organized attempt at mutiny was suppressed by Commander Ammen and Boatswain Bell, aided by Captain Tinklepaugh, of the steamer, and a few volunteers from among the passengers. He participated in the two attacks on Fort Fisher in the winter of 1864-'65, was commissioned captain 26 July 1866, and was on special and sea service until 11 December 1877, when he was made rear-admiral and was placed on the retired list after 49 years and 6 months of service. He is the author of "The Atlantic Coast," a volume in the series entitled "The Navy in the Civil War" (New York, 1883).
 
Ampere Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 59, 78; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 36) – Probably named for the cable ship AMPERE.  
 
Andaman Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Andaman Sea.

Anderson Basin (Grim 1992) – Maybe Anderson, Louisiana.  NOAA EEZ Anderson Basin Map

Anegada Trough (Vaughn 1940, p. 70) – There is a narrow deep trough or trench that extends from Anegada Passage south of west between St. Croix Island on the south and the Virgin Bank on the north. 

Angola Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 322) –  This abyssal plain “spreads out from the seaward edge of the giant Congo Cone, which forms a distributary system of channels and fans leading from the Congo Canyon.” “The Angola Abyssal Plain is the largest of the abyssal plains of the South Atlantic which lies in temperate latitudes.”

Angola Basin (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 322) – Named for geographic proximity to the country of Angola.  Called Angola- (Kongo) – Becken by Maurer and Stocks 1933.  Deepest depth of 4311 m observed by METEOR at 33 06S 7 43W.

Annie Guyot (Menard, H. W., 1964) –

Andrew Tablemount (Wiseman and Hall 1956) – “For lack of a suitable geographical name, and because the ship’s name and the Captain’s name have been used elsewhere, it is proposed to call this feature by the Christian name of the officer primarily associated with the survey – the navigating officer – and name it Andrew Tablemount.”  In the naming of the adjacent David Knoll, the authors inform us that, “It is proposed that this feature should again be named after the navigating officer, Lt. Cdr. A.C.F. David, R.N., and called David Seaknoll….”

Antarctic-Pacific Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A name proposed by Mosby.

Antarctic Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 128) – Antarktischen Schelf.

Antilles Outer Ridge (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 32, 33, 36, 52, 53, 59, 60; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) –
 
Applequist Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander Herman C. Applequist who served on United States Coast and Geodetic Survey hydrographic survey ships in southern Alaska and the Aleutians.  Commander Applequist died as the result of a sports accident in the 1950’s.

Arabian Basin (Sewell 1940, Fig. 4, p.82, 83) – Located at 10N 65E on Figure 4 of Sewell, p. 82.

Arab Bucht (Supan 1899) – Refers to the continental shelf area in the northern part of the Arabian Sea.

Arafura Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113,130; Fairbridge 1954) – Arafuraschelf in Krummel’s terminology.
 
Arcadiana Basin (Grim 1992) – NOAA EEZ Arcadiana Basin Map.

Archimedes Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – Named for the Greek mathematician and philosopher Archimedes, (287 – 212 BCE),  known as the Father of Integral Calculus, father of hydrostatics, first to study pycnometry.  13 19 110 2.

Arctic Basin (Murray 1895; Krummel 1907, p. 103; Menard1964 ) – Named for geographic association with the Arctic Ocean.  Arktisches Becken in Krummel’s terminology.

Arctic Deep (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – In the Arctic Ocean.

Arellano Basin (Grim 1992) –  NOAA EEZ Vaca Basin Map.

Argentine Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – This plain lies within the Argentine Basin.

Argentine Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 120; Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – Argentinisches Becken by Supan and Maurer and Stocks, Argentinischen Becken by Krummel. Named for geographic association with Argentina. The METEOR observed a greatest depth of 3920m at  54 58S 38 54W. 

Argentinisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Arguello Canyon (Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941, Chart II.) – Named for proximity to Point Arguello. 

Argus Bank (Murray and Hjort, p. 178) –

Arktische Mulde (Supan 1899) – Arctic Trough

Arktische Schwelle (Supan 1899) – Arctic Swell

Aroe Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XIX; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88, 91) – “As the recent SNELLIUS soundings proved that the Kai Trough and the Ceram-Aroe Trough, drawn separately on Tydeman’s depth chart, belong to only one basin, this basin has been given by me the name of Aroe Basin after the Aroe Islands, lying in the vicinity.” (van Riel, 1940, p. 91) 

Aruba Gap (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331) –  “However, north of Aruba there is an abyssal gap between the southern end of the Beata Ridge and the continental slope of South America. The Aruba Gap provides a narrow connection between the Colombia Abyssal Plain and the smaller Venezuela Abyssal Plain.”

Ascension Canyon (Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941, Chart III) – Named for Father Ascension, cosmographer of the Vizcaino Expedition which passed over these waters on New Year’s Day, 1603. 

Assumption Dome (Grim 1992) –  Named for Assumption Parish, Louisiana. NOAA EEZ Sweet Bank Map

Asterias Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel ASTERIAS. According to Pratt, located at 38 57N 65 18W.

Astoria Channel (Shepard1963) –

Astoria Fan (Shepard1963) –

Atakama Trench 7635 m (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116) –  The deepest observation in the Peru-Chile Trench up to 1907 was made by the British cable ship RELAY in May 1890 when it sounded at 25 42 S, 71 31.5 W and observed a depth of 7635 meters. Named for the Atacama Desert.  Atakama Graben by Supan; Atakamagraben by Krummel.

Atakama Graben (Supan 1899) – A variant of the Peru-Chile Trench.

Atakapa Basin (Grim 1992) – An Indian tribe of South Louisiana and northeast Texas. Orca Basin Map.

Atakapa Basin (Grim 1992) – NOAA EEZ Orca Basin Map has totally different 2nd feature named Atakapa Basin.

Atlantic-Antarctic Basin (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – “The deep basin south of the Scotia Arc, Bouvet Island and the Crozet Island, extending from the Weddell Sea to the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge.”  Used by MacIntosh as a variant of Atlantic-Indian-Antarctic Basin.

Atlantic-Antarctic Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257-258) –  That portion of the oceanic ridge system which extends from 52S 10W to 52S 24E. Referred to Herdman as “A broad ridge rising from a general depth of 2000 fm. and extending with some gaps in an easterly direction from approximately 52S 10W  to 52S 24E….  A new name proposed by British Committee.”

Atlantic-Indian Antarctic Basin (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255, 257, 260) – A name given by Mawson in 1930, used by Mosby; Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming; shown on U.S.H.O. 2562.  According to Herdman on page 259, “Bounded on the north by the South Orkney-Sandwich Ridge, the Atlantic-Antarctic Ridge, the Prince Edward-Crozet Ridge, and on the east by the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge…. Greatest depth 3211 fm., 5872 m., 58 40S 29 30E.  Echo sounding taken by SS THORSHAVN on 27th December, 1933 and corrected by Matthew’s tables.”

Atlantic-Indian Cross Ridge (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – “The ridge system between the southern part of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, Bouvet Island and the Crozet Islands.”  As noted by MacIntosh.

Atlantic-Indian Rise (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Shown on Mawson’s bathymetric map 1930.

Atlantic-Indian South Polar Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Atlantic-Indian Swell (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – As noted by Mosby and shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562.  Called Atlantisch-Indisch Schwelle by Maurer and Stocks and observed by the METEOR at 54 19S 4 19E 3165m

Atlantis Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Pratt 1968; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7) – Named for Ship Atlantis of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Atlantische-Schwelle (Supan 1899) – Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 55N to 40 S on Supan’s 1899 map.

Atlantis-Great Meteor Seamount Group
(Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 265) – In the east central Atlantic Ocean. 

Atlantis-Plato-Cruiser -Great Meteor Seamount Group (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 98) – In the east central Atlantic Ocean. [This grouping described in a paper by Heezen, Ewing, Ericson, and Bentley in press in 1959.]

Atlantis Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 98; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 36) –

Ault Peak (National Research Council 1930, p. 79) – “A new peak about 2,100 meters above the general level was discovered in latitude 25.6 north and longitude 160.3 west…. This elevation has been named ‘Ault Peak’ in honor of Captain Ault.” This peak was named for Captain J.P. Ault, commanding officer of the non-magnetic research ship CARNEGIE, who was killed in the disastrous fire and explosion that destroyed the ship while loading gasoline at Apia, Western Samoa, on November 29, 1929. Apparently this was the first discovery of Schumann Seamount for which Ault Peak is a variant.

Australian-Antarctic Basin
(Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A variant of Eastern Indian-Antarctic Basin as named by MacIntosh.

Austral Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Aves Becken (Vaughn 1940, p. 77) – Variant of Grenada Trough.  Vaughn reports use of this term meaning Aves Basin. 

Aves Ridge or Bank (Vaughn 1940, p. 71) – “The name is taken from Aves Island near the north end of the ridge, which is surrounded by the 1000-fathom curve and reaches to Venezuela.”

Aves Swell (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Officer et al. 1957, p. 360) – 13 30N 63 30W Named for association with Aves Island.

Azor Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 38 08 N 29 08 W with a least depth of 230 meters. Discovered in 1897.  Now known as Acor Bank.

Azoren-Plateau (Supan 1899) –

Azores Bulge (Tolstoy 1951, p. 446) –

Azores-Gibraltar Ridge (Heezen et al. 1959; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320; Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 276)

Azores Plateau (Supan 1899; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 97; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – Azorean Plateau in Supan nomenclature.

Azores Ridge (Fleming, Cherkis, and Heirtzler 1970, p. 38; Cherkis et al. 1973, p. 1601) –

Azores Rise (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) - Called the Azoren-Schwelle by Maurer and Stocks and with a depth of 4763m at  35 05N 18 33W as observed in 1925 on the METEOR Expedition.


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B

Babylon Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for the town of Babylon, Long Island, New York.  This canyon was listed as “Fire Island” by Shepard (1938, p. 441).

Bach Ridge (Rea and Naugler 1971) – In the Musicians’ Seamounts.

Bache Deep ( Murray and Hjort 1912) – In the northeast Pacific Ocean west of California, a small deep located approximately at 34N 131W. Named for Alexander Dallas Bache, Second Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey.

Bahama Banks (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Pratt 1968) –  Named for association with Bahama Islands.

Bahama Escarpment (Pratt 1968) – Named for association with Bahama Islands.

Bailey Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for West Point microscopist Jacob W. Bailey who studied deep sea deposits brought back by Coast Survey vessels under the direction of Alexander Dallas Bache and naval vessels under the direction of Matthew Fontaine Maury. Located in the Pacific Ocean and centered at approximately 24N 168E.

Baja California Seamount Province (Dietz, et al. 1954; Menard 1955; Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 257; Menard 1964) – Named for geographic association with Baja California, Mexico. “South of the Murray Fracture Zone and north of the Clarion Fracture Zone a mountainous area studded with volcanoes forms a geomorphic province….  Consequently the area is here named the Baja California Seamount Province.” (Menard1955, p. 1158 ) Alternate names for this area include Plateau de Californie and Mexican Rise.

Bajo Nuevo Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Baker Fan (Shepard1963) –

Balanus Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel BALANUS. Located at 39 20N 65 20W by Pratt.

Balearen-Becken (Supan 1899) – A variant of Algerian Basin.
 
Balearic Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 57; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 328) – Named for association with Balearic Islands. “The floor of the western Mediterranean is nearly completely filled by the Balearic Abyssal Plain.” (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 328.)

Balearic Basin (Supan 1899) – Balearen-Becken, Supan’s terminology, a variant of Algerian Basin.

Balfour Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 18 56 S 156 57 E with a least depth of 1529 meters. Discovered in 1894.  Named for Andrew Balfour, British survey officer.  Andrew Balfour was in command of the PENGUIN when it was the first vessel to ever sound in over 5000 fathoms.

Bali Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XXIII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Balmoral Reef (List of Oceanic Depths ….1897…., p. 32; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – H.M.S. WATERWITCH sounded on Balmoral Reef between 6-8 November 1896 and found a least depth of 4 fathoms at 15 40.2 S 175 52.2 E.   Balmoral Reef (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 15 40 S 175 52 W with a least depth of 7 meters. Discovered in 1896.

Balmoral Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Baltimore Canyon (Pratt 1968) – Named for Baltimore, Maryland.

Baltimore Spit and Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Baltimore, Maryland.  A variant of Baltimore Canyon.

Baltisches Becken (Supan 1899) – The Baltic Basin.
 
Banda Basin (Murray 1895; Supan 1899) – Named for association with the Banda Sea. Banda Becken terminology used by Supan.

Banda Becken (Supan 1899) –

Bank Comfort (Goode 1887, Chart No. 7, p. 26) – 43 50 N 67 55 W as approximately determined from chart.

Bank of St. Pierre (Goode 1887, Chart No. 5, p. 16) – 46N 56W.  Variant of Saint Pierre Bank.

Banquereau Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24) – 44 40N 58 20W

Banzare Bank  (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562.

Banzare Rise (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255, 258) – Banzare is an acronym for British-Australian- New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition of 1929-1931 on the S. Y. DISCOVERY. “One of the outstanding bathymetric discoveries of the British-Australian- New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition of 1929-31 on board S.Y. DISCOVERY was the confirmation of a ridge extending in a southerly direction from Kerguelen…. This was called by Mawson (1930) the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge.  A shallow sounding of 351 fm. on this ridge in 58 50 S 77 44 E was called the Banzare Rise.”  Herdman on page 258 suggests SE 5920-7652 as coordinates for a “seahigh” and dispensing with the name Banzare Rise.  SE 5920-7652 “Rises from a general depth of 1000fm. to 102 fm. and is situated on the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge…. A seahigh in approximately 62S 88 30E (formerly known as the Gribb Bank) may be connected with this feature….”

Baranof Channel (Menard, H. W., 1964) – Named for association with Baranof Island.

Baranof Fan (Shepard, F. P., 1963) – Named for association with Baranof Island.

Baranof Seavalley (Gibson 1960) – Named for proximity to Baranof Island, located southwest of the southern tip of that island.

Barbados Becken (Vaughn 1940, p. 77) – Vaughn reports use of this term meaning Barbados Basin.  This term is a variant of Tobago Trough.

Barbados Ridge (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 73; Officer et al., 1957) – 13 40N 59 30W  “This is the ridge above which the island of Barbados rises.” (Vaughn 1940, p. 73). 

Barents Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Barentsschelf.

Barker Basin (Murray 1895; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Southeast of the Chile Rise.  Named by Murray for United States Navy Officer Albert S. Barker who commanded the USS ENTERPRISE on an around the world sounding cruise between 1883-1886. Named the Pacific-Antarctic Basin by Supan, now the Southeast Pacific Basin.

Barker Rise (Rio Grande Rise) (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Variant of Rio Grande Rise. Named in honor of Commander Albert S. Barker, who discovered this feature while in command of the USS ENTERPRISE on an around the world sounding cruise from 1883-1886.  Now named the Rio Grande Rise in the South Atlantic Ocean.

Bartholomew Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Probably named for George Bartholomew, mapmaker and founder of the Scottish Geographic Society.

Bartlett Deep (Agassiz 1888; Murray 1895; Murray1899; Krummel 1907, p. 130;  Murray1912; U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 63-64, 68) – Named for Naval Officer John R. Bartlett, who while an assistant in the United States Coast Survey  and commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE discovered this feature, now called the Cayman Trough.  Bartletttief in Krummel’s nomenclature.  A variant of Cayman Trough as used by Murray and Agassiz (Murray 1895 and Agassiz 1888).  According to Alexander Agassiz, “The soundings of Commander Bartlett have developed an immense submarine valley, extending nearly due east [west] for about seven hundred miles, from the southern extremity of Cuba towards the Chinchorro Bank, off the coast of Honduras.  This valley has an average breadth of about eighty miles, and an average depth of over two thousand fathoms.  Towards its eastern extremity it attains the depth of nearly 3200 fathoms, and its greatest depth is 3428 fathoms twenty miles south of Grand Cayman…. This deep valley, which has most appropriately called “Bartlett Deep”….”  Vaughn writes on p. 68, “The first sounding in the Bartlett Deep was made by Comdr. John R. Bartlett on 28th March 1880, when he sounded on the C&GS Steamer BLAKE a depth of 3428 fathoms in latitude 19 01N. and longitude 81 02W.... in this treatment the large feature is designated Cayman Trough, and the name Bartlett Deep is applied to that part of it 3000 or more fathoms deep.  Depths up to 3958 fathoms were sounded in 1928, 60 miles east of Cabo Cruz, Cuba, latitude 19 42N., 76 52W., by U.S.S. S-21 on a Vening Meinesz gravity expedition.”

Batjan Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart VIII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Named for association with the island of Batjan.

Bauer Deep (National Research Council 1930, p. 79; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1) – “Bauer Deep in about latitude 15 south and longitude 98 west with maximum depth of about 5,400 meters….” Discovered by research vessel Carnegie and named for Louis Agricola Bauer , first Director of the Division of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.  According to Menard et al.,  “At the intersection of the fracture zone and crest of the Galapagos Rise is the Bauer Deep of 5320m discovered by the CARNEGIE.” (p. 235.)

Bauer Fracture Zone (Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1) – A northwest/southeast trending lineal deep at 14S 99W.  “The southern fracture zone, here named the Bauer fracture zone after the Bauer Deep which lies on it….” (P. 235).

Bayogoula Mound (Grim 1992) – Named for the  Bayogoula (Choctaw: Báyuk-ókla 'bayou people') A Muskhogean tribe which in 1700 lived with the Mugulasha in a village on the west bank of the Mississippi.  NOAA EEZ Central Slope Map.

Bayonnaise Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 101, 105) – Separates Eaglestone Ridge on the east from the Nukarita Ridge.

Bean Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Lieutenant Commander George L. Bean (1895-1955), USC&GS, who served with the C&GS from 1917 to 1943.  Commander Bean served in Alaska as executive officer of the EXPLORER and commanding officer of the GUIDE.  He served with the Navy in both WWI and WWII.  During WWII he served on the USS CHARLESTON as harbormaster of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, until retiring because of illness in 1943.

Bear Island Bank (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51) – Bank upon which Bear Island, between Spitzbergen and Norway is situated.

Bear Island Trough (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – Runs east on the south side of Bear Island Bank.

Bear Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Part of New England Seamount Chain, named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel BEAR. Located at 39 55N 67 30W by Pratt.

Bear Valley – North of Cape Mendocino, discovered by a ship that followed the valley straight up to the shore and wrecking.

Beata Ridge (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 69; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331) – 16 40N 71 50W on Chart 5487.  Beata Ridge is so named for proximity to Beata Island.   “The Colombia Abyssal Plain is separated from the Venezuela Basin by the Beata Ridge, which extends in a southerly direction from Cape Beata on the island of Hispaniola.”  (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331).

Beaumont Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for association with Beaumont, Texas. NOAA EEZ Worzel Basin Map.

Beethoven Ridge 26 14  159 00 – In Musicians Seamounts (Menard 1964; Rea and Naugler 1971).

Begg Rock (Shepard and Emery1941, Chart I) – Probably named for the early merchant vessel JOHN BEGG which plied the waters between Monterey, California and Callao, Peru in the 1820’s.

Bei der Hotspur-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 17 46S 35 58W. 54m.  There have been several vessels named HMS HOTSPUR and it is unclear which this is named for.  This feature name pre-dated the METEOR expedition. It is also unclear why the METEOR chose the name Bei der Hotspur-Bank as opposed to just Hotspur-Bank.

Bei Spanien (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 42 37N 11 26W.  1518m. A variant of Spanish Basin.

Belknap Deep (Petermann1877; Quackenbos, et al. 1887; Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Pacific Ocean south of Hawaii centered at approximately 17N 160W. Named for Rear Admiral George Belknap (1832-1903) who, while in command of the USS TUSCARORA conducted the first soundings with the piano wire sounding machine devised by Sir William Thomson and discovered many features in the North Pacific Ocean contemporaneously with the Challenger Expedition. He was the first to establish the linear nature of trenches with his soundings of the Japan Trench in 1874.  Also sounded in the Aleutian Trench on same expedition.  While in command of the USS ALASKA in 1881 was the first to sound the Peru-Chile Trench and the Chile Rise.

Belknap Submarine Mountain (Davidson 1897, p. 79) – “615 miles W by S from Point Conception, which rises from 2,700 fathoms to 388 fathoms.” This is a variant name for Erben Seamount.  Named for Rear Admiral George Belknap, pioneer bathymetrist of the North Pacific Ocean, Commanding officer of the USS TUSCARORA the year before it discovered this feature, and the first to use the piano-wire sounding instrument invented by Sir William Thomson, a.k.a. Lord Kelvin.  Now known as Erben Seamount.

Belknap Trough (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for Rear Admiral George Belknap, pioneer bathymetrist of the North Pacific Ocean. In the area of the formerly named Belknap Deep.

Bellinghausen Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 326) – “An abyssal plain of uncertain extent lies parallel to the continental rise in the Bellinghausen Sea.

Bellinghausen Trough (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Named by Gerhard Schott in 1935.

Bellini Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) 32 42 163 11 – In Musicians Seamounts.

Bengal Bucht (Supan 1899) –

Bering Basin (Supan 1899; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for association with Bering Sea.  Bering Becken in Supan’s terminology.
 
Bering Sea Basin (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 251) –

Bering Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Beringschelf.

Berkeley Valley and Canyon (Veatch and Smith 1939) – Named for Sir John Berkeley; in 1664, James, Duke of York, granted his American territory between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers to Sir George Carteret, baronet of Jersey, and to John, Lord Berkeley.  It was named New Jersey in honor of Carteret.

Berlin Seamount 32 51 166 00 – In Musicians Seamounts (Menard 1964).  Named for composer Irving Berlin.

Bermuda-New England Seamount Arc (Northrop et al. 1962, pp. 587-594) – Alternate name for New England Seamounts.

Bermuda Plateau (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22) – Named for association with Bermuda.

Bermuda Rise (Tolstoy 1951; Heezen et al. 1954; Luskin, et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 74-77; Northrop et al. 1962; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 14, Fig. 22, Fig. 36; Pratt 1968) – Named for association with Bermuda.

Bernard Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. NOAA EEZ Central Slope Map.

Bernoulli Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - The Bernoulli brothers, Johan (1667-1748) and Jacob (1654-1705) , were famous Swiss mathematicians who helped develop modern calculus. Johan was the father of Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), father of fluid dynamics.  18 10  111 50.

BERRYMAN KNOLL OR SEAMOUNT (List of Oceanic Depths….1907…., pp. 4-5) – 39 26.2 N 31 21.5 W 500 fathoms sounded on by S.Y. PRINCESSE ALICE in August 1905.  Could not find in Gazetteer of Undersea Features other than on Azores Plateau.  To be checked for existence, and named if not already named.

Berwick Bank (Grim 1992) – Sweet Bank Map.

Bienville Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Biloxi Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Bird Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Bird Rock and Bird Cape, NW of Amchitka Island.

Bird Mound (Grim 1992) – Atwater Valley Map.

Biscay Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 57, 60; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 319; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Cherkis et al. 1973) – Named for geographic association with the Bay of Biscay. “ The Biscay Abyssal Plain occupies a large portion of the Bay of Biscay.” Located off the coast of France in the Bay of Biscay. Apparently derives most of its sediment from Cap Breton Canyon.

Biscay Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Bishop Rock – Named for the clipper ship Stilwell Bishop that struck here in 1855. Chart 1 (Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941).

Bizet Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 32 16 161 38.  In Musicians Seamounts.

Blacks Basin (Murray 1947, Plate I) –

Blacks Ridge (Murray 1947, Plate I) –

Blake-Bahama Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56-59; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) – Named for proximity to Blake Plateau and Bahamas Islands. “The outer ridge which runs south from Cape Hatteras paralleling the coast lines of the Bahamas encloses the Blake-Bahamas Basin (Ericson, Ewing, and Heezen, 1952); a narrow abyssal plain is found along its western margin.  This plain is named the Blake-Bahama Abyssal Plain.”

Blake Basin (Pratt 1968) –

Blake-Bahama Basin (Ericson et al.1952;Luskin, et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 33-34; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22) – Named for proximity to Blake Plateau and Bahamas Islands. “The outer ridge which runs south from Cape Hatteras paralleling the coast lines of the Bahamas encloses the Blake-Bahamas Basin.”

Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) –

Blake Escarpment (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 33; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22; Pratt 1968) – Named for association with Blake Plateau.  Both features were named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE which conducted oceanographic operations here in the late Nineteenth Century.

Blake Plateau (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 17, 32, 47, 48, 59; Jordan, G. F. 1962, p. 10; Northrop et al. 1962; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 14; Pratt 1968) – Named for association with Blake Plateau.  Both features were named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE which conducted oceanographic operations here in the late Nineteenth Century.
 
Blake Plateau-Bahama Banks (Pratt 1968) –

Blake Ridge (Pratt 1968) –

Blake Spur (Pratt 1968) – 30N 76 30W.

Block Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7; Pratt 1968)) – Named for proximity to Block Island.

Bodega Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) – Named for proximity to Bodega Bay.

Boeton Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Variant of Butung Basin.  Noted as being used by Tydeman in 1922.

Boentong Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Variant of Butung Basin.

Boeroe Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XIII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Boeroe Basin is in the western portion of the Ceram Sea.

Bolles Knoll (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Lieutenant Commanding Timothy Dix Bolles ( ___ - 1892) who served on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship McArthur late in the Nineteenth Century on the West Coast of the United States.

Bombay Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Bombayschelf.

Bonaire Trench (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 11 20N 67 40W.

Bonin Ridge (Supan 1899; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Dietz 1954) – Bonin-Rucken in Supan nomenclature.

Bonin-Rucken (Supan 1899) –

Bonin Trench (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) – Named for proximity to Bonin Islands.

Bon Secour Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Borneo-Java Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Borneo-Javaschelf.

Bornhauser Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Bounty Trough (Menard1964) –

Bouvet Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Named by Schott in 1935.

Bowditch Seapeak (Northrop and Frosch 1954) – Named for the USS BOWDITCH which surveyed in the Bermuda area in 1940-1941.

Bowditch Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962) – Named for USS BOWDITCH which conducted surveys out of Bermuda in 1941.

Bowers Bank (Gates and Gibson 1956; Menard1964) –

Bowers Ridge (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – First sounded and dredged on by the USS ALBATROSS in 1906.  Name “Bowers Bank” appeared in fisheries records for first time that year.  Surveyed by USCGC CHELAN in 1935 and named for former Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1898-1903 and Director of the Bureau of Fisheries 1903-1913.  An alternate name for Bowers Bank.

Bowie Bank (Shepard1963) – A variant of Bowie Seamount.

Bowie Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for Captain William Bowie of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Bowie Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Captain William Bowie (1872-1940), C&GS, director of the Division of Geodesy from 1915 until his retirement in 1936, founder and first president of the American Geophysical Union, namesake of the most prestigious medal of the American Geophysical Union.  As a junior officer, Captain Bowie served on field duty in Alaska, the Philippines, and throughout the United States.  He was best known for his development of the theory of isostasy during his lifetime.

Brahms Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 31 09 162 19, in Musicians Seamounts.

Brasilian Becken (Supan 1899) –

Brazil Basin (Supan 1899; Maurer and Stocks 1933; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – Brasilian Becken (Supan 1899).  Brasilianisches Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933). Named for geographic association with Brazil.

Breton Spur (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Brit. Kont-Stufe (Supan 1899) –

British Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Britischer Schelf.

Brittania Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 28 01 S 155 37 W with a least depth of 482 meters. Discovered in 1901.

Brittania Tablemount (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1901…. Pp. 27-29; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Discovered on May 28 1901 by the Cable Ship Brittania while on the Pacific Cable Expedition under the direction of Mr. Peake et al. with a least depth of 228 fathoms observed at 28 16.5 S 155 37.0 E. 

Brittania Tablemounts (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1901…. Pp. 27-28; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Brittania Tablemount was discovered on May 28 1901 by the Cable Ship Brittania while on the Pacific Cable Expedition under the direction of Mr. Peake et al. with a least depth of 228 fathoms observed at 28 16.5 S 155 37.0 E.  A peak with a least depth of 220 fathoms was discovered on May 31, 1901, at 28 01.5 S 155 37.0E.  A depth of 495 fathoms was observed on June 1 at 27 44.6 S 155 15.9 E.  and a fourth peak of 1188 fathoms at 28 43.0 S 155 24.0 E.

Bromley Plateau (Murray 1895) – Apparently named for London’s largest borough and home of Charles Darwin. A variant name for the Rio Grande Rise.

Brooke Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – In the western Pacific Ocean centered at approximately 18N 160E.  Named for Lieutenant John Mercer Brooke (1826-1906), inventor of the Brooke sounding machine in  1852, which allowed the recovery of bottom specimens to assure that the sounding plummet had in fact reached bottom.

Brown Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Brown’s Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67) – 42 25N 65 45W.

Browns Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24) – Brown’s Bank as recorded by Goode at 42 25N 65 45W.

Brown Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Lieutenant Edwin  J. Brown (1899-1935), USC&GS, a leader in geodesy, geophysics, and electronics within the C&GS.  At the time of his death due to an automobile accident he was in charge of radio-acoustic ranging, the gyro compass, and the fathometer on the C&GS Ship OCEANOGRAPHER.

Brownson Deep (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 71) – Lt. Cmdr. W. H. Brownson on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer BLAKE sounded at 19 40 50N 66 23 40W on 27 January 1883 and found 4561 fathoms, obtained a bottom sample of brown ooze, and observed a bottom temperature of 36 ¼ degrees Fahrenheit.  This was believed to be the deepest sounding up to that time for which bottom specimens and temperature were obtained.

Bryant Canyon (Grim 1992) – Bryant Canyon Map, Escarpment Map, and Vaca Basin Map.  Named for Texas A&M marine geologist William R. Bryant.

Bryant Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Captain Fair J. Bryant of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Buccaneer Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1899…., p. 15) – Discovered January 24, 1899 by the Cable Ship BUCCANEER at 21 27 N 80 08 W with 21 fathoms least depth.

Buchan Basin (Murray 1895) – In the Pacific Ocean.  Apparently, Murray only used this name on the 1895 map.  Named for meteorologist Alexander Buchan who processed meteorological data from the CHALLENGER Expedition.

Buchanan Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray1912) – A north-south trending deep located in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and centered at approximately 15S 3E. Named for chemist John Y. Buchanan (1844-1925) of the Challenger Expedition.  Buchanan discovered the equatorial undercurrent in the Atlantic Ocean in 1885-1886 while on the cable survey ship BUCCANEER off the West African coast.

Buldir Depression (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Buldir Reef and Buldir Island.

Buldir Reef (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Buldir Island.

Burdick Knoll (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Ensign William L. Burdick, junior officer on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship McArthur in the early 1880’s. 

Burdwood Bank (Ross 1847 as quoted in Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Partially surveyed by James Clark Ross in the EREBUS and TERROR during his expedition of 1839-1843 to the Southern Ocean.  “The name was derived from a supposed navigational hazard, the Burdwood Rock, which could not be found.  The hazard was based on a report by Lt. T. Burdwood, agent in the KAINS transport during her passing in November, 1828, from Rio de Janeiro to Valparaiso….” .  Herdman (p. 258) states: “Burdwood Bank is well surveyed and has a minimum depth of 16 fm. In 54 08.5S 59 45W.  On its southern and northeastern sides it rises from depths greater than 1600 fm. and 1000 fm. respectively.”

Burma Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Birmaschelf.



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C

Cable Pass (Menard1964) – In the Moonless Mountains.

Cabrillo Canyon – Named by NOAA Exclusive Economic Zone Mapping Project for both the explorer, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo, and its proximity to Cabrillo College near Aptos, California.

Caicos Bank (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) –

Caillou Mound (Grim 1992) – Houma Valley Map.

Calcasieu Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Calhoun Dome (Grim 1992) – Matagorda Map.

California Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 326) – The California Abyssal Plain is “bounded by the Mendocino Escarpment on the north and the Murray Fracture Zone on the south.”  This plain was originally referred to as the “Deep Plain” by Menard in 1955.

California Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for proximity to the entrance to the Gulf of California.

California Seamount (Menard1964) –

Calumet Mound (Grim 1992) – Houma Valley Map.

Cameron Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Campbell Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – In the Pacific Ocean centered at 2N 168W. Named for Sub-Lieutenant Lord George Campbell, a junior naval officer on the CHALLENGER Expedition.

Campbell Plateau (Menard1964) –

Campbell Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander Henry Bowers Campbell (1891-1950), USC&GS, who served in Alaskan waters on the ships NATOMA, EXPLORER, SURVEYOR, DISCOVERER, and PIONEER.  During WWII he was transferred to the Navy and placed in command of the transferred C&GS ship OCEANOGRAPHER which was sent to Alaskan waters early in the war.  He experienced a heart attack and was retired in 1944 from the C&GS.

Campeche Bank (Vaughn 1940, p. 66) – 

Campeche Escarpment (Heezen et al., p. 33; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 330, Figure 13; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) – Named for geographic association with the Bay of Campeche.

Campeche Shelf (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

Campeche Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Campecheschelf.

Canada Basin Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) –  Un-named by Heezen and Laughton 1963 but described as “An extensive abyssal plain has been reported in the Canada Basin.”

Canary Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 61) – Named for geographic association with the Canary Islands. “The Canary Islands and associated banks form the boundaries of a small oval depression known as the Canary Abyssal Plain.”

Canary Basin (Heezen et al. 1954) –

Cap Breton Canyon (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 319) – On the continental slope of France in the Bay of Biscay.

Cape Adare-Easter Island Ridge (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) –  “The ridge between Cape Adare and Easter Island.”  A name proposed by MacIntosh as a variant of Antarctic-Pacific Ridge.

Cape Basin  (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Cape Breton Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 37) – A variant of Cap Breton Canyon.

Cape Johnson Depth (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Dietz 1954) – In the Philippine Trench. Named for the USS Cape Johnson.

Cape Johnson Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for the USS Cape Johnson.

Cape Johnson Trough (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 252) –

Cape Mendocino Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 97) – Variant name for Mendocino Canyon.

Cape Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Cape Trough (Krummel 1907, p. 120) – Kapmulde 5500 meters observed by VALDIVIA and the GAUSS and SCOTIA. Kap-Mulde (Supan 1899).

Cape Verde Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 57, 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320) – Named for geographic association with the Cape Verde Islands.  “The vast abyssal plain which skirts the African continent west of Cape Verde is named the Cape Verde Abyssal Plain….  For Cape Verde, Iberia, and Newfoundland abyssal plains we have followed the name Wust (1940b) proposed for the basin within which the plains lie.” (Heezen et al. 1957).  “From Gibraltar to Cape Verde a vast abyssal plain of 200,000 mi2 parallels the wide continental rise of Africa…. Northeast of the Canary Islands, continental rise gradients of greater than 1:1000 reach the abyssal hills and provide a natural boundary between the Cape Verde and Madeira Abyssal Plains.”  (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320).

Cape Verde Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12) – Named for geographic association with the Cape Verde Islands. “For Cape Verde, Iberia, and Newfoundland abyssal plains we have followed the name Wust (1940b) proposed for the basin within which the plains lie.”

Cape Verde Plateau (Murray 1895; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – Named for geographic association with the Cape Verde Islands.

Cape Verde Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –
 
Capricorn Guyot (Menard 1964) – Named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Capricorn Expedition to the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1952.  This expedition was led by Roger Revelle.

Cariaco Trench (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Richards and Vaccaro 1956; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 335) – 10 30N 65 10W  “… the Cariaco Trench, a 750-fm-deep depression in the continental shelf north of Venezuela.” A variant for Cariaco Basin.

Caribbean Basin (Murray 1895; Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 130) – Named for geographic association with the Caribbean Sea. Caribisches Becken  by Supan and Karibischen Becken by Krummel.

Caribisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Carlsberg Ridge (Sewell 1940, p. 83, 84; Koczy 1954)  - “As regards the nomenclature to be applied to these features, I agree that in the main geographical names should be adopted, but at the same time it seems desireable that personal names or those of ships or scientific Institutions should be retained  for isolated portions of such features, especially portions of the submarine ridges, where these names commemorate the participation of such individuals,  Institutions or ships in the discovery of the particular feature, e.g., the Murray Ridge, discovered by the John Murray Expedition, the Carlsberg Ridge first indicated by the “Dana” Expedition, financed by the Carlsberg Institution, etc.”  (Sewell, p. 83).

Carlsbad Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Map I) –

Carlsbad Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 82) – Variant of Carlsbad Canyon

Carmel Canyon – Named for association with Carmel Bay.  Chart III (Shepard and Emery1941).

Carmel Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 91) – Variant of Carmel Canyon.

Carnegie Ridge (National Research Council 1930, p. 78; Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23) – “Carnegie Ridge” about 100 miles west of the coast of Ecuador and rising about 1,800 meters above the general level of the ocean-floor in the vicinity….”  Discovered by the research vessel CARNEGIE in 1929. 

Caroline Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Caroline Islands.

Caroline-Solomon Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Caroline Swell (Hess 1948; Dietz 1954; Menard 1964) –

Carpenter Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for biologist William B. Carpenter (1813-1885), a colleague of Sir Wyville Thomson, and responsible with Thomson for the concept of the CHALLENGER Expedition.  At age 58 Carpenter decided he was too old for the arduous duty associated with a major oceanographic expedition and did not sail on the CHALLENGER.  

Carpenter Deep (Petermann 1877; Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Pacific Ocean. Named for biologist William B. Carpenter (1813-1885), a colleague of Sir Wyville Thomson, and responsible with Thomson for the concept of the CHALLENGER Expedition.  At age 58 Carpenter decided he was too old for the arduous duty associated with a major oceanographic expedition and did not sail on the CHALLENGER.

Carpenter’s Ridge (Sewell 1940, p. 85) – A variant of Ninety East Ridge. “In the eastern part of this Bay [the Bay of Bengal], running from north to south along Long. 90 E. is a submarine ridge, that has for years past been known to workers in India as “Carpenter’s Ridge,” after Commander Alfred Carpenter, R.N., who was one of the Staff of the CHALLENGER, and in 1884 was appointed to the charge of the Marine Survey of India.” (Sewell 1940, p. 85).

Carteret Valley and Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Sir George Carteret (c.1610-1680), knight and baronet of Jersey.

Caryn Peak (Tolstoy 1951, p. 443; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 36) – Named for Lamont R/V CARYN.  An alternate name for Caryn Seamount.  (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, p. 1532). - “It is about 250 miles wide and is remarkably flat and featureless, except for one fair-size sea mount at 36 38 N, 67 55 W…. Subsequent cruises by the ATLANTIS (151 and 153) and the R/V CARYN (winter of 1947-1948) have shown that it rises to 1590 fathoms.”

Caryn Seamount (Tolstoy 1951, p. 445; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 78; Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel CARYN which investigated this feature in 1949. Located at 36 40N 67 30W by Pratt.

Cascadia Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 324-325; Shepard1963) – This abyssal plain runs from Cape Mendocino to the southern tip of the Queen Charlotte Islands.  It is bounded on the west by the ridge and trough province of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and to the east by the continental rise.

Cascadia Canyon (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 346) – Apparently, Cascadia Canyon and Cascadia Submarine Canyon are used as variants of Astoria Canyon.

Cascadia Channel (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 325, 347; Shepard1963; Menard1964) – This channel begins as a continuation of the channel of Astoria Canyon, whence it runs to the southern edge of the Cascadia Abyssal Plain and thence to the west where its deposits build a fan which merges with the Tufts Abyssal Plain. 

Cascadia Deep-Sea Channel (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 257) – “Cascadia Deep-Sea Channel has been traced as a continuous feature from the submarine canyon at the mouth of the Columbia River to a point 600 miles to the west….”

Cashe Basin (Murray 1947, Plate II) –

Cashe Ledge (Murray 1947, Plate II) –

Cashe’s Ledge (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – 42 55 N 68 54 W.

Cat Basin (Grim 1992) – Researcher Basin Map.

Cat Gap (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) – The Blake-Bahama Abyssal Plain connects with the Hatteras Abyssal Plain through Cat Gap at 24.5N 74.5W. 

Catalina Basin – Named for proximity to Santa Catalina Island. Chart 1 (Shepard and Emery 1941).

Catalina Canyon – Named for proximity to Santa Catalina Island. Chart 1 (Shepard and Emery 1941).

Catalina Escarpment – Named for proximity to Santa Catalina Island. Chart 1 (Shepard and Emery 1941).

Cayman Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 60) – Named for geographic association with the Cayman Trench.  “On the floor of this steep-walled trench lies a narrow trench plain or system of semi-connected trench plains….”

Cayman Ridge (Vaughn 1940, p. 67) – “… extends westward from Cabo Cruz in Cuba toward the head of the Gulf of Honduras….”

Cayman Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116, 130; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 60; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – Noted by Krummel as 6269m and named Caymangraben.

Cayman Trough (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 68  ) – “The first sounding in the Bartlett Deep was made by Comdr. John R. Bartlett on 28th March 1880, when he sounded on the BLAKE a depth of 3428 fathoms in latitude 19 01N. and longitude 81 02W.... in this treatment the large feature is designated Cayman Trough, and the name Bartlett Deep is applied to that part of it 3000 or more fathoms deep.  Depths up to 3958 fathoms were sounded in 1928, 60 miles east of Cabo Cruz, Cuba, latitude 19 42N., 76 52W., by U.S.S. S-21 on a Vening Meinesz gravity expedition.”

Cay Sal Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Pratt 1968) – 24N 80W.

Ceara Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 318) – Located south of the Demerara Abyssal Plain and separated from it by the Ceara Rise. This abyssal plain lies parallel to the coast of Ceara Province in northeastern Brazil.

Cedros Deep (Fisher 1954) –

Celebes Basin (Murray 1895; Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 131; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; van Riel 1934, Plate V; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Named for association with Celebes Sea, particularly southwest of Mindanao. 5111 meters observed at 4 12N 124 02E as noted by Krummel.

Celebes Becken (Supan 1899) –

Central Indian Ocean Plain (Koczy 1954) –

Central Ridge (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Ceylon Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 326) – The Ceylon Abyssal Plain lies “at the base of the continental slope near Ceylon, occupying much of the northeast part of the Indian Ocean.”

Chagos Plateau (Murray 1895) –

Chagos Rucken (Supan 1899) –  

Chain Fracture Zone (Heezen et al., 1964) – Named for the Lamont research vessel CHAIN.

Challenger Deep (Petermann 1877; Quackenbos et al. 1887; Murray 1895; Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Pacific Ocean.  Named for H.M.S. CHALLENGER of the Challenger Expedition which sounded here on March 23,1875, at the southern extremity of the Marianas Trench for the deepest sounding of the expedition.  Contrary to popular belief, this was not the deepest sounding observed up until that time as the USS TUSCARORA had sounded in the Japan Trench with a Thomson piano-wire sounding machine the year before. The actual CHALLENGER sounding was off-axis of the trench and to the southwest of the Mariana Islands.  However, by 1912 the Challenger Deep as delineated by Murray  was centered east of the Mariana Islands with an approximate center point of 15 N 147E.

Challenger Depth (Fisher 1954; Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – In the Marianas Trench, named for the H.M.S. CHALLENGER II. This is in a different area from the Challenger Depth noted above.  At the time, this was the deepest depth noted in the Mariana Trench as well as for all of the ocean.  

Challenger Depth (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938 Vaughn 1940, p. 71) – A depth of 3875 fathoms observed by HMS CHALLENGER in 1873 to the northwest of the Puerto Rico Trench axis.  At the time, this was the deepest depth observed in the ocean. 

Challenger Ridge – Refers to the southern extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Discovered by the CHALLENGER on its return home in 1876. 

Challenger Rise (Quackenbos et al. 1887) – This is the southern extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  H.M.S. CHALLENGER sounded up the spine of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on one of the most inspired sounding lines run in the history of bathymetry.  

Chalmette Basin (Grim 1992) – Chalmette Basin Map.

Chandeleur Valley (Grim 1992) – Chandeleur Basin Map.

Charlie Fracture Zone (Johnson 1967) – This is a variant of Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. “It is suggested that the primary fracture zone might appropriately be named after the USCG Ocean Weather Station Charlie located at 52 45 N, 35 30 W athwart the primary fault.”

Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (Cherkis et al. 1975) – A made-up name which combines the names “Charlie Fracture Zone” (Johnson 1967) and “Gibbs Fracture Zone” (Fleming, Cherkis, and Heirtzler, 1970).

Chatham Rise (Menard 1964) – Named for geographic association with Chatham Islands.

Chebacco Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for an early type of vessel used in North Atlantic fishing.

Chelan Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for the Coast Guard Cutter CHELAN under the command of Commander L. V. Keilhorn which surveyed Bowers Bank in 1935.

Chesterfield Reef (Krummel 1907, p. 126) – Now known as the Bellona Plateau.

Chilen-Peruan Becken (Supan 1899) –

Chile-Peru Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 126) – Chilenisch-Peruanische Becken in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Chile Rise (Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1) – 43S 87W.

China Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 130) – 4965 meters observed by the British survey ship EGERIA in December 1890 at 13 31N 119 34E.

China-Becken (Supan 1899) –

Chinook Trough (Menard1964) – Named for the Scripps Chinook Expedition of 1956.

Chirikof Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for proximity to Chirikof Island -Captain Alexie Ilich Chirikof commanded the vessel ST. PETER in company with Vitus Bering on the ST. PAUL and touched somewhere in the Alexander Archipelago in July, 1741, the first European discovery of Alaska.

Choctaw Basin (Grim 1992) – An important tribe of the Muskhogean stock, formerly occupying middle and south Mississippi.  Orca Basin Map

Chopin Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – 26 08 162 03, in Musicians Seamounts.

Christmas Island Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 37) –

Christmas Rise (Fairbridge 1954) –

Chun Deep (Murray 1899; Murray1912) – Named for Dr. Carl Chun (1852-1914), leader of the German Deep-Sea Expedition of 1898-99 on the VALDIVIA. 

Clair Seamount (Menard 1964) –

Clairaut Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 17 59 110 29.  Named for Alexis Claud Clairaut (1713-1765) French mathematician and geodesist who published Théorie de la figure de la terre in 1741.

Clarion Trough (Dietz, et al. 1954) – Named for geographic association with Clarion Island, a small island 350 miles SW of Cabo San Lucas.

Clarion Fracture Zone (Menard 1955, p. 1167; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 3; Menard 1964) – “The Clarion Fracture Zone is named after Clarion Island, the westernmost of the Revilla Gigeda group ….”

Clipper Canyon – Named for an early type of vessel used in North Atlantic fishing (Veatch and Smith1939).

Clipperton Fracture Zone (Menard1955, p. 1170; Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 3; Menard 1964) – “Clipperton Fracture Zone is named after Clipperton Island.”

Clipperton Ridge (Menard and Fisher 1958) – Named for geographic association with Clipperton Island. 

Clover Deep (Murray 1895) became Glover Deep because of a spelling error on subsequent Murray maps – Centered at approximately 37N 137W off the coast of California.  Named for Rear Admiral Richardson Clover (1846-1919), USN, first commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship PATTERSON, which first came to the Pacific Ocean in 1885 and surveyed extensively in Alaskan waters. 

Cobb Bank (Shepard 1963) – An alternate name for Cobb Seamount.  This seamount was first discovered by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Ship JOHN N. COBB on its maiden voyage in 1950.

Cobb Seamount (Menard 1964) – This seamount was first discovered by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Ship JOHN N. COBB on its maiden voyage in 1950.

Cockburn Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 107) – 50 10 N 09 W.  On continental shelf 150 n.m. northwest of Brest France. Cockburnbank is Krummel terminology for the feature.

Cocos Island Ridge (Heacock and Worzel 1955) – Named for geographic association with Cocos Island.

Cocos Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 3; Menard 1964) –

Coleman Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map

Colombia Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 257) – “The Colombia Basin is floored by the well developed Colombia Abyssal Plain, which spreads out from the foot of the Magdalena Cone.”

Colombia Basin (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331) –  “The Colombia Basin is floored by the well developed Colombia Abyssal Plain, which spreads out from the foot of the Magdalena Cone.”

Colombian Abyssal Plain (Menard1964) – 

Colombian Basin (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938 Vaughn 1940, p. 69) – 13N 77W on Chart 5487.  Colombian Basin is named for proximity to the north coast of Colombia. According to Vaughn, “There is between the Jamaica Rise and Beata Ridge a basin having depths >2000 fathoms…. Since the basin lies off the north coast of Colombia, it is here proposed to call it Colombian Basin.”

Colonia Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 16 56 N 150 00 E with a least depth of 1421 meters. Located just to the west of Marianas Trench. Discovered in 1902.

Columbia Vitoria Seamounts (List of Oceanic Depths 1909 p. 14) – 20 50 S 33 53.5 W with 908 fathoms rising out of 2300 fathoms.

Columbus Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Combe Bank (List of Oceanic Depths …. 1895 …., p. 12; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Discovered by H.M.S. WATERWITCH on September 26-27, 1895. Now known as Combe Seamount.  Shoalest depth of 14 fathoms obtained by WATERWITCH at 12 33 S 177 38.0 W.   Named for Lieutenant and Commander J.W. Combe, commanding officer of the WATERWITCH.  Combe Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 31 S 177 38 W with a least depth of 27 meters. Discovered in 1896.

Comstock Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Origin of name unknown.

Concepcion Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 29 58 N 12 48 W with a least depth of 179 meters.  Discovered in 1883.  Now known as Conception Bank.

Congo Canyon (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 237) –

Connecting Rise (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – That section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which trends east-west and connects the northern portion of the ridge with the southern portion of the ridge.

Connecting Plateau (Murray 1895) – That section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which trends east-west and connects the northern portion of the ridge with the southern portion of the ridge.

Constantine Arm (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for proximity to Constantine Point, the northeast point of Constantine Harbor on Amchitka Island.

Continental Shelf – Term first proposed by Hugh Robert Mill in 1887. In: (Krummel 1907, p. 104).

Cooke Basin (Grim 1992) – Chalmette Basin Map, Worzel Basin Map.

Coombe Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – Variant of Combe Bank.

Coral Patch (Murray and Hjort, p. 195) – Variant of Ampere Seamount.

Coral Sea Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 119; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for association with the Coral Sea. Korallenbecken in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Cordell Bank (Davidson 1897, p. 78; Shepard and Emery1941, Chart III) – Named for Coast and Geodetic Survey officer Edward Cordell who first surveyed this bank. In 1853 George Davidson made the initial discovery of this bank but not until 1869 was it fully delineated by Edward Cordell of the Coast Survey.  Oddly, Cordell had  been present also with Henry Stellwagen on the Coast Survey Steamer Bibb when Stellwagen Bank was discovered northeast of Cape Cod.  Both of these banks today are National Marine Sanctuaries. 

Corner Rise (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 63, 64, 77; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – “Corner Rise is so named because its northwest boundary with the abyssal floor forms a sharp, nearly right-angled corner.
 
Corner Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 77) – Named for its location within Corner Rise.

Corner Seamounts (Pratt 1968) –

Coronado Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart I) – Named for its proximity to Los Coronados Islands and geographic situation on Coronado Escarpment.

Coronado Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart I ) – Named for its proximity to Los Coronados Islands.

Corsair Canyon (Murray 1947, Fig. 2; Pratt 1968) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship OCEANOGRAPHER which first discovered this canyon in 1932. CORSAIR was the original name of the ship prior to J. P. Morgan selling it to the Government for $1.00.

Cortes Bank – (Shepard and Emery 194, Chart I) Named for the Panama Steamer Cortes, Captain Cropper commanding, which first discovered this bank in 1853 by noticing breaking surf. The Coast Survey first recorded the name of this bank as “Cortez Bank,” an error which was later corrected by George Davidson.  Although in the continental borderlands of Southern California, this feature is one of the oldest named undersea feature not associated with the continental shelf in United States waters.

Cortes Basin – Named for its proximity to Cortes Bank. Chart 1 (Shepard and Emery 1941).

Cortez Canyon (Grim 1992) – Vaca Basin Map.

Coulee Spur (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Cowie Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander George D. Cowie (1888-1941), USC&GS, served with the Coast Survey from 1910 until his death in Manila on the evening of December 24, 1941, when he was killed attempting to salvage Coast Survey information  in the first Japanese bombing raid on the Philippines.

Creole Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map.

Crescent Peaks (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 75; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22) – “Northwest of Bermuda, a crescent-shaped line of conical Peaks borders the Bermuda Apron. Individual peaks are 600 fathoms high and 4 to 6 miles wide at their base. This range of peaks forms a distinct sub-province which rises from the Bermuda Plateau.”

Crespi Knoll – Named for Father Juan Crespi, who accompanied the Portola expedition to San Francisco Bay.

Crest Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for location on crest of Aleutian Ridge.

Crest Knoll (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for location on crest of Aleutian Ridge.

Crest Seamount (Menard1955, p. 1160; Menard1964) – Named for Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel CREST.

Crozet Plateau (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 276) –

Crozet Ridge (Fairbridge 1954) –

Crozet Rise (Supan 1899) – Crozet-Schwelle in Supan’s nomenclature.

Crozet-Schwelle (Supan 1899) –

Cruiser Bank Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 36) –

Cruiser Seamount (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, Plate II, p. 1530; Tolstoy 1951, p. 449; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 98) –

Cruiser Tablemount (List of Oceanic Depths ….1906…., p. 19) – Discovered by the tug “CRUISER” in 1906 with a least depth of 575 fathoms at 32 15 N 27 30 W.

Cuba Shelf (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

Curacao Ridge (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 12 30N 69W.  Named for proximity to the island of Curacao.

Curlew Mound (Grim 1992) – Chandeleur Basin Map.

Cutts Knoll (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Coast and Geodetic Survey officer Richard Dominicus Cutts who was an early surveyor on the California coast.  Brevetted a Brigadier General for service on the staff to General Halleck during the Civil War.  

Cuvier Basin (Fairbridge 1954) –



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D

Dacia Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1894 …., p. 7; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Murray and Hjort, p. 195; Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Named for the cable ship DACIA, surveyed by the WATERWITCH August 23-27, 1894. Dacia Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 31 10 N 13 40 W with a least depth of 91 meters.  Discovered in 1883. Now known as Dacia Seamount. Located at 31 07N 13 42W  with a depth of 147m by the METEOR expedition. (Maurer and Stocks 1933).

Daito Mountains (Dietz 1954, p. 1214) – An alternate name for Daito Ridge.

Dall Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for William Healy Dall, 1845-1927.  A prominent Nineteenth Century naturalist, Alaskan explorer, and malacologist.  At various times in his career he was associated with Western Union, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the United States Geological Survey, and the Smithsonian Institution.  Dall wrote the Alaska Coast Pilot as well as publishing close to 1600 professional papers during his long career.

Dana Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Located in the western Pacific Ocean and centered at approximately 7N 135E.  Named for James Dwight Dana (1813-1895), foremost American geologist of the Nineteenth Century.  Studied coral reefs, suggested age progression of island chains, among other contributions.

Dana Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1897…., p. 22) – First sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN on July 19, 1897.  No name given by the PENGUIN.  A least depth of 1456 fathoms was observed at 18 37.0 N and 156 01.1 W. 

Dart Bank (List of Oceanic Depths …. 1895…., p. 8.) – Sounded on and apparently discovered by H.M.S. DART on December 5, 1894.  Now named Gifford Tablemount.  In: “List of Oceanic Depths …. 1895….”  Least depth of 158 fathoms observed at 26 42.3 S 159 28.5 E. 

Darwin Rise (Menard 1964) –

Dauphin Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

David Seaknoll (Wiseman and Hall 1956) – “It is proposed that this feature should again be named after the navigating officer, Lt. Cdr. A.C.F. David, R.N., and called David Seaknoll….”  It is noted that this feature is adjacent to Andrew Tablemount which was named for the “Christian name of the officer primarily associated with the survey – the navigating officer….”

Davidson Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for George Davidson, but this name was not retained in the Gulf of Alaska as Davidson Seamount was already a named feature off the coast of California.  Renamed Peirce Seamount at a later date.

Davidson Seamount (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II) – Named for George Davidson (1825-1911) of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.  This was the first feature ever officially designated a “seamount.” 

Davis Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – West of Shackleton Ice Shelf.  Named for Captain J.K. Davis, commanding officer of S.Y. DISCOVERY.

Davis Basin (Murray 1947 Plate II ) – Named for naval officer Charles Henry Davis (1807-1877) who commanded the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in surveys of this area in 1847.  Davis was probably the most scientific of naval officers in the Nineteenth Century having served on the Coast Survey for many years, starting the Coast Survey systematic study of the Gulf Stream beginning in 1845, starting and heading the nautical almanac office for a number of years prior to the Civil War, serving on numerous science boards before and during the Civil War, and heading the Naval Observatory after the war.

Davis Swell (Murray 1947 Plate II ) – Named for naval officer Charles Henry Davis (1807-1877) who commanded the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in surveys of this area in 1847.  Davis was probably the most scientific of naval officers in the Nineteenth Century having served on the Coast Survey for many years, starting the Coast Survey systematic study of the Gulf Stream beginning in 1845, starting and heading the nautical almanac office for a number of years prior to the Civil War, serving on numerous science boards before and during the Civil War, and heading the Naval Observatory after the war. He was  born 16 January 1807 in Boston, MA, was appointed Midshipman 12 August 1823 and made many valuable scientific contributions to the Navy before the Civil War during which he served with distinction. As Flag Officer of the Mississippi Flotilla he directed the capture and destruction of seven Confederate gunboats and rams near Memphis, TN, and received the surrender of the city 6 June 1862; joined Farragut’s fleet for operations against Vicksburg; and cooperated with the Army expedition up the Yazoo River from 16 to 27 August 1862. From 1862 to 1866 Admiral Davis served as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, then served as Superintendent of the Naval Observatory; Commander in Chief, South Atlantic Squadron; Commandant of Norfolk Navy Yard; and member of the Lighthouse Board. Admiral Davis died in Washington, DC, 18 February 1877. TB-12, DD-65, and DD-396 were named to honor him.
 
Debussy Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 30 18 162 05, in Musicians Seamounts.

Deep Plain of Northeastern Pacific (Menard1955, p. 1158 ) – “South of the Mendocino escarpment the sea floor is about half a mile deeper than it is to the north.  The unusually deep area is bounded on the south by the Murray escarpment, and the sea floor is roughly a quarter of a mile higher south of the Murray escarpment than it is to the north.  The nearshore part of this area has a distinctive topography and is here named the Deep Plain of the Northeastern Pacific.”

Delaware Canyon (Shepard 1938, p. 441) – A variant of Wilmington Canyon.  

Delgada Canyon (Shepard and Emery1941, Chart IV; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12; Menard, 1964) – Named for association with Point Delgada.

Delgada Fan (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12; Menard1964) –

Dellwood Hills (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for the Army Transport Service Cable Ship DELLWOOD that conducted submarine cable surveys in this area in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s.

Demerara Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 318) – Located off the coast of Venezuela and Guyana east of the Lesser Antilles.  Named for the Demerara River, a major river of Guyana.

Denson Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Commander Hugh Cowan Denson (1872-1939) who served on and commanded numerous Coast and Geodetic Survey vessels in Alaska and Philippine waters.

Derickson Seamount (Gibson 1960; Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Commander Richard B. Derickson (1873-1942), USC&GS, who served on both coasts, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during thirty-eight years of service with the USC&GS.

Dernieres Dome (Grim 1992) – Houma Valley Map.

Descanso Bay Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 102) –

De Soto Canyon (Jordan, G. F. 1962,  p. 14) –

Dickins Seamount (Murray 1941; Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Edmund F. Dickins, an officer of the C&GS from 1869, until 1920, a total of 51 years of active service.  Died March 2, 1923, at 77.

Dirk Hartog Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Discovery Deep (Stocks 1937) – Discoverytiefe in Stocks’ nomenclature at 56 32S 24 35W with a greatest depth of 8102 meters. A pre-existing name for the British research vessel DISCOVERY.

Dogbody Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for an early type of vessel used in North Atlantic fishing.
 
Dogger Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 102) – A pre-existing name.

Dolphin Depth (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 72) – A depth of 4662 fathoms was observed by USS DOLPHIN in 1902 at 19 30N 67 45 W.  This depth is within 100 fathoms of the accepted deepest depth of the Puerto Trench obtained with modern methods.

Dolphin Plateau (Murray 1895) – Refers to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores.  named for the USS DOLPHIN which in 1853 was the first vessel to obtain soundings on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Lieutenant Otway Berryman was the commanding officer of the DOLPHIN.

Dolphin Rise (Quackenbos, et al. 1887; Krummel 1907, p. 102; Murray and Hjort, p. 56) – Refers to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores.  Named for the USS DOLPHIN which in 1853 was the first vessel to obtain soundings on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Lieutenant Otway Berryman was the commanding officer of the DOLPHIN and should be credited as the first to discover indications of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Called Middle Ground by Matthew Fontaine Maury on his 1858 map.  Termed Mittelschwelle or Delphin-Schwelle by Krummel.

Dominican Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 332) – “A very narrow abyssal plain exists along the northern side of the Venezuela Basin just south of the south coast of the Dominican Republic.  This feature is known as the Dominican Abyssal Plain.”

Dominican Trench (Luskin et al., 1954, p. 139.) – South of Puerto Rico.

Donizetti Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Doric Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 18 57 N 18 15 W with a least depth of 102 meters.  Discovered in 1889.  Apparently off the coast of Mauritania. Is it a feature worthy of naming and is it more than 12 miles off the coast.

Dorsey Canyon (Grim 1992) – Named for Dr. Herbert Grove Dorsey, inventor of the fathometer, and chief of United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Radiosonic Laboratory.  Dorsey Canyon Map, Mitchell Dome Map.

Dorsey Ridge (Veatch and Smith 1939, Map III) – Named for Quartermaster James Dorsey, lost with Lieutenant George M. Bache and nine other men from Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON, September 8, 1846.

Dorsey Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Dr. Herbert Grove Dorsey, inventor of the fathometer, and chief of United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Radiosonic Laboratory.

Dume Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart I) – Named for proximity to Point Dume. Chart 1.

Dume Submarine Fan (Menard 1964) –

Durgin Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Captain Caspar Durgin (1896-1950) who served in Alaskan waters with the Coast and Geodetic Survey.  As an aside, Captain Durgin discovered Scripps Canyon with Professor Erik G. Moberg while on special assignment to Scripps in 1929.

Durham Basin (Grim 1992) – Anderson Basin Map.

Dvorak Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 30 31 161 20, in Musicians Seamounts.


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E

Eaglestone Reef (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960 p. 101, 103)  – “Eaglestone Reef could not be located by H.M.S. PENGUIN after a protracted search in 1896, but in 1943 a 5 fm (9m) bank was sounded at 9 43 S, 176 36 E.”  Probably named for Captain John Eagleston of the American bark PERU from Salem, Massachusetts, which visited Rotumah and this area in 1832 searching for beche de mer.

Eaglestone Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – “… is 140 miles in length and lies some 50 miles east of Penguin Ridge. Named for association with Eaglestone Reef which is probably named for Captain John Eagleston of the American bark PERU from Salem, Massachusetts, which visited Rotumah and this area in 1832 searching for beche de mer.

Eaglestone Reef (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960 p. 101, 103)  – “Eaglestone Reef could not be located by H.M.S. PENGUIN after a protracted search in 1896, but in 1943 a 5 fm (9m) bank was sounded at 9 43 S, 176 36 E.” 

East Atlantic Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 103) – Ostatlantisches Becken is Krummel terminology.

East Atlantic Trough (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

East Australian Basin (Supan 1899) – Ost-austral Bucht by Supan’s nomenclature.  A variant of today’s Tasman Basin.

East Basin (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Eastern Atlantic Ocean.

East Cape Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to East Cape, Buldir Island.

East Caroline Basin (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964  ) – Named for proximity to Caroline Islands.

East China Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Easter Fracture Zone (Menard1964) –

Easter Island Fracture Zone (Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1; Menard 1964) – 27S 110W.

Easter Island Ridge (Heezen et al. 1959, p.103; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 274) – Part of the East Pacific Rise. 

Easter Island Rise (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A name proposed by Mosby as an alternate to Antarctic-Pacific Ridge.

Easter Island Swell (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Eastern Atlantic Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for its geographic situation.

Eastern Indian-Antarctic Basin (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256, 260) – A name proposed by Mosby, also used by Sverdrup et al.  According to Herdman on page 260, “Bounded on the west by the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge, on the north by the Amsterdam-St. Paul Plateau, and on the east by the Indian-AntarcticRidge…. Schott’s name was Indian-Antarctic Basin.  Greatest depth 2883 fm., 5455 m., 54 32 45S 123 05 00E.  Echosounding taken by R.R.S. DISCOVERY II on 24 May 1932 and corrected by Matthew’s tables….” 

Eastern Indian Swell (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A name proposed by Mosby.

Eastern North America Basin (Northrop et al. 1962) –

Eastern Rise (Krummel 1907, p. 126, 127) – In reference to SE Pacific Ocean.  Describes as extending to the Galapagos from Southeast Pacific Ocean.  Osterschwelle.

Easter Rise (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 126, 127; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Oster-Schwelle is Supan nomenclature while Osterschwelle is Krummel nomenclature.  The southern portion of the East Pacific Rise; named for geographic association with Easter Island.  Described as extending to the Galapagos from Southeast Pacific Ocean.  In Herdman:  As noted by Roos on bathymetry of 2nd Byrd Antarctic Expedition.

East Pacific Rise (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 30, Fig. 37; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1; Menard1964) – In the context of Menard and Heezen, this segment of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge extends from south of New Zealand to the Gulf of California  (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 37).

East Philippine Sea Basin (Dietz 1954) –

East Sea Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Tunghaischelf in Krummel’s nomenclature referring to the East China Sea.

East West Trough (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, Plate 8, p. 1540) - East-West Trough is an alternate name for Atlantis Fracture Zone.

Eauripik-New Guinea Rise (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for proximity to Eauripik Island and New Guinea. 

Eauripik Swell (Hess 1948) – Separates the West Caroline Basin from the East Caroline Basin. Named for proximity to Eauripik Island.

Echo Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Sudlicher and Nordlicher Echo Bank.  There was no Echo Bank per se in Maurer and Stocks.  The name Echo Bank became associated with Sudlicher Echo Bank at a later date.

Eel Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart IV) – Named for association with Eel River.

Eickelberg Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander Ernst W. Eickelberg (1890-1941), USC&GS, who served in the USC&GS for twenty-eight years.  His last assignment was as commanding officer of the USC&GSS GUIDE working in Alaskan waters.  He also served as commanding officer of the first EXPLORER in Alaskan waters as well as on the SURVEYOR in Alaska.  He also served on hydrographic survey ships on the East Coast and in the Philippines.

Einstein Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 13 52 110 17.  Named for Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and peace activitist famous for the Theory of Relativity among other accomplishments.

Ely Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Possibly meant to be Ela Seamount, for Coast and Geodetic Survey officer.       

Emden Depth (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; van Riel 1940, p. 91; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for the German cruiser EMDEN which sounded here in 1927.  With an acoustic sounding instrument.  By van Riel,  “At about 9 40N and 126 50E the German cruiser EMDEN observed with a stop-watch a greatest echo-depth of 10,540 m., which may be estimated, according to Maurer, 200 m. too high.  The SNELLIUS observed a maximum echo depth of 10, 160 m. and a wire-depth of 10,068 m….”  The name Emden Depth is not given by van Riel; however, at least one other author (Hess has referred to it and not accepted it because of the methodology used to obtain the depth.)

Emden Deep (Hess 1948) – Sounded by echosounder by German Cruiser Emden in 1927.

Emerald Bank (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24) –

Emperor Seamounts (Dietz 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 37; Menard1964) – “ A great linear range of seamounts dominates the northeastern portion of Chart 6901 and extends from the vicinity of the intersection of the Aleutian Trench with the Kamchatka Trench to the vicinity of 30 N. and 174 E., a distance of about 1500 miles.  This entirely submerged range cannot be identified in terms of well-known geographic landmarks as, for example, in the case of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, so that a nongeographic name is appropriate.  Hence, they are provisionally termed the Emperor Seamounts, and the names of ancient Japanese emperors are applied to several of the most prominent.” (Dietz 1954).

Emperor Seamount Range (Menard and Fisher 1958) –

Enterprise Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for the USS ENTERPRISE, which under Captain Albert S. Barker, USN, made an around the world sounding cruise between 1883 and 1886.  The Enterprise sounded here and discovered the first indication of the Java (Sunda; Mentawei) Trench.

Enterprise Rise (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Named for the USS ENTERPRISE which first sounded on this portion of the Pacific Antarctic Ridge in November 1885.

Equatorial Atlantic Mid-Ocean Canyon (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 257) –

Equatorial Ridge (Krummel 1907, p. 118) – Aquatorialrucken by Krummel’s nomenclature is that part of what is known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that extends between 34 W and 12 W Longitude.

Erban Guyot (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 261) – Misspelled variant of Erben Guyot.

Erben Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98; Carsola, Dietz, and Russell 1949; Carsola and Dietz 1952; Menard1964) – Krummel gives a location of 32 54 N 132 33 W with a least depth of 710 meters. A variant of Erben Tablemount.  Named for Commander Henry Erben, who as commanding officer of the USS TUSCARORA, discovered this seamount in 1874.  This was the first seamount discovered in the abyssal Pacific Ocean and the second stand-alone seamount discovered as a result of intentional deep-sea exploration. This feature was referred to as “Belknap Submarine Mountain” by Tanner in 189_ and Davidson (1897).

Erben Tablemount (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Ernest Legouve Reef (Menard1964) –

Erythraische Mulde (Supan 1899) – (the trough in the Red Sea).

Essex Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 10 12 N 55 55 E with a least depth of 1567 meters.  Discovered in 1886.  Now known as Error Tablemount.

Estavanico Basin (Grim 1992) – Vaca Basin Map.

Etienne Sea Valley (Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for association with Etienne Bay on the south coast of Attu Island.

Eucla Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Euclid Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 12 45 110 30.  There is not agreement concerning whether Euclid, known as the “Father of Geometry” was a single Greek mathematician or a group of mathematicians who taught in Alexandria sometime between 325 BCE and 260 BCE. 

Euler Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 16 03 112 00.  Named for Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) a prolific Swiss mathematician who helped lay the foundations of much of modern mathematics as well as being prolific in astronomy, physics, and other sciences.

Eureka Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map.

Evangeline Mound (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Exmouth Rise (Fairbridge 1954) –

Explorer Seamount (Menard1964) – Northeast Pacific Ocean, named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship EXPLORER which operated in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Alaska from 1940 -1963. 

Explorer Trench (Menard, H. W., 1964) –


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F

Faeroe Bank Channel (Cherkis et al. 1973) – A variant of Faroe Gap.

Faeroe-Iceland Ridge (Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53;Cherkis et al. 1973) – A variant of Wyville Thomson Ridge. Extends between the Faeroe Islands and Iceland.

Faeroe-Shetland Sill (Cherkis et al. 1973) –

Faeroe-Shetland Trough (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – Runs to the south-west in the vicinity of the Faroe Islands and terminates at its south end at the Wyville Thomson Ridge.

Falkland Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Falkland Islands.

Farallon Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III.) – Named for proximity to Farallon Islands. 

Faraday Fracture Zone (List of Oceanic Depths….1903….pp. 15-16) - The Siemens Brothers Cable Ship SS FARADAY surveyed in this area in late May through late July of 1903.  A peak was observed at 49 54.9 N 31 30.2 W with an observed depth of 1132 fathoms.

Faraday Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 49 41 N 29 10 W with a least depth of 1143 meters.  Discovered in 1882.

Faris Seamount (Murray 1941; Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Captain Robert Lee Faris, 1868-1932.  Entered the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1891; he was assistant director for 18 years prior to his death.

Farnella Canyon (Grim 1992) – Farnella Canyon Map.  Named for the USGS contract vessel FARNELLA which towed the GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar system which imaged much of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone.

Farnella Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map. Named for the USGS contract vessel FARNELLA which towed the GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar system which imaged much of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone.

Fidschi Becken (Supan 1899) – Fiji Basin.

Fieberling Guyot (Menard1955; Menard1964) –

Fieberling Seamount (Carsola and Dietz 1952) – Named for the USS Fieberling which surveyed this feature in 1946 and 1947.  The 1946 survey was in connection with the SOFAR program.  This seamount was originally discovered by the USS RAMAPO in 1936.

Fieberling Tablemount (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Field Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1898…., p. 5; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN on October 27, 1897, at 12 16. 8 S 174 42.9 E with a least depth of 65 fathoms noted.  There are three typographical errors associated with this entry.  The first is that all longitudes associated with pages 4-5 of the 1898 publication should read W instead of E.  The second error is that the latitude for the 65 fathom sounding is listed as 15 16.8 S instead of 12 16.8 S. The 15 degrees is the only 15 recorded in a string of sequential 12 degree readings indicating that it is a typographical error. The third error is that the 65 fathom sounding is identified as Turpie Bank which is in easterly longitude but not at the coordinates as listed even if the longitude was not in error.  In addition, there is a note on the page specifically stating that the vessel was defining the limits of Pasco, Field, and Taviuni Banks.  Named for Captain A.M. Field, commanding officer of H.M.S. PENGUIN at the time of discovery.   Field Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 17 S 174 44 W with a least depth of 24 meters. Discovered in 1897.

Fiji Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 127) – Fidschi Becken by Supan 1899 and Fidschibecken by Krummel 1907. 

Fiji Plateau (Murray 1895; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) –

Filebottom Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for an early type of vessel used in North Atlantic fishing.

Finnische Bucht (Supan 1899) –

Fippenies Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30; Murray 1947 Plate I, III) – 42 48 N 69 15 W; spelled Fippennies by Murray.

Fippennies Ledge (Murray 1947,  Plate I, III) – In the Gulf of Maine.  A traditional fisherman’s name.

First Honshu-Mariana Ridge (Dietz 1954) –

Fisk Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map

Fleming Deep (National Research Council 1930, p. 79) (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Discovered by the research vessel CARNEGIE and named for geophysicist John Adam Fleming of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C, and formerly of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.  “In latitude 23.8 north and longitude 144.1 east with maximum depth of 8,650 meters.”

Flemish Cap (Goode 1887, Chart No. 2, p. 61; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 21; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – Located at 47 10N 45W on Goode Chart. A traditional fisherman’s name.

Flores Basin (Supan 1899; van Riel 1934, Chart XXII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Flores Becken in Supan terminology.

Flores Becken (Supan 1899) –

Florida Escarpment (Jordan 1962,  p. 14) – Surveyed by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.  Refers to the escarpment on the west coast of the Florida Peninsula.

Florida-Hatteras Shelf (Pratt 1968) – Refers to the continental shelf area between Florida and Cape Hatteras.

Florida-Texas Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Florida-Texasschelf in Krummel nomenclature. Refers to the continental shelf area in the Gulf of Mexico extending from Florida to offshore from the south coast of Texas.

Formigas Bank (Vaughn 1940, p. 63) –

Fortymile Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1.) – Named for geographic location relative to San Diego.

Foss Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

Foss Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

Fosse de Cayar Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 41) –

Fourier Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 14 05 111 00.  Named for French mathematician Jean Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830) who developed what are now known as Fourier Series while writing his treatise on the theory of heat.

Four Ladies Bank (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255, 257) – With a least known depth of 82 fathoms is located at 67 35S 77 30E.  It was discovered by the S.S. THORSHAVN on 25 January 1937 and named in honor of four ladies who accompanied the expedition. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).
 
Fracture Zones (Heezen et al., 1964. P. 12) – “Prior to World War II, Harold Murray of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey discovered an east-west escarpment extending for several hundred miles west of Cape Mendocino, California.  Since World War II, largely due to the efforts of H. W. Menard, Jr., at least eight zones parallel to the Mendocino Escarpment have been discovered in the eastern Pacific….”

Fram Bank (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, pp. 255, 257) – Discovered by the S.S. THORSHAVN in January, 1931, and named by Christensen for Nansen’s famous ship. It  lies with its western end about 50 miles north-westward of Cape Darnley and extends easterly for about 150 miles.  It has a least known depth of 76 fathoms. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Franklin Swell (Murray 1947, Plate IV) – Named for naval officer Passed Midshipman Samuel R. Franklin who served in this area on the BIBB in 1853-54 under Lieutenant Henry  S. Stellwagen.  Franklin rose to the rank of Rear Admiral in the Navy before retiring.

Frazier Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Futuna Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – “It is crowned by the Horne Islands ….”




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G

GA-1 (Menard and Dietz 1951; Menard 1955) – 56 55 149 10;  Kodiak Seamount  56 52 149 15.

GA-2 (Menard and Dietz 1951; Menard 1955) – 56 25 145 50;  Ely Seamount 56 15 145 40.

GA-3 (Menard and Dietz 1951; Menard 1955) – 56 10 145 15;  Alternate name for Quinn Seamount  56 15 145 15.

GA-4 (Menard and Dietz 1951; Menard 1955) – 55 55 144 20;  Surveyor 56 05 144 20.

GA-5 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 55 30 142 40;  Applequist Seamount 55 25 142 45.

GA-6 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 55 15 141 30

GA-7 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 55 45 141 50;  Durgin 56 00 142 00.

GA-8 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 56 00 141 40;  Durgin candidate 2 56 00 142 00.

GA-9 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 54 50 138 35;  Brown Seamount 55 00 138 30.

GA-10 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 54 05 137 45;  Denson Seamount 54 00 137 15.

GA-11 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 53 15 134 30;  Graham seamount 53 14 134 31.

GA-12 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 52 34 151 19;  Alternate name for Parker Seamount. 52 35 151 15.

GA-13 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 52 23 150 30;  Alternate name for Guide Ridge. 52 22 150 35.

GA-14 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 52 12 149 35;  Woodworth Seamount 52 15 149 30.

GA-15 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 51 58 148 45;  Jones 52 25 148 55.

GA-16 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 54 10 149 30;  Cowie 54 15 149 30.

GA-17 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 54 25 148 37;  Murray 54 00 148 30 or Patton Seamount Group at 54 20 149 30.

GA-18 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 54 18 148 25;  Wyer Seamount 54 25 148 40.

GA-19 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 53 54 148 25;  Murray Seamount 54 00 148 30.

GA-20 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 53 03 144 10;  White Marsh Seamount 53 08 143 29.

GA-21 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 52 15 144 25;  Laskowski 51 50 144 45.

GA-22 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 51 14 143 38;  Hook ridge 51 30 143 40.

GA-23 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 50 57 143 11;  Pathfinder Seamount 50 55 143 15.

GA-24 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 51 08 139 06;  Schoppe Ridge 51 10 139 30.

GA-25 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 51 40 138 25;  Unknown.

GA-26 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 50 10 137 10;  Peters 50 33 137 30.

GA-27 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 52 22 146 52;  Bean seamount 52 15 147 00.

GA-28 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 50 10 141 59;  Morton Seamount.

GA-29 (Menard and Dietz 1951) – 50 20 142 20;  Campbell Seamount.

Galapagos Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with Galapagos Islands.

Galapagos Fracture Zone (Menard 1964; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 3) – 0N 105W.  Named for geographic association with Galapagos Islands.

Galapagos Rise (Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1) – 15S 95W.  “The newly discovered elevation in the southeastern Pacific is here named the Galapagos Rise after the nearest important subaerial feature.” (Menard et al. 1964. P. 235).

Galathea Depth (Fisher 1954) – In the Mindanao Trench. Named for the research vessel GALATHEA which sounded and dredged here.

Galois Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 12 52 N 106 28W.  Named for French mathematician Evariste Galois (1811-1832) who worked on the theory of equations and developed what is now known as Galois Theory.  During his short life was known as an eccentric, a revolutionary, and died as the result of a duel over a woman.

Galvez Banks (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1904…., p. 15) – A depth of 150 fathoms is noted by the SS COLONIA of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company on November 7, 1902, falling between Galvez Banks and Tracey Seamount at 13 27.3 N 144 36.5 E.  

Gambia Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – “The Gambia Abyssal Plain lies north of the Sierra Leone Rise and is separated from the Cape Verde Plain by abyssal hills.”

Garrett Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Centered at approximately 4S 172W. Named for Commander Leroy Mason Garrett, who fell overboard and was lost at sea from the USS ALBATROSS on November 21, 1906, 500 miles northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii.  This deep is labeled between the Hilgard Deep and the Campbell Deep at approximately 5 S 170 E .  It is probable that this feature is the source of the name Garrett Fracture Zone.

Garrison Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map.

Gauss Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 15 24 110 56.  Named for German mathematician Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) known for work on error theory, geodesy, theory of numbers, and non-Euclidean geometry among other elements of theoretical and applied mathematics.

Gazelle Deep (Petermann 1877) – In the southwest Pacific Ocean. Named for the German research vessel GAZELLE which conducted a circumnavigating research cruise of the globe between 1874-1876  contemporaneous with the CHALLENGER expedition.

Gazelle Basin (Murray 1895) – In the southwest Pacific Ocean. Named for the German research vessel GAZELLE which conducted a circumnavigating research cruise of the globe between 1874-1876  contemporaneous with the CHALLENGER expedition.

Genista Bank (Hall 1954) – Named for H.M.S. GENISTA which discovered this bank while performing escort duty in 1944 13 miles southwest of Ras Sajir.  A least depth of 103 fathoms was noted. 

George Seamount (Northrop and Frosch 1954; Northrop et al. 1962) – First named Seamount George for seismic reflector G which was first observed in this area from the analysis of submarine echoes from explosive sound.

Georges Bank (Murray 1947 Plate V and Figure 2; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 43; Pratt 1968) – Originally named St. Georges Bank at least as early as 1610.  By some accounts called Armelline Shoals (after a papal tax collector) by Giovanni di Verrazano when he cruised these waters in 1524 although it is not clear whether he was referring to Nantucket Shoals area or Georges Bank area. His brother Girolamo di Verrazano in a 1529 map showed an east-west trending shoal to the south of present-day Cape Cod.  Pierre Desceliers, a French cartographer, showed a north-south trending shoal parallel to and extending north of Cape Cod with no name.  It was not until the latter part of the Seventeenth Century that Georges Bank became shown on  a regular basis with the name St. Georges Bank. Jeffereys Ledge also was shown on the same maps.  Variously called the Great Rise, and the Great Bank of Malabarre, a name derived from the work of Samuel de Champlain between 1604 and 1607.

Gerda Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962) – Origin uncertain.  Possibly named for the University of Miami research vessel GERDA.

Gerdes Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Ferdinand Gerdes of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

German Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 7, p. 26) – 43 48 N 67 08 W as approximately determined from chart.

Gershwin Seamount – 27 16 159 30. In Musicians Seamounts (Menard 1964).

Gettysburg Bank (Murray and Hjort, p. 267; Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Crossed over at 36 30N 11 43W with a depth of 901m by the METEOR in 1925-27.

Gettysburg – Gorringe Bank ((Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Least depth of 59 meters at 36 30 N 11 35 W discovered in 1876. Now known as Gettysburg Seamount and Gorringe Ridge.  These banks were discovered by the USS GETTYSBURG, Henry Gorringe commanding.

Gettysburg Seamount (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 36) –

Giacomini Seamount (Murray1941; Gibson 1960; Menard1964 ) – Named for Commander Alfred Giacomini (1876-1935), USC&GS,  who served many years in Alaskan waters with the C&GS as well as Philippine waters.  The latter part of his career was spent as the pioneer flight checker for early aeronautical charts beginning in 1927.  He survived numerous airplane crashes.

Gibbs Fracture Zone (Fleming, Cherkis, and Heirtzler, 1970) – Alternate name for Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. This fracture zone was surveyed by the USNS J. W. GIBBS. “It is proposed to name the offset the Gibbs Fracture Zone after the ship that made the survey.”

Gibbs Seamount (Rona 1961) – Gibbs Seamount at 16 33.3 N 63 56.2W rises between 700 and 800 fathoms above Aves Swell on the SE and 1500fathoms above the seafloor to the NW.  It was discovered by the U.S.N.S. J.W.GIBBS on October 15, 1960, and subsequently named for that vessel. 

Gifford Seamount (Menard1964) – Named for the wife of H. W. Menard.  At approximately 38 30 S 82 W in the SE Pacific Ocean was the first representation of a feature named for Gifford Menard although at a later date, H. W. Menard chose to name another feature for his wife.  

Gifford Tablemount – Known originally as Dart Bank (List of Oceanic Depths …. 1895…., p. 8.) – Sounded on and apparently discovered by H.M.S. DART on December 5, 1894.  Now named Gifford Tablemount.  In: “List of Oceanic Depths …. 1895….”  Least depth of 158 fathoms observed at 26 42.3 S 159 28.5 E. 

Gilbert Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 44) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey vessel GILBERT which took an active part in the survey of Georges Bank (1930-32), and which in turn was named for Captain John J. Gilbert Coast and Geodetic Survey officer (1864-1929).

Gilbert Seamount (Murray1941; Menard 1955; Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) –  “A seapeak in the Gulf of Alaska…”  Named for Captain John Jacob Gilbert, 1845-1929.  Captain Gilbert served on active duty from 1864 until 1921.  He was the first commanding officer of the PATHFINDER and conducted surveys in Alaskan waters and in the Philippines.

Gloria Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Glover Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Centered at approximately 37N 137W off the coast of California.  Originally named Clover Deep for Rear Admiral Richardson Clover (1846-1919), USN, first commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship PATTERSON, which first came to the Pacific Ocean in 1885 and surveyed extensively in Alaskan waters.  Murray’s 1899 map misspelled the name and the error was retained in the 1912 Murray and Hjort map.  Neither names are presently used.

Gluck Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – In the Musicians’ Seamounts.

Godard Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – In the Musicians’ Seamounts.

Gorda Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart IV) – Eastern extension of the Mendocino Fracture Zone.  Named for association with Punta Gorda.

Gorontolo Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart X; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Gould Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Gounod Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – In the Musicians’ Seamounts.

Graham Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Although in close proximity to Graham Island, most probably named for Captain Lyman D. Graham (1890-1982), USC&GS, as Gibson stated that he was naming various features for Coast and Geodetic Survey officers who had contributed to the knowledge of Alaskan waters.  Captain Graham at various times commanded eight C&GS ships including the PIONEER, DISCOVER, and GUIDE all of which conducted pioneering systematic trackline surveys across the Gulf of Alaska between 1925 and 1940.

Grand Chenier (Grim 1992) – Mound Central Slope Map.

Grand Gosier (Grim 1992) – Mound Chandeleur Basin Map.

Grand Banks (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22) –

Grand Manan Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 7, p. 26) – 44 14N 67 03W as approximately determined from chart.

Gray Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Centered at approximately 11N 126W.  Originally named Grey Deep in Murray 1895 and then corrected to Gray Deep.  Probably named for Thomas Lomas Gray (1850-1908), a pioneering seismologist who worked with John Milne in Japan on early earthquake studies.  This name is no longer used.

Great Australia Bight Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) –  This un-named plain is described by Heezen and Laughton 1963 as “An extensive abyssal plain extends along the base of the of the continental rise in the Great Australian Bight.”

Great Bahama Banks (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 22) –

Great Bank of Newfoundland (Goode 1887, Chart No. 3, p. 63) – 45 10N 50 50W.

Great Meteor Bank (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 98) – The largest of the Atlantis-Plato-Cruiser-Great Meteor Seamount Chain, “discovered by workers on the METEOR in 1937.  This seamount, 60 miles across at its base, rises majestically more than 2600 fathoms above the floor of the ocean.”  Thus named both for the discovering vessel and its relative stature. An alternate name for Great Meteor Tablemount.
 
Great Meteor Seamount (Tolstoy and Ewing , 1949,  Plate 2, p. 1130) – An alternate name for Great Meteor Tablemount. Discovered by the German Research Vessel METEOR in 1937.

Great Pacific Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Great Trough (Menard 1964) –

Green Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 3, p. 63) – 45 20N 54 30W on Goode Chart No. 3.

Green Basin (Grim 1992) – Researcher Basin Map.

Greenland Deep (Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53) – A variant of Greenland Basin.

Grenada Trough (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Officer et al. 1957) – 13N 62W.

Grey Deep (Murray 1895) became Gray Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Centered at approximately 11N 126W.  Originally named Grey Deep in Murray 1895 and then corrected to Gray Deep in Murray 1899.  Probably named for Thomas Lomas Gray (1850-1908), a pioneering seismologist who worked with John Milne in Japan on early earthquake studies.  This name is no longer used.

Gribb Bank (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255) – Discovered by the S.S. THORSHAVN in January, 1937, and named by Christensen for the whale catching vessel GRIBB.  It has a least known depth of 169 fathoms and lies at 62S 88 30E. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Grieg Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – 27 51 162 03, in Musicians Seamounts.

Gronlandische Bucht (Supan 1899) –

Guardian Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 

Guatemala Basin (noted in Agassiz 1906, p.2.) (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958; Menard 1964) – Named for geographic proximity to Guatemala.

Guatemala Deep ( Heacock and Worzel 1955) –

Guatemala Trench (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Heacock and Worzel 1955) – Named for proximity to Guatemala. An alternate name for Middle America Trench.

Guayana Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 130; Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Guyanaschelf is the nomenclature with both Supan 1899 and Krummel 1907, p. 113.  Apparently Guayanaschelf was a misspelled variant that was repeated by Maurer and Stocks 1933.  Maurer and Stocks reported 122m at 06 50N 52 51W on the shelf.

Guinea-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 00 40S 04 56W 5169m.

Guiana Basin (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1) – Named for geographic association with British and French Guiana.  British Guiana is now the independent country of Guyana.

Guinea Basin (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) –  The METEOR expedition observed 5169m at 00 40S 04 56W in the Guinea Basin.

Guinea Rise (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Termed the Guinea Schwelle in both Maurer and Stocks and Stocks and Wust. A depth of 2611m was observed at 15 02S 09 26W by the METEOR expedition.

Guide Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship GUIDE, in service 1923-1941.  The GUIDE was the first C&GS ship equipped with an acoustic depth-finding system, pioneered the use of radio-acoustic ranging in the summer of 1924, and made many trackline surveys across the Gulf of Alaska with accompanying discoveries during its years of service.

Guide Seamount (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship GUIDE which surveyed this area in the 1930’s.  The GUIDE was the  first Coast Survey vessel to traverse the Panama Canal and first C&GS ship to be equipped with an electronic echo-sounder.  Sounded in  the Middle-America Trench and traversed the borderlands during its initial trip to California.  It took many wire-line soundings for comparison with acoustic soundings leading to early sound velocity correction tables for acoustic sounding systems.  The GUIDE was the test ship for developing  radio-acoustic ranging while on the West Coast, the first navigation system to not have to rely on astronomic navigation if offshore or visual means if inshore.  Ran a line out 206 miles with no diminution of acoustic signal in 1924 off the Oregon coast which was in fact the first discovery of any indication of the SOFAR layer. 

Gulfport Valley (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.  Named for Gulfport, Mississippi.

Gulf of Alaska Seamount Province (Menard1955) – First named by Menard and Dietz in 1951 (Menard1955).

Gulf Trough (Menard 1955) – Refers to the apparent trough in the Gulf of California.

The Gully (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24; Pratt 1968) – 44N 59W as scaled off Goode Chart No. 4.

Guinn Guyot (Menard1964) – A misspelled variant of Quinn Seamount.

Gunnerus Bank (Stocks 1937; Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255, 257) – Discovered by the third NORVEGIA cruise (1929-30) in approximately 68 20S 32 05 E with a least depth of 300 fathoms.  “The name was given in honour of Bishop Gunnerus, who in 1770 described the pelagic shrimp.” Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Guyana Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Guyana Shelf (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Guyanaschelf in Supan nomenclature; Guyanaschelf in Krummel on page 113; Guayanaschelf in Krummel on page 130.



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H

Haeckel Deep (Murray 1895, 1899, 1911) – This deep is part of the Peru-Chile Trench and located near 32S 75W.  Named for Professor Ernst Haeckel who, although never actively taking part in  expeditions, wrote on the radiolarian and other groups in the “Challenger Reports” and conducted and published on plankton studies (Murray, J. and Johan Hjort, 1912).

Halmahera Basin (Supan 1899; van Riel 1934, Chart XII; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Halmahera-Becken in Supan nomenclature.  Named for association with the Halmahera Sea.

Halmahera-Becken (Supan 1899) –

Hancock Basin (Grim 1992) –  NOAA EEZ Pigmy Basin Map.

Handel Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – Located in the Musician Seamounts.

Harris Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Origin of name unknown.

Hatteras Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56-58; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 14, Fig. 22) – Named for geographic association with Cape Hatteras. “The name Hatteras Abyssal Plain …was suggested by the close proximity of the very prominent Cape Hatteras.” (Heezen et al. 1959)

Hatteras Canyon (Pratt 1968) – Named for geographic association with Cape Hatteras.

Hatteras Plain (Pratt 1968) – Named for geographic association with Cape Hatteras.

Havergal Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray 1912) – Perhaps named for Frances Ridley Havergal (1836-1879), an English poet and hymnist.

Hawaiian Arch (Dietz, et al. 1954; Hamilton 1957; Menard 1964) – 

Hawaiian Deep (Hamilton 1957; Menard1964) –

Hawaiian Plateau (Murray 1895) –

Hawaiian Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Hamilton 1957) –

Hawaii-Schwelle (Supan 1899) –
 
Hawaiian Swell or Rise (Supan 1899; Dietz, et al. 1954; Dietz 1954) –

Haydn Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Hayes Peak (National Research Council 1930, p. 79) – “… in latitude 32.4 north and longitude 127.8 west rising about 3,000 meters above the general level.” Discovered by the research ship CARNEGIE.  A variant of Fieberling Tablemount.

Hayward Bank, Hayward Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths ….1894 …., p. 7; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Surveyed by the WATERWITCH August 19-21, 1894,
with a least depth of 362 fathoms observed at 34 57 N 11 56 W. (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 34 56 N 11 55 W with a least depth of 662 meters.  Discovered in 1883.  Variant of Coral Patch Seamount.

Hazelholm Bank (List of Oceanic Depths …. 1897…., p. 7; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Hazelholm Bank sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN at 12 48.7 S, 174 02.5 W with 25 fathoms noted on October 10, 1896.  Hazelholme was  the original spelling for this feature.

Hazelholme Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 49  S 174 03 E with a least depth of 46 meters. Discovered in 1896.

Hazel Holme Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

Hazel Holme Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Hebriden Becken (Supan 1899) –

Hebriden Rucken (Supan 1899)

Hebrides Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 127)  - Hebridenbecken by Krummel nomenclature and Hebriden Becken by Supan.  Named for geographic association with New Hebrides Islands and having  a depth of 5000 meters.

Hebrides Ridge (Supan 1899) – Hebriden Rucken in Supan nomenclature.
 
Heceta Bank (Davidson 1897, p. 78) –

Hecht Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander Maurice Hecht (1905-1954  ), USC&GS, who served with the USC&GS from 1929 until his death.  Commander Hecht served in the Alaskan Arctic on DEW Line hydrographic and geodetic surveys between 1949-1951.

Heck Seamount (Gibson 1960) –  Named for Captain Nicholas Heck (1882-1953), USC&GS, developed wiredrag systems used extensively in Alaskan waters, primary developer of radio acoustic ranging, chief of Division of Geomagnetism and Seismology for twenty years.  Recipient of the Bowie Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1942.

Heck Sea Valley (Gibson and Nichols1953; Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for Captain Nicholas Heck (1882-1953) of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Hedberg Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Heel Tapper Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for an early type of vessel used in North Atlantic fishing.

Helen Seamount (Menard1964) –

Henderson Seamount (Menard1955, p. 1160; Menard 1964) –  This seamount was probably named for the mythical Henderson Island which supposedly was located near this features Latitude in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Possibly named for the USS HENDERSON which was equipped with echo-sounding gear during the 1930’s.

Hendrickson Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Cornelius Hendrickson (Hendricksen) who explored more thoroughly the Delaware River about 1616.  This canyon was listed as “Metedeconk” by Shepard (1938, p. 441).

Henselt Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Hera Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) –

Herons Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Hess Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for Dr. Harry Hammond Hess (1906-1969) who coined the term “guyot” to describe flat-topped seamounts.  Dr. Hess is credited with being a pioneer in developing the theory of plate tectonics.

Hidalgo Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Hikurangi Trench (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 342; Menard1964) – Note that a mid-ocean canyon is found in the Hikurangi Trench [seems an improbable observation] (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 342).

Hilgard Deep (Petermann1877; Murray 1895; Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912) – In List of Oceanic Depths ….1901…., p. 39 a number of soundings were recorded by the BRITTANIA between May 15-18, 1901on a line  between 7 18 S 168 43 W and extending to 2 29 S 165 15 W which were 3000 fathoms or greater.  Named for Julius Erasmus Hilgard (1825-1891), fifth superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Hispaniola-Caicos Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 60-65) – Named for geographic association with the Hispaniola-Caicos Channel. “The Hispaniola-Caicos Channel in particular contains an abyssal plain which, although much smaller than the large, deep-sea abyssal plains, has all the characteristics of slope flatness and sediment composition.  This is called the Hispaniola-Caicos Abyssal Plain.”

Hjort Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Johan Hjort (1869-1948), colleague of John Murray on the “Michael Sars.”

Hjort Rise (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255, 258) – A shallow sounding of 754 fathoms at 56 40S 158 39E was named the Hjort Rise after Dr. Johan Hjort, a former Director of Norwegian Fisheries and a collaborator with Sir John Murray. Designated SE 5614-15844 by Herdman on page 258.  “Rises from a general depth of 1000 fm. to 446 fm., and is situated on the Macquarie-Balleny Ridge.  A sounding of 815 fm. was obtained by the COMMANDANT CHARCOT in 1949. Formerly known as the Hjort Rise….”

Hjort Seamount (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Hodgkins Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964)) – Named for William Candler Hodgkins (1854-1922), a field officer of the C&GS, who served for many years on the Alaska Boundary Survey as well as geodetic field parties throughout the United States.

Hog Mound (Grim 1992) – Atwater Valley Map.

Honduras Plateau (Vaughn 1940, p. 63) – 

Horne Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Honshu-Mariana Ridge (Dietz 1954, p. 1214) –

Honshu-Mariana-Palau Ridge (Dietz 1954) –

Hook Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Apparently named for shape of ridge.

Horizon Channel (Shepard1963) – In the Tonga Trench, named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Channel (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 324) – This is an interplain channel  which with the Mukluk Channel passes through a broad abyssal gap connecting the Tufts Plain to the lower-lying Aleutian Abyssal Plain to the west. This channel was named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Deep (Fisher 1954) – In the Tonga Trench, named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Depth (Fisher 1954) – In the Tonga Trench, named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Deep (Fisher 1954) – In the Tonga Trench, named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Depth (Fisher 1954) – In the Tonga Trench, named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horizon Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Vessel HORIZON.

Horn Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map

Horne Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 57, 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320) – Named for geographic association with Horseshoe Seamount Group.  “The Horseshoe Abyssal Plain takes its name from the horseshoe-shaped line of seamounts which surrounds it except on the eastern side.” (Heezen et al. 1959).

Horseshoe Seamount Group (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 59, 78) –  About 300 miles due west from the Straits of Gibraltar an impressive group of seamounts lies in a horseshoe shaped arc.  Several of these , most notably Ampere and Josephine seamounts, rise to less than 100 fathoms.  Josephine Seamount is the largest of the group….”

T. Horton Guyot (Menard1964) – T. Morton Guyot Became T. Horton Guyot on physiographic diagram accompanying Marine Geology of the Pacific.

Houma Valley (Grim 1992) – Houma Valley Map.

Howe Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Howell Basin (Murray 1947, Plate IV) – Named for Commander John Adams Howell, USN, commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer BACHE, assistant in the Coast Survey, and future Rear Admiral. The BACHE surveyed in this area in the early 1870’s.  Howell was born in New York, 16 March, 1840. He was graduated at the United States naval academy in 1858; became a lieutenant in April, 1861; lieutenant-commander in March, 1865; and commander, 6 March, 1872. He served as executive officer of the steam sloop "Ossipee" at the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, and was honorably mentioned by his commanding officer in his despatches. He was promoted to captain on 1 March, 1884, and in 1887 was a member of the naval advisory board. He was the inventor of a torpedo (probably meant mine by today’s terminology)  which naval officers regarded as probably superior to any other in use at the time.  He was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1898.

Howell Hook (Jordan1962,  p. 14) – Named for Commander John Adams Howell, USN, and Assistant in the Coast Survey, commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer BACHE which surveyed in this area in 1872.  Howell was born in New York, 16 March, 1840. He was graduated at the United States naval academy in 1858; became a lieutenant in April, 1861; lieutenant-commander in March, 1865; and commander, 6 March, 1872. He served as executive officer of the steam sloop "Ossipee" at the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, and was honorably mentioned by his commanding officer in his despatches. He was promoted to captain on 1 March, 1884, and in 1887 was a member of the naval advisory board. He was the inventor of a torpedo (probably meant mine by today’s terminology)  which naval officers regarded as probably superior to any other in use at the time.  He was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1898.

Howell Swell (Murray 1947,  Plate IV) – Named for Commander John Adams Howell, USN, commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer BACHE, assistant in the Coast Survey, and future Rear Admiral. The BACHE surveyed in this area in the early 1870’s. Howell was born in New York, 16 March, 1840. He was graduated at the United States naval academy in 1858; became a lieutenant in April, 1861; lieutenant-commander in March, 1865; and commander, 6 March, 1872. He served as executive officer of the steam sloop "Ossipee" at the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, and was honorably mentioned by his commanding officer in his despatches. He was promoted to captain on 1 March, 1884, and in 1887 was a member of the naval advisory board. He was the inventor of a torpedo (probably meant mine by today’s terminology)  which naval officers regarded as probably superior to any other in use at the time.  He was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1898.

Huddell Seamount (Menard1964) –

Hudson Becken (Supan 1899) – The basin encompassed by Hudson Bay.

Hudson Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 237; Pratt 1968) – Named for the Hudson River with which it is connected physiographically.

Hudson Canyon Delta (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) –

Hudson Deep-Sea Fan (Menard1964) – Named for association with Hudson Canyon.

Hudson Fan (Pratt 1968) –

Hudson River Fiord (Lindenkohl 1885) – Variant name for Hudson Canyon.  Although presupposed in the work of Pourtales (Pourtales 1870), the existence of the Hudson Canyon was not definitively proven until 1884 when the Coast Survey Ship ALEXANDER DALLAS BACHE conducted sounding operations following the mud-holes and trace of what Lindenkohl termed the Hudson Submarine Valley to the edge of the continental slope southeast of New York Harbor. 

Hudson Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 8, 27-28, 31, 58, 72) –

Hudson Submarine Channel (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 8) –

Hudson Submarine Delta (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 28, 78) –

Hudson Submarine Valley (Lindenkohl 1885; Tolstoy 1951, p. 443) – The remnants of the submerged river valley on the continental shelf extending out from New York Harbor to the edge of the continental shelf.  Numerous features termed “mud-holes” were discovered during Coast Survey operations off New York Harbor in 1842 and 1844 that lie along the axis of the submarine valley. In Tolstoy, the name refers to the continuation of the Hudson canyon in the area east of the continental slope in the abyss.  Thus, the same name refers to two distinctly different features. 

Hudson Submarine Canyon (Tolstoy 1951) –

Hueneme Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941; Chart I) – Named for proximity to Port Hueneme. This canyon was discovered in 1855 as the result of Coast Survey sounding operations.  It is possibly the first seafloor canyon discovered anywhere and recognized as such.   

Hueneme-Mugu Submarine Fan (Menard1964) –

Hueneme Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, pp. 80, 87) – “The first discovery of a distinct valley in the submerged surface of the earth bordering the coast of California was made in 1855 by the U.S. Coast Survey.” A variant of Hueneme Canyon.

Hunter Island Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Hydro Cone (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for the science of hydrography that made possible the discovery of this cone.  An alternate possibility is that this feature was named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER which conducted surveys  in the Aleutians in 1943 during the retaking of Attu from the Japanese.  “HYDRO” was a common nick-name for this vessel.

Hydrographer Basin (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Basin Map Named for the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER which conducted surveys in this area during the late 1930’s under John C. Mattison and Charles K. Green.

Hydrographer Canyon (Veatch and Smith 1934, Chart IV; Murray 1947,  Figure 2; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7; Pratt 1968) – Named for the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER which conducted surveys in this area during the early 1930’s.

Hydrographer Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 45-46) –



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I

Iberia Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 57, 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – Named for geographic association with the Iberian Peninsula.  “For Cape Verde, Iberia, and Newfoundland abyssal plains we have followed the name Wust (1940b) proposed for the basin within which the plains lie.” Located west of Spain and Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean. Connected with the Biscay Abyssal Plain by the Theta Gap. Apparently receives much of its sediment from the Biscay Abyssal Plain and from large canyons off the coast of Portugal.

Iberia Basin (Grim 1992) – Vaca Basin Map.  A small basin in the Gulf of Mexico named for association with New Iberia, Louisiana. The basin is located due south of Iberia Parish.

Iberia Basin (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1) – Same basin as noted by Cherkis et al.

Iberian Basin (Cherkis, Fleming, and Feden 1973) – A basin north of the Azores Ridge and east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge named for geographic association with the Iberian Peninsula.

Iceland-Faeroe Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Island-Faroerschelf is Krummel nomenclature.

Iceland-Greenland Ridge (Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53) – Extends between Iceland and Greenland.

Iceland-Greenland Trough (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – Situated on the north side of Iceland.

Iceland Plateau (Murray 1895; Krummel 1907, p. 103) – Named for geographic association with Iceland. Islandplateau is Krummel nomenclature.

Inagua Gap (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) –

India Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) –  “The India Abyssal Plain occupies an area 100,000 mi2 of the eastern Arabian Sea.”

Indian-Antarctic Basin (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 254, 257) – A name given by Schott (1902) and followed by Mawson in 1930. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).  Named Eastern Indian-Antarctic Basin by Herdman, page 260.

Indian-Antarctic Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 258; Menard1964) –  “A broad ridge rising from a general depth of 2000 fm. and extending from about 50S  120E to the Balleny Is.  Name proposed by Schott (1902)….”

India-Australian Basin (Fairbridge 1954) –

Indian-Antarctic Ridge (Menard1964) –

Indian Basin (Supan 1899) – Referred to as Indisches Becken in Supan nomenclature.

Indian-South Polar Basin (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Name given by Schott in 1935. 

Indisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Ingenstrom Depression (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Ingenstrom Rocks which were named for the Finn Erik Ingenstrom who worked for the Russian American Company in the late 1820’s as a pilot and hydrographer.

Ingenstrem Depression (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Variant spelling of “Ingenstrom” Depression. 

Inner Marianas Trough (Hess 1948) –

International Deep (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Variant name for Puerto Rico Trench.

Investigator Channel (Sewell 1940, p. 85) – “To the immediate east of this ridge [Ninetyeast Ridge], between it and the Nicobar Islands is a deep channel, that was originally termed “Investigator Deep’; as, however, the maximum depth at the mouth of this channel is considerably less than 3000 fathoms it is not permissible to term this a “deep,” but I would suggest that it be known as “Investigator channel.” (Sewell 1940, p. 85)

Investigator Deep (Sewell 1940, p. 85) – “To the immediate east of this ridge [Ninetyeast Ridge], between it and the Nicobar Islands is a deep channel, that was originally termed “Investigator Deep’; as, however, the maximum depth at the mouth of this channel is considerably less than 3000 fathoms it is not permissible to term this a “deep,” but I would suggest that it be known as “Investigator channel.” (Sewell 1940, p. 85)

Irish Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 112) – Irischen Schelf.
 
Isabella Bank (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1895 ….,, p. 12; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – Sounded on by H.M.S. WATERWITCH on September 28, 1895.  Least depth of 12 fathoms observed at 12 24 S 177 25 W.  Isabella Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 24 S 177 24 W with a least depth of 22 meters.

Iselin Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256, 257) – Named for Columbus Iselin of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution by Roos who worked up bathymetry of the second Byrd Antarctic Expedition which commenced in September 1933. Shown on  U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Islandischer Rucken (Supan 1899) –

Iwabuchi Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths….1899…., p. 3) – First sounded on by H.M.S. EGERIA on 26 June 1899.  A depth of 1587 fathoms was observed at 42 04.9 N 132 43.0 W. Not named by the EGERIA.

Izu-Bonin Trench (Dietz 1954) –



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J

Jacques Swell (Murray 1947 Plate V ) – Named for Navy Lieutenant W. H. Jacques who served on the Coast Survey Steamers BACHE and BLAKE which conducted surveys in this area between 1872 – 1874.

Jamaica Rise (Vaughn 1940, p. 67, 69) – “The Western Caribbean Sea is separated from the Eastern Caribbean by the Jamaica Rise from Honduras to Jamaica.”  Vaughn cites Gerhard Schott (1926) as the source of this name.

James Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Possibly named for association with Thurmond Knoll which was named for Commander James D. Thurmond of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

James Knoll (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Possibly named for association with James Basin.

Japan Basin (Murray 1895; Supan 1899; Wiseman and Ovey 1954 ) – Called the Japan Becken in Supan nomenclature. Named for geographic association with Japan.

Japan Becken (Supan 1899) –
 
Japan Graben (Supan 1899) – This is a variant of Japan Trench.
 
Japan Sea Basin (Dietz 1954) –

Japan Trench (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948; Fisher 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Dietz 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958; Menard1964) – Named for proximity to Japan.  Japan Graben was Supan nomenclature while Krummel noted Japangraben with a maximum depth of 8513 meters.

Jaseur-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 20 27S 36 07W 60m.  A pre-existing name.  There were a number of British Royal Navy vessels named HMS JASEUR.

Jasper Seamount (Menard1955, p. 1160; Menard1964) – Named for the USS JASPER which was acquired by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1941 and used by the Division of War Research.  The USS JASPER was turned over to Scripps and renamed STRANGER (built as a yacht but turned over to the Navy, this was its original name when built in 1939) at the end of WWII.

Java Ridge (Fairbridge 1954) – Named for proximity to island of Java.

Java Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88, 89, 92) – A variant of Java Trench.  Notes use of Java Trough by Tydeman in 1922.  Van Riel discusses the Java Trough: “In the adjacent part of the Indian Ocean the eastern part of the Java Trough appears on the annexed chart, limited by the isobath of 6000 metres.  Here a greatest depth of 7545 m. has been recorded at 110 Long. E., south of the island of Java.  When taking as limit the isobath of 5000 m., an elongated depression, running parallel to the islands of Sumatra and Java and the row of smaller islands eastward, extends between the Meridians of 95 and 120 E.  This depression has been named also the Soenda Trough in previous publications.  In accordance with the position of the deepest part I recommend to use the expression Java Trough, the more so as the name Java is better known internationally.”  

Java Trench (Barker 1892; Murray 1895; List of Oceanic Depths….1907…., pp. 19-20; Koczy, F.F. 1954; Fairbridge 1954; Menard1964 ) –  First indications were obtained by U.S.S. ENTERPRISE , Albert Barker (1843-1916) commanding.  Murray named the Enterprise Deep.  Named for proximity to island of Java. Numerous soundings greater than 3000 fathoms obtained by C.S. MAGNET during April, July, October and November 1907.  A deepest depth observed was 3611 fathoms at 7 34 S 103 02.7 E.

Jeanerette Dome (Grim 1992) – Sweet Bank Map.

Jefferson Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map.

Jefferson Davis Mound (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Jeffrey Bank (Murray 1947 Plate II ) – Gulf of Maine, derivation of name unknown.  Dates to Seventeenth Century.

Jeffrey’s Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – 43 23 N68 40 W.

Jeffrey Ledge (Murray 1947,  Plate I, II) – Derivation of name unknown. Old name which appeared at least as early as 1675 on charts of the Gulf of Maine.

Jeffrey’s Ledge (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – 40 03 N 70 03 W.

Jeffrey Deep (Murray 1895) became Jeffreys Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – South  and west of Australia in the Great Australian Bight and halfway up the coast of western Australia.  Named for John Gwyn Jeffreys (1809-1885).

Jeffreys Deep (Petermann 1877; Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for John Gwyn Jeffreys (1809-1885). South  and west of Australia in the Great Australian Bight and halfway up the coast of western Australia.  Name not in use anymore.

Jeffrey’s Deep (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Named for John Gwyn Jeffreys (1809-1885). South  and west of Australia in the Great Australian Bight and halfway up the coast of western Australia.  Name not in use anymore.

Jimmu Seamount (Dietz 1954) – Named for Emperor Jimmu, the first emperor of the mythical period – date of reign around 600 B.C.E.

Jingo Seamount (Dietz 1954) – Name for Empress Jingo, the wife of Chuai and mother of Ojin.

Jones Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Captain Ernest Lester Jones, Director of the USC&GS from 1915-1929.  Colonel Jones, as he preferred to be called because of WWI Army service, conducted studies of Alaskan waters as Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries prior to becoming head of the C&GS.  He was a U.S. – Canada Boundary Commissioner as well.  He took an active interest in seeing that resources be devoted to surveying Alaskan waters to aid in its commercial development.  He served on the staff of General Pershing and was a founder and incorporator of the American Legion. 

Josephine Bank (Pourtales 1869, p. 224; Krummel 1907, p. 98 ; Murray and Hjort, p. 57) – “We obtained not unfrequently the curious living Crinoid Rhizocrinus lofotensis of Sars, found by him off the coast of Norway, obtained also recently by Carpenter and Thomson in the vicinity of the British Isles, and this summer by Smitt and Ljungmans on the newly discovered Josephine Bank, not far from the Azores.”  P. 225 – “Smitt and Ljungmans, in the Swedish frigate Josephine, dredged from the coast of Portugal to the Azores, and thus across the Atlantic Ocean to America.”  According to Krummel  Josephine Bank has a least depth of 150 meters at 36 40 N 14 06 W and has  1600 meters relief.  It was discovered by the Swedish Navy Corvette JOSEPHINE on July 2, 1869, during oceanographic operations.  This was the first seamount discovered as the direct result of oceanic exploration.

Josephine Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 78; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 36) – Named for the Swedish Corvette JOSEPHINE which discovered this feature in 1869 while conducting a scientific expedition in the North Atlantic.

Juan Fernandez Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with Juan Fernandez Island.

Juan Fernandez Ridge (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 127) – Juan Fernandez-Rucken by Supan nomenclature and Juan Fernandezrucken by Krummel nomenclature.

Juan Fernandez-Rucken (Supan 1899) –

Jutland Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 102) –



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K

Kamchatka Trench (Dietz 1954) – Variant name for Kuril Trench although Dietz differentiates between the Kuril Trench and the Kamchatka Trench.

Kanmu Seamount (Dietz 1954) – Named for Emperor Kanmu who reigned  from 781-806.

Kap-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 41 03S 6 20W 4091m.  German translation of Cape Basin.

Kapitan Spiess Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 54 44S 0 04E 412m . Variant of Spiess Seamount.  Captain Fritz Spiess of the German Navy was the originator of the concept of the METEOR Expedition.  Captain Spiess was commanding officer of the METEOR and, after the death of Alfred Merz, took over as the chief scientists as well. 

Kap-Mulde (Supan 1899) – Cape Trough, a variant of Cape Basin.

Kapverden-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – A depth of 5855 m observed at 11 14N 27 13W.  5855m.  Translated as Cape Verde Basin.

Karanka Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for an extinct Texas coast Indian tribe. Spelling should be corrected to Karankawa.  Vaca Basin Map

Karius Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Karolinen-Graben (Supan 1899) – An erroneous interpretation leading to a Caroline Trench.  An error was made by Supan in interpreting soundings to indicate an east-west trench on the north side of the Caroline Islands extending from the Challenger Deep on the west and running parallel to the north side of the Caroline Islands.

Kei Trench 6505m (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Keigraben in Krummel’s nomenclature. Sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN in 1893 discovering a depth of 6505 meters at 5 56.5 S 131 22.7 E. 

Keltie Deep (Murray 1912) – Named for Sir John Scott Keltie, geographer and colleague of John Murray.

Kelvin Banks (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – In Pratt, at least seven peaks comprise Kelvin Banks between 38 05N to 38 30N and 62 08W to 63 10W.

Kelvin Seamount (List of Oceanic Soundings….1918, p. 2;  1919, p. 2; Pratt 1968) –First sounded on in March and April of 1918 – ship not identified but most probably the Cable Ship Lord Kelvin.  Soundings noted in both 1918 and 1919 List were taken in March 1918.  Two shoal spots were noted at 38 50 N 64 04 W and 38 49.8N 64 04W with soundings of 920 fathoms and 970 fathoms respectively.

Kelvin Seamounts (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 77-78) – “An impressive row of large conical peaks runs from the vicinity of Georges Bank for 600 miles toward the northeast tip of the Bermuda Rise….”

Kelvin Seamount Group (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 72, 77-78; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 36) –

Kerguelen-Antarctic Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – A later name for the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge.

Kerguelen Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 120) – Kerguelen Mulde (meaning Kerguelen Trough) in Supan’s nomenclature and Kerguelenbecken in Krummel’s nomenclature. Variants of Crozet Basin.

Kerguelen Mulde (Supan 1899) –

Kerguelen Gaussberg Ridge
(MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255) – Named by Mawson in 1930 for a ridge extending in a southerly direction from Kerguelen Island.   This ridge had been inferred earlier from deep-sea temperature measurements.  The ridge was discovered by the S.Y. DISCOVERY during the British-Australian-New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition of 1929-31.  Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562(1947). Later referred to as the Kerguelen-Antarctic Ridge.  According to Herdman, “A broad ridge rising from a general depth of 1400 fm. and extending in a south-easterly direction from Iles de Kerguelen to approximately 63S 90E.  Name proposed by Larsen (1930) and Mawson (1930). …”  “One of the outstanding bathymetric discoveries of the British-Australian- New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition of 1929-31 on board S.Y. DISCOVERY was the confirmation of a ridge extending in a southerly direction from Kerguelen…. This was called by Mawson (1930) the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge.  A shallow sounding of 351 fm. On this ridge in 58 50 S 77 44 E was called the Banzare Rise.” According to MacIntosh,  “… ‘mid-Atlantic Ridge’ and ‘Kerguelen-Gaussberg’ Ridge,’ have gained such general acceptance that they need not be specified here.”  The Kerguelen Gaussberg Ridge extends from north of  Kerguelen Island towards the south-southeast towards the isolated volcanic cone of Gaussberg on the coast of Antarctica.

Kerguelen Plateau (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Name first used by Murray 1895, then Schott 1902.

Kerguelen Rise (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 120) – Kerguelen Schwellen in Supan’s nomenclature and  Kerguelenschwelle in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Kerguelen Schwellen (Supan 1899) –

Kerguelen Trough (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Name given by Supan 1899.

Kermadec Graben (Supan 1899) –

Kermadec Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Kermadec Tonga Trench (Menard1964) –

Kermadec Trench (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116, 126; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 252) – Kermadec Graben in Supan’s nomenclature and Kermadecgraben in Krummel’s nomenclature with a maximum observed depth of 9427 meters noted in Krummel.

Kermadec Trough (Menard1964) –

Kettle Bottom (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – 43 27N 69 12W.  Probably a descriptive name. 

Khayyam Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 14 17 107 02.  Named for Omar Khayyam (1048-1123) who besides being famed for wanting “a jug of wine, a loaf of bread, and thou” was a mathematician and astronomer.

King Peak Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 94) – A variant of Delgada Canyon. 

Kinmei Seamount (Dietz 1954) – An Emperor Seamount, named for Emperor Kinmei who reigned from 540-571.

Kiska Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with Kiska Island.

Kiska Deep (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with Kiska Island.

Kita Yamato Tai (Dietz 1954) – Reference to Niino (1935) as source of information.  Variant of North Yamato Ridge.

Kleberg Dome (Grim 1992) – Madre Map.

Kniffen Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Kodiak Seamount (Gibson 1960, Menard 1964) – Named for proximity to Kodiak Island.

Komandorski Ridge (Dietz 1954) – Named for geographic association with Komandorski (Commander) Islands.

Korallen Becken (Supan 1899) – Coral Basin, a variant of Coral Sea Basin.

Krech Deep (Murray 1899, Murray 1912) – Named for Captain Adalbert Krech of the VALDIVIA Expedition.

Kretensische Mulde (Supan 1899) (not shown on map) – Cretan Trough.

Krummel Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Located in the Peru-Chile Trench and centered approximately at 3N 76W.  Named for German oceanographer Otto Krummel (1854-1912) who was a pioneer in establishing seafloor terminology and nomenclature.

Krysi Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with Krysi Pass, between Sea Lion Rock and Rat Island. Krysi means rat in Russian.

Kupfer Mound (Grim 1992) – Anderson Basin Map.

Kuril Basin (Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Kurile-Kamchatka Trench (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 60) –

Kuril Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 251) –

Kurile Trench (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 251) –

Kuril Sea Basin (Dietz 1954) –

Kuril Trench (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard 1964 [spelled Kurile in gazetteer, p. 258]) –

Kurile Trench (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 251) –

Kurile-Kamchatka Trench (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 249) –

Kuril Ridge (Menard1964) –

Kyushu-Palau Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Dietz 1954) –



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Labrador Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934; Luskin, et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1; Pratt 1968) –

Labrador Becken -

Labrador Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

La Chapelle Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 108) – at approximately 47 40 N 7 20 W at the edge of the continental shelf 120 nm SW of Brest.

Ladrone Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with the Mariana Islands, first named the Ladrone Islands by Magellan.

LaFayette Mound (Grim 1992) – NOAA EEZ Central Slope Map.  Named for Lafayette, Louisiana.

Lahave Bank (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24) – Refers to Lehave Bank.

La Jolla Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941 Chart I) – Named for proximity to La Jolla, California.

Lalla Rookh Bank (List of Oceanic Soundings …. 1898…., p. 4; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960 ) – 12 55 S 175 37 W.  Sounded on by HMS PENGUIN with a least depth of 13 fathoms on October 16, 1897.  Note: there is an error in the List of Oceanic Soundings which indicates that this bank is in East Longitude.  There are a series of soundings that were taken along a specific sounding line, all of which have this error. Possibly named for Lord Kelvin’s yacht from which the first piano wire soundings were made in 1872, possibly named for the epic poem by Thomas Moore which was quite popular in the mid-Nineteenth Century, or an unknown ship named Lalla Rookh that was named for the poem.  Lalla Rookh Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 54 S 175 38 W with a least depth of 19 meters. [Note: Lalla Rookh Bank is shown on an 1872 map in Petermann’s so it at least dates from that year as a named feature.]

Lange Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Laplace Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 14 40  110 40 . Named for Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827), mathematician famed for work in calculus, probability, astronomy, and geophysical fluid dynamics.

La Rance Bank (List of Oceanic Soundings….1888…., p. 2-4) – Searched for by H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888.  Least depth of 279 fathoms observed at 24 21 S 175 50 W.  Pre-existing name.

La Salle Basin (Grim 1992) – Chalmette Basin Map.

Laskowski Seamount (Gibson 1960, Menard1964) – Named for Commander John Laskowski, USC&GS.

Laurentian Channel (Pratt 1968) –

Lau Ridge (List of Oceanic Soundings….1888…., p. 7; 1889…., p. 5) – H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888found a least depth of 265 fathoms at 20 17 178 32  W while examining “shoal patch” near Calinon Reef (a search for Calinon Reef over a wide area turned up a shoalest depth of 820 fathoms at 20 19 S 178 53 W ).  In May 1889 the EGERIA found a least depth of 278 fathoms at 23 34 S 178 48 W. 

LeBlank Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Lefacor Knoll (Elvers et al. 1967) – Proximity to Burdick Knoll and Taussig Seamount indicates this name is a misspelling.  Named for Ensign Frederick H. Lefavor who served with Ensign William Burdick and Lieutenant Commanding Edward Taussig on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship McARTHUR on the Washington coast in the early 1880’s. As for the term “Lefacor” a search of the Internet turns up no individual or even word of that spelling.

Leeuwin Sill (Fairbridge 1954) – Insufficient data existed to support this feature and it was stricken from the British listing of undersea features at a later date.

Leeward Ridge (Vaughn 1940, p. 62) – “It was agreed to substitute for these names Curacao Ridge and Los Roques Trench.”  A variant of Curacao Ridge.

Leeward Trough (Vaughn 1940, p. 62) –  “It was agreed to substitute for these names Curacao Ridge and Los Roques Trench.”  A variant of Los Roques Basin. 

Le Have Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67) – 43 07N 64W.

Leibnitz Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 16 50 110 12.  Named for Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) , a German philosopher and mathematician who was influential in developing differential and integral calculus.

Leipper Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Leonard Canyon  and Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Leonard Calvert, brother of the Second Lord Baltimore who acted as his brother’s representative in Maryland.

Leveque Rise -

Libbey Deep (Murray 1899, Murray1912) – Named for William Libbey (1855-1927) of Princeton University, first to receive the doctoral degree at that university in 1877, who made studies of the Gulf Stream among other accomplishments.  Libbey studied under Arnold Guyot.

Liberia Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Lindenkohl Basin (Murray 1947,  Plate V) – Named for Adolph Lindenkohl (1833-1904), Nineteenth Century hydrographer, cartographer, oceanographer, and bathymetrist who served 50 years with the Coast and Geodetic Survey and contributed to the literature on submarine features and physical oceanography.

Lindenkohl Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Adolph Lindenkohl (1833-1904), Nineteenth Century hydrographer, cartographer, oceanographer, and bathymetrist who served 50 years with the Coast and Geodetic Survey and contributed to the literature on submarine features and physical oceanography.

Lindenkohl Knoll (Murray 1947,  Plate V) – Named for Adolph Lindenkohl (1833-1904), Nineteenth Century hydrographer, cartographer, oceanographer, and bathymetrist who served 50 years with the Coast and Geodetic Survey and contributed to the literature on submarine features and physical oceanography.

Lisbon Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 37) –

Liszt Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Little Bahama Bank (Pratt 1968) – Located at 27N 77W.

Little George’s Bank (Coast Survey 1857) – Discovered and named by the Coast Survey vessel MORRIS under the command of Lieutenant Commanding C.R.P. Rodgers in 1857.  A variant of Little Georges.

Liukiu Trench 7066m (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – A variant of Ryukyu Trench. Krummel termed the feature Liukiugraben and noted a maximum depth of 7066 meters.

Lobachevskiy Seamount - one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958)  16 29 109 04  Named for Russian physicist, astronomer, educator, and mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevskiy (1792-1856).

Lomonosov Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 27) –

Long Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941) – Apparently named for its appearance.

Longhorn Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Lord Howe Rise (List of Oceanic Soundings….1889…., p. 5;Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) – First sounded on by H.M.S. EGERIA in April 1889.  Least depth of 496 fathoms observed at 33 41 S 163 14 W.  Not named by EGERIA.

Los Coronados Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 102) – A variant of Coronado Canyon.

Los Roques Trench (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 11 40N 67W.

Louisa Bank - 11 45 S 175 55 E with least depth of 162 fathoms obtained by H.M.S. PENGUIN.  Name doesn’t appear in record and it doesn’t appear development made and no indication that PENGUIN searched further for a least depth. 

Lucia Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941) – Named for proximity to Santa Lucia Range, Chart II.

Luymes Ridge (van Riel 1940, p. 91) – “The eastern part of the rise separating the Northern and Southern Banda Basin has a complicated bottom configuration.  On the north-western edge, south of the island of Boeroe, a depth of about 530 metres below the surface (the Luymes Ridge).  On the south-eastern edge, the previous Siboga Ridge, represented on Tydeman’s chart, appears to consist of at least two elongated ridges, ranged ‘en echelon’ and separated by a passage at a depth of over 4000 metres.”

Lydonia Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Murray 1947, Figure 2; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 44; Pratt 1968) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship LYDONIA which conducted surveys in this area in the 1930’s in company with the OCEANOGRAPHER and HYDROGRAPHER.

Lynn Guyot (Menard1964) –

Lyons Basin (Grim 1992) – Chalmette Basin Map.



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M

Macquarie-Balleny Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 258) – “A ridge extending, with some gaps, from Macquarie I. to Balleny Is. It joins the Indian-Antarctic Ridge at about 60S. Name proposed by the British Committee….”

Macquarie Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – Named by Schott in 1935 and also suggested by Mosby.

Madeira Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 58, 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320-321; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – “The great abyssal plain which skirts Madeira on the east and south and extends over a vast area to the west is referred to as the Madeira Abyssal Plain.” (Heezen et al. 1959)  “From Gibraltar to Cape Verde a vast abyssal plain of 200,000 mi2 parallels the wide continental rise of Africa…. Northeast of the Canary Islands, continental rise gradients of greater than 1:1000 reach the abyssal hills and provide a natural boundary between the Cape Verde and Madeira Abyssal Plains.”  (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320-321).

Madeira Rise (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 58, 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320) – Named for geographic association with the island of Madeira.

Magallanes Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Magdalena Canyon (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 256) –

Magdalena Cone (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331) – “The Colombia Basin is floored by the well developed Colombia Abyssal Plain, which spreads out from the foot of the Magdalena Cone.”

Magdalenen Becken (Vaughn 1940, p. 77) – Vaughn reports on the use of this term meaning Magdalenan Basin.  This term is a variant of Colombian Basin.

Magellan Seamount Group (Dietz 1954, pp. 1211-1212; Menard 1964) – “The name Magellan Seamounts is provisionally applied to the group inasmuch as no good geographic name can be applied and the use of historical personages is in conformance with other names in the region – e.g., Caroline, Marshall, and Gilbert.  Magellan, of course, was the first explorer to cross these waters en route to his discovery of the Marianas.”

Makaroff Deep (Petermann 1877) – Petermann 1877 named Makaroff Deep in the Pacific Ocean.

Makaroff Deep (Murray 1899) – Named for Vice-Admiral Stepan Makaroff (1848 – 1904), Imperial Russian Navy, Commander of the VITIAZ during its around the world cruise of 1886-1889.  This deep is located in the north central Atlantic Ocean and is not related to the present-day Makarov Basin in the Arctic Ocean. Petermann 1877 named Makaroff Deep in the Pacific Ocean.

Makassar Basin (Supan 1899) – Makassar Becken was Supan’s nomenclature.

Makassar Basin (Supan 1899) –

Makassar Trough (van Riel 1934, Chart XI; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Makassar Trough is located in Makassar Strait.

Malagassy Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) – “The Malagassy Abyssal Plain lies between approximately 12 and 25S and extends over approximately 3 degrees of longitude.”

Mangole Basin (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Manipa Basin (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Manning Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) –  Probably named for the USCG Cutter MANNING (1898-1930) which served on ice patrol duty in the North Atlantic following the First World War.  Also a sister ship to the YAMACRAW, a vessel used by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Mansfield Dome (Grim 1992) – Madre Map.

Mansyu Deep (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948) – Named for the Japanese research vessel MANSYU which sounded this deep with piano wire.

Manzanillo Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Krummel placed the Manzanillograben as a segment of the Middle America Trench centered at  19 N and reported a greatest depth of 5122m.

Marblehead Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 7, p. 26) – A fishing bank at 44 05 N 67 05 W as approximately determined from chart.

Marchand Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Lieutenant (j.g.) George M. Marchand (1901-1939), USC&GS, who served on the ships DISCOVERER, GUIDE, PIONEER, and SURVEYOR in Alaskan waters as well as having served on East Coast ships and field parties as well.

Marcus-Necker Rise (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958;Menard1964) – Necker Island named by La Perouse in 1786 for Jacques Necker, French Minister of Finance under Louis XVI. The most likely candidate for re-discovering and naming Marcus Island seems to be Captain Obed Shearman on the MARCUS of Fairhaven in about 1839, but an entry in a log has yet to be found.  In: The Journal of Pacific History, Sept. 1997.  On-line article at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2375/is_n2_v32/ai_20554493/pg_2 

Marcus-Wake Seamount Group (Dietz 1954) –

Marcus-Wake Seamounts (Menard1964) –

Mariana Basin (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for proximity to Mariana Islands.

Mariana Ridge (Dietz 1954) –

Marianas Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard 1964) –

Mariana Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Dietz 1954) – Marianengraben in Krummel’s nomenclature.  Krummel noted a greatest depth of 9636 as was known in 1907.  Named for proximity to Mariana Islands.

Marianas Trench (Hess 1948; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 251; Menard1964 ) –

Maria Theresa Reef (Menard1964) –

Marie Seamount (Menard, H. W., 1964) –

Marmara Basin (Supan 1899) – Marmara-Becken in Supan’s nomenclature.

Marmara-Becken (Supan 1899) –

Marquesas Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Marquesas Islands.

Marquesas Fracture Zone (Menard1964) –

Marquis-Necker Rise (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 275) – A misspelled variant of Marcus-Necker Ridge.

Marshall Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Marshall Islands.

Marvin Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 27) –

Mascarene Bank (Sewell 1940, p. 84) –

Mascarene Basin (Sewell 1940, p. 84) – In the Indian Ocean between the Mascarene Ridge and the east coast of Madagascar.

Mascarene Ridge (Sewell 1940, p. 83) –

Mascarene Rise (Supan 1899) – Maskarenen-Schwelle in Supan’s nomenclature.  A variant of Mascarene Plateau.

Maskarenen-Schwelle (Supan 1899) –

Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958; Menard 1964) – ”The Mathematicians Seamount Range, discovered and explored in the course of this investigation. A group of high seamounts are separated by deep, narrow troughs. The range is named after the example of the Presidential Range in New England and the Emperor Seamount Range in the North Pacific.”

Matinicus Sou Sou West (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – A fishing bank at 43 38 N 68 53 W.

Mattison Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for Captain John C. Mattison, commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER, Mitchell Basin Map.

Mattole Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart IV) – Named for association with Mattole River.

Maud Bank (Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 255, 258) – Discovered by the NORVEGIA during its last cruise to the Antarctic (1930-31) by a sounding of 656 fathoms in 65 00S 02 35E and called “Maud Bank after Amundsen’s ship.”

Maury Channel (Cherkis, Fleming, and Feden 1973) – “Maury Channel is a 3,500-km-long, erosional/depositional feature” extending from the Faeroe-Iceland Ridge to the Iberian Basin.

Maury Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN up until 1861, thence Confederate Navy until end of Civil War in 1865.  An oceanographer, astronomer, and scientist.
 
Mawson Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – North of Adelie Coast.  Named for Sir Douglas Mawson, formerly the Australian authority on Antarctica. 

Mayo Swell (Murray 1947 Plate III) – Named for either Passed Midshipman William K. Mayo (? – 1900) who served on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in this area in the early 1850’s or  Henry Thomas Mayo (1856-1937), who commanded the U.S. Atlantic Fleet from June 1916 and continued to hold the position following America's entry into World War One in April 1917.

McArthur Reef (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer MCARTHUR and first described in the 1906 Coast Pilot.  The ship was named for Lieutenant William Pope McArthur, USN, pioneer hydrographer for the Coast and Geodetic Survey on the West Coast of the United States in the early 1850’s.

McFarlan Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

McIntire Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Melanesian Border Plateau (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Melanesian Rise (Menard1964) –

Mendell Knoll (Elvers et al. 1967) – Origin of name unknown.  Possibly a corruption of Mendenhall for Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, seventh superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mendelssohn Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Mendocino Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941) – Named for association with Cape Mendocino, Chart IV.

Mendocino Fracture Zone (List of Oceanic Depths ….1899…., p. 3; Murray 1938; Menard, H. W., 1955; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23; Menard 1964) – Named for association with Cape Mendocino. This “fracture zone was the first discovered in the northeastern Pacific….” (p. 1162)  The easternmost extension of this fracture zone, now called the Gorda Escarpment, had been surveyed by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between 1935 and 1938.  The first map of this feature was published by Harold Murray in the Coast and Geodetic Survey Field Engineers Bulletin in 1938.  First crossed over by the H.M.S. EGERIA on June 28-29, 1898, while running to the southwest.  General depths of 2200 fathoms dropped to approximately 2800 fathoms while proceeding to the Southwest.  The EGERIA made a second crossing of the Mendocino Fracture Zone on October 12, 1899, at approximately 139 W longitude.  First contoured and named by Harold W. Murray of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and published in the Field Engineer’s Bulletin of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Mendocino Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12; Menard1964) – Probably first noted by George Belknap on the TUSCARORA.

Mendocino Scarp, Mendocino Escarpment (Dietz, et al. 1954) –

Mendocino Seascarp (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Mentawie Basin (Supan 1899; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 89) – Mentawie Becken in Supan’s nomenclature. By van Riel,  “The names “Mentawei Basin” for the area with more than 1600 m. depth between Sumatra and the Mentawei Islands….” This name was introduced by the Valdivia expedition.

Mentawie Becken (Supan 1899) –

Mentawei Deep ( van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 89) – ”…the name ‘Mentawei Deep’ for the typical sinking of the bottom on the oceanic side of the islands fronting the south-west coast of Sumatra, with depths over 5000 m….” This name was introduced by the Valdivia Expedition.”

Mentawei Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Mentaweigraben sounded by the VALDIVIA at 4 23 S 99 43 E with a depth of 5664 meters.

Mermentau Basin (Grim 1992) – Worzel Basin Map.

Merriam Ridge (National Research Council 1930, p. 79) – “’Merriam Ridge’ in about latitude 25 south and longitude 82 west being about 10 miles across and 3,000 meters higher than the surrounding ocean bed….” A variant of Merriam Spur.

Merz Seamount (Stocks 1937) – Alfred Merz Hohe by Stocks 1937 and Maurer and Stocks 1933. Named for Alfred Merz (1880-1925), Director of the Meereskunde in Berlin and planner, organizer, and chief scientist  of the METEOR Expedition.  Unfortunately, Merz passed away in 1925 in Buenos Aires at the beginning of the expedition.

Meteor Deep (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks 1937) – Meteor Tiefe in the South Sandwich Trench at 55 07S 26 46W with a depth of 8264m.

Meteor-Bank (Kap Schwelle) (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 47 52S 09 00E  560m.. Named for the German research vessel METEOR.

Meteor Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks 1937) – Meteor Hohe.  Named for the German research vessel METEOR. Meteor-Bank by Maurer and Stocks 1933. Also associated with Cape Rise (Kap Schwelle) by Maurer and Stocks.  Located at 47 52S 09 00E  560m by METEOR expedition.

Mexican Basin (Vaughn 1940, p. 66; Krummel 1907, p. 130) – Mexikanischen Becken in Krummel’s nomenclature.  A variant of Mexico Basin in the central Gulf of Mexico.

Mexicanisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Mexico Basin (Murray 1895) – In the central Gulf of Mexico and named for geographic association with Mexico.

Mey Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (May) who explored the lower Delaware River in 1614 and was first governor or Director of New Netherlands 1624-1625.  Cape May, New Jersey is also named after him.  This canyon was listed as “Manasquan” by Shepard (1938).

Michael Seamount (Northrop and Frosch 1954; Northrop et al. 1962) – Named Seamount Michael for Project Michael of the Columbia University Hudson Laboratories.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Tolstoy 1951; Heezen et al. 1954; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 100, 102, 107; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 22, Fig. 36) –  According to MacIntosh, by 1940, the names  “… ‘mid-Atlantic Ridge’ and ‘Kerguelen-Gaussberg’ Ridge,’ have gained such general acceptance that they need not be specified here.”

Mid-Atlantic Ridge (List of Oceanic Depths 1895, p. 31) – Anglo American Telegraph Company’s Steamship MINIA encounters complex topography in vicinity of Mid-Atlantic Ridge with fairly closely spaced soundings.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rift Valley (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 1, 84, 90-94) –

Middle America Trench (Heacock and Worzel, 1955; Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 60; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 25; Menard1964; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 3) –

Middle Reef (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) –  Reef first described in 1944 Coast Pilot as result of Coast and Geodetic Survey ship surveys in the western Aleutian Islands.  South of Buldir Island and west of Kiska Island.

Mid-Indian Ridge (Fairbridge 1954; Menard 1964) –

Mid-Ocean Canyon (Heezen et al. 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Pratt 1968) – A variant of Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Canyon.

Mid-Ocean Canyon No. 2 (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 71-72; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Pratt 1968) – Located at 38 40 N 61 W.  A channel between seamounts on the Sohm Plain.

Mid-Oceanic Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 270) – “The greatest topographic feature of the sea floor is an essentially continuous median elevation extending through the Altantic, Indian, Antarctic and South PacificOceans for a total distance of over 30,000 miles…. This median elevation, known as the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, is essentially a broad, fractured swell occupying the center third of the ocean….”

Mid-Pacific Mountains (Dietz, et al. 1954; Dietz 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 268; Menard 1964) – A topographically high region extending from Necker Island in the Hawaiian Islands to the vicinity of 170 E Longitude.  Named for geographic location in the mid-Pacific Ocean south of the Hawaiian Islands. Discovered on the U. S. Navy Mid-Pacific Expedition of 1950.  This cruise obtained the first extensive recorded profile ever obtained of the Pacific Basin.

Mid-Pacific Seamountains (Menard1964) –

Mid-Pacific Swell (Dietz, et al. 1954) –

Mill Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) –

Miller Deep (Petermann 1877; Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Pacific Ocean.

Miller Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899) –

Miller Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for James Blaine Miller (1883-1915), USC&GS, a promising young officer who commanded survey ships in both the Philippines and Alaska.  While in command of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship PATTERSON, he was instrumental in saving crewmen from the Coast Guard Cutter TAHOMA which had struck an uncharted rock in the Aleutians in 1914.  He was a passenger on the LUSITANIA in May 1915 when it was struck and sunk by a German torpedo off the coast of Ireland.  He was among approximately 1,200 passengers and crew to perish in the attack.

Milne Bank (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, p. 1530) –

Milne-Edwards Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Alphonse Milne-Edwards.

Milne Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 79) –
 
Milwaukee Depth (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Milwaukee Seamounts (National Research Council 1930, p. 40) – Although not named in the reference, the source of the name is made apparent.  “U.S.S. MILWAUKEE – While crossing the North PacificOcean from Yokohama to Honolulu and thence to Panama, May 13 to June 15, 1929, measured 645 sonic soundings and discovered a submarine peak culminating in 32 28 N. – 171 55 E.”

Mindanao Trench (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948) – Named for proximity to Mindanao Island, Philippines.

Mindanao Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88, 91-92) – This feature is a variant for the Philippine Trench.  Named for proximity to Mindanao, Philippine Islands.  Early variants are discussed by van Riel (1940) and include Talaud Trough, Mindanao-Talaud Trough, Talauer Graben, and Philippinen Graben.  The term Talaud Trough as now used refers to a smaller trough east of the Talaud islands which is located between the Talaud Islands and the southern end of the Philippine Trench.

Minia Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths, 1903…. Pp. 7-9; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fleming, Cherkis, and Heirtzler, 1970, p. 41) – 53 02 N 34 51 W.  Numerous peaks in the vicinity of Minia Seamount were sounded on by the Cable Ship MINIA of the Anglo-American Cable Company in 1903.  Captain Squares de Carteret named three peaks in the area Mt Adams at 53 05 N 35 00 W with 938 fathoms; Bunker Hill Rock at 53 17 N 35 02 W with 994 fathom sounding; and 53 21 N 35 10 W with least depth of 633 fathoms Mt. DeCarteret.  He also named Mt. Annette at 53 08 N 35 29 W and 773 fathoms; Mt. Angela at 53 10 N 35 33 W and 832 fathoms; Mt. Bevan at 53 08.7 N 35 42 W and 844 fathoms; and Mt. Carson at 53 14.0 N  35 44 W and 872 fathoms.  These features appear to be associated with the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and the Reykjanes Ridge. Minia Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 53 21 N 35 10 W with a least depth of 1157 meters.  Discovered in 1903. 

Misaine Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67) – A fishing bank at  45 12N 59W as located on Chart No. 4.

Mississippi Cone (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 330; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

Mistaken Ledge (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – A fishing bank at 43 17N 69 12W as located on Chart No. 8.

Misteriosa Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Mitchell Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for NOAA Ship Mt. Mitchell which discovered this feature and mapped much of the Texas Louisiana slope with multi-beam sounding systems and precise navigation.  Mitchell Basin Map.

Mitchell Dome (Grim 1992) –  Named for NOAA Ship Mt. Mitchell which discovered this feature and mapped much of the Texas Louisiana slope with multi-beam sounding systems and precise navigation. Mitchell Dome Map.

Mitchell Escarpment (Jordan1962,  p. 12) – South of the Florida Keys and named for Assistant Henry Mitchell of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, who conducted studies of the Gulf Stream near here in 1867.

Mobile Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.  Named for proximity to the city of Mobile, Alabama.

Mocambique-Schwelle (Supan 1899) –

Mohn Transverse Ridge (Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53) – Named for Henrik Mohn (1835-1916), founder of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and leader of the Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition of 1876-1878. Separates the Greenland Basin from the  Norwegian Basin. 

Molokai Fracture Zone (Menard, H. W., 1964) –

Monaco Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for the principality of Monaco, home of the great Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century oceanographer and philanthropist Prince Albert I of Monaco.

Montague-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 20 22S 36 41W 67m.  A pre-existing name.  Many ships of the British Royal Navy were known as HMS MONTAGUE. 

Monterey Canyon (Bache, A. D., Report of the Superintendent ... 1857. p. 112-113.;  Davidson 1897; Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941 Chart III; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12; Menard 1964) – Named for association with Monterey Bay.  Submarine canyons were first discovered as a result of Coast Survey sounding operations. Monterey Canyon, off the coast of central California, was the second of these features to be discovered. The discovery was reported in the 1857 Report of the Superintendent ...: “At the close of the last surveying season the hydrographic party of Commander Alden was engaged in Monterey bay and completed the soundings north of Point Pinos, including the entire bay, and extending to a line three miles west of Santa Cruz harbor.... He thus referred to a peculiarity observed in the hydrography of Monterey bay. “It will be perceived, by referring to the general chart of the bay, that there is a deep sub-marine valley, or ‘gulch,’ directly in the middle of it, wide at the mouth, (taking the fifty fathom curve,) but narrowing very much as it approaches the shore, where deep water is found close to the very beach, and we discovered that this was the only practicable landing throughout the exposed portions of the bay.” Commander Alden, who commanded the Coast Survey Steamer ACTIVE for much of the 1850's, noted a similar feature in the Santa Barbara Channel: “It will be seen by the chart of the east entrance of Santa Barbara channel that there is a similar characteristic off Port Hueneme, where the deep water approaches the shore, and where we also found the best landing.” Hueneme Canyon was discovered in 1855. Alden also independently discovered the continental shelf break off the Farallon Islands in the late 1850’s. (References to both submarine canyons are in: Bache, A. D., Report of the Superintendent ... 1857. p. 112-113).

Monterey Deep-Sea Fan (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) –

Monterey Fan (Menard1964) –

Monterey Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 92) – A variant of Monterey Canyon.

Monterey Trough (Shepard and Emery 1941 Chart III) – Named for association with Monterey Bay.
 
Moonless Mountains (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 261; Menard1964) – “South of the regular ridges and troughs [of the Murray Fracture Zone], is a great range of submarine volcanoes called the Moonless Mountains because none of them has ever been above sea-level, although several are more than 3000m high.” (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 261).

Moore Basin (Murray 1895) –

Moore Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map.

Moore Seamount (Menard1964) –

Moresby Channel (Shepard, F. P., 1963) –

Moresby Seavalley (Gibson 1960) – Named for proximity to Moresby Island, the major southern island of the Queen Charlotte Island group.

Morgan Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Mornington Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 326) –  “A small plain of about 10,000 mi2 lies west of Mornington Island, Chile between about 48 and 52S.” 

Morotai Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart VI; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Morotai Basin is to the north of the island of Morotai.

J. Morton Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander Jeremiah Morton ( 1901-1955), USC&GS, served on numerous C&GS vessels in Alaskan waters.  During WWII he was transferred to the Marine Corps and served as artillery surveyor at the Battle of Saipan for which he was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with Combat V.

T. Morton Seamount (Gibson 1960) – No information other than in close proximity to J. Morton Seamount and the two are collectively termed “The Mortons” by Captain Gibson in this paper.

Moseley Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Henry Nottidge Moseley, a scientist with the CHALLENGER Expedition.

Moser Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for United States Naval Officer Jefferson Moser who conducted surveys for both the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and with the United States Fish Commission on the Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS  in Alaskan waters.

Moser Seamount (Menard1964) – Named for naval officer Jefferson Moser who served with both the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and with the United States Fish Commission on the Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS  in Alaskan waters.

Mosquito Coast Plateau (Vaughn 1940, p. 63) – “The Mosquito Plateau shelves very gently towards the east, and forms an irregular triangular plateau uniting Jamaica at the five-hundred-fathom line with Honduras.”

Mouchoir Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Mozambique Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) – “The Mozambique Abyssal Plain sloping north to south between approximately 28 and 34S lies between 37 and 40E to the south of the Mozambique Channel.”

Mozambique Rise (Supan 1899) – A variant of Mozambique Plateau.  Mocambique-Schwelle was Supan’s nomenclature. 

Mozart Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – A seamount in the Musicians Seamounts.

Mud-Holes (Pourtales 1870) – Holes in the offshore channel leading from New York Harbor entrance to Hudson Canyon.

Mugu Canyon (Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Point Mugu.

Muir Seamount (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, p. 1533; Tolstoy 1951, p. 444; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 76; Northrop et al. 1962; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 22) – Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, “This sea mount was originally discovered by the U.S.S. MUIR on its cruise from Philadelphia to Dakar in 1945.”

Muir Seamount Group (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 76; Pratt 1968) – Located at  34N 62 40W.  Discovered by USS MUIR in 1945.

Mukluk Channel (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 324; Shepard, F. P., 1963) –  This is an interplain channel  which with the Horizon Channel passes through a broad abyssal gap connecting the Tufts Plain to the lower-lying Aleutian Abyssal Plain to the west.  This feature was named for Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mukluk Expedition of 1956.

Murray Basin (Murray 1947 Plate III) – Named for Lieutenant Commanding Alexander Murray 1816-1884, naval officer, who commanded the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB on surveys offshore in the Gulf of Maine in 1858 and 1859.  Murray was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 ; died in Washington, D. C., 10 November, 1884, entered the United States navy in 1835, became lieutenant in 1847, commander in 1862, captain in 1866, commodore in 1871, and rear-admiral on the retired list in 1876. He was in service on the East coast of Mexico in 1846-'7, participated in the capture of Alvarado, where he was wounded, and fought at Tampico, Tobasco, Tuspan, and Vera Cruz. He commanded the steamer "Louisiana," of the North Atlantic squadron, in 1861-'2, defeated the Confederate steamer " Yorktown" off Newport News, fought the battle of Roanoke Island, destroyed the Confederate fleet under Captain William F. Lynch, was in charge of the naval forces at Kingston, North Carolina, and the expedition up York and Pamunkey rivers, destroying twenty-seven vessels in May, 1862. He was on duty in the North Carolina sounds in 1863, and on special service in 1866-'7, was light-house inspector in 1873-'6, and after retirement served on the naval board. 

Murray Deep (Murray 1899, Murray  and Hjort 1912; Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for Sir John Murray of the CHALLENGER by Sir John Murray of the CHALLENGER.  A large area north of the Hawaiian Islands which subsequent soundings showed to be smaller than originally believed. This shrinking deep was named by Sir John Murray for himself and ultimately disappeared from bathymetric maps of the Pacific Ocean. 
  
Murray Fracture Zone (Menard1955, p. 1164; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23; Menard 1964) – Named for the “Murray Deep, the only well-known related geographical feature in the Pacific.” The Murray Deep in turn was named by Sir John Murray for himself.

Murray Guyot (Menard1964) – A variant of Murray Seamount.  In Menard 1964, Menard uses both names to refer to the same feature. Named for Harold W. Murray, pioneer Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetrist.

Murray Ridge (Gibson and Nichols 1953) – In the Gulf of Alaska. Named for Harold W. Murray, pioneer Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetrist.

Murray Ridge (Sewell 1940, p. 83, 84) – “As regards the nomenclature to be applied to these features, I agree that in the main geographical names should be adopted, but at the same time it seems desireable that personal names or those of ships or scientific Institutions should be retained  for isolated portions of such features, especially portions of the submarine ridges, where these names commemorate the participation of such individuals,  Institutions or ships in the discovery of the particular feature, e.g., the Murray Ridge, discovered by the John Murray Expedition, the Carlsberg Ridge first indicated by the “Dana” Expedition, financed by the Carlsberg Institution, etc.”  (p. 83)

Murray Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for cartographer Harold W. Murray (?-1948) of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.  He was a pioneer in the field of detailed bathymetric mapping and was the first to discover flat-topped seamounts –later called guyots - , the first to map the eastern extension of the Mendocino Fracture Zone, the first to map the configuration of a trench in detail with his mapping of  the Aleutian Trench, the first to  map the Gulf of Maine in detail, the first to map the eastern Gulf of Mexico in detail, and the first to map Davidson Seamount off the coast of California.  It was probably he who was responsible for coining the term “seamount.” At least 25 features were named by Murray during the course of his career.

Murray Sea Valley (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Gates and Gibson 1956; Menard 1964) –  Named for Harold W. Murray, pioneer Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetrist.

Muscarene Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 265) – Variant of Mascarene Ridge.

Musician Seamounts (Menard1964) –

Mussorgski Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – A seamount in Musician Seamounts.

Myojin Reef (Dietz 1954) –

Mytilus Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel MYTILUS. Located at  39 15N 67 10W.



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N

Nahe des Antillen-Bogens (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 54 53S 40 41W 2214m.

Nahe Boavista (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 16 23N 22 57W 257m.

Nahe Bouvet-Insel (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 54 23S 3 26E 68m.

Nahe Cape Verde (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 14 40N 17 40W 448m.

Nahe Gough-Insel (Maurer and Stocks 1933)  - Profil 26;   40 26N 9 57W.  1540m.

Nahe St. Paul (Nordatlantischer Rucken) (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 0 47N 28 44W 2346m.

Nansei Shoto Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Nansei Shoto Trench (Hess 1948; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) – Known also as the Ryukyu Trench.

Nansei Shoto Trench (formerly the Ryukyu Trench (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Nansen Ridge (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – Named for Fridthof Nansen (1861-1930), great Norwegian polar explorer. “The existence of a ridge between the North Polar Basin and the Greenland Deep is inferred from oceanographic data…. Helland-Hansen and Nansen called this ridge the Spitsbergen-Greenland Ridge, but the writer has introduced the name The Nansen Ridge, considering it appropriate to link Nansen’s name with one of the outstanding topographical features of the Arctic area….” (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51)

Napier Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 15 45 110 48. Named for John Napier (1550-1617) the inventor of logarithms and the early calculating device known as Napier’s Bones.

Nares Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 57, 59; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317-318; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 14, fig. 22) – The abyssal plain south of the Bermuda Rise referred to as the ‘abyssal plain in the Nares Basin’ (Heezen et al. 1955; Luskin et al. 1954) is named … the Nares Abyssal Plain, also following the usage of Murray (1912), who named this area the Nares Deep.” “The Nares Plain lies south and southeast of the Bermuda Rise and is connected on the west by the Vema Gap to the Hatteras Abyssal Plain.  The Nares Abyssal Plain is the deepest of the broad abyssal plains of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin Floor.”  Named for Captain George Strong Nares (1831-1915), commanding officer of the CHALLENGER from 1872-1874 (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317-318).

Nares Basin (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 56) – Named for Captain George Strong Nares (1831-1915), commanding officer of the CHALLENGER from 1872-1874. 

Nares Deep (Petermann 1877;Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – North of New Guinea; named for Captain George Strong Nares (1831-1915), commanding officer of the CHALLENGER from 1872-1874. 

Nares Deep (Murray 1895, Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 55) – North of Puerto Rico; named for Captain George Strong Nares (1831-1915), commanding officer of the CHALLENGER from 1872- 1874. 

Nares Plain (Pratt 1968) – Named for Captain George Strong Nares (1831-1915), commanding officer of the CHALLENGER from 1872-1874. 

Nasca Ridge (Menard1964; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1 and Fig. 3) –

Nashville Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962) –

Natchez Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for a well-known tribe that formerly lived on and about St Catherine's Creek, east and south of the present city of Natchez, Miss.  NOAA EEZ Orca Basin Map.

Navidad Bank (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 34-36) –

Navidad Bank (List of Oceanic Soundings ….1899…., p. 14; U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938, Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 34-36; Pratt 1968) – Name pre-existing.  Sounded on by the cable ship BUCCANEER on December 15, 1898 at 19 59 N 68 50 W with a least depth of 15 fathoms observed.

Nazare Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 37) –

Neches Basin (Grim 1992) – NOAA EEZ Worzel Basin Map.

Nero Deep – Sounded with piano wire by USS NERO in 1899 (Hess 1948).

Nero Seamount I (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 21 10 N 163 25 E with a least depth of 1379 meters. Discovered in 1898.  Now known as Wilde Guyot. Named for USS NERO.

Nero Seamount II (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 19 35 N 160 20 E with a least depth of 1317 meters. Located in southern Mid-Pacific Mountains. Discovered in 1898. Named for USS NERO.

Nero Seamount III (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 17 25 N 153 10 E with a least depth of 1260 meters. Discovered in 1898.  Located in Magellan Seamounts. Named for USS NERO.

Nero Seamount IV (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 15 40 N 152 06 E with a least depth of 1421 meters. Discovered in 1898. Located in Magellan Seamounts. Named for USS NERO.

Nettleton Basin (Grim 1992) – Shown on NOAA EEZ Chalmette Basin Map.

Neucaledon Rucken (Supan 1899) – New Caledonia Ridge.

New Britain Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Britain.

New Britain Trench (Hess 1948; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Britain.

New England Seamount Chain (Pratt 1968) –

New England Seamounts (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949, p. 1532, Note 1) – “Recent data show that the whole section of the North American Basin northeast of the ATLANTIS 150 track is characterized by a flat plain at 2650 fathoms, dotted by a large number of large flat-topped seamounts some of which rise to less than 800 fathoms.  A number of these mounts appear to string out in a southeast direction, away from Cape Cod.  A detailed report on this area is now in preparation.”

New Caledonia Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Caledonia.

New Caledonia Ridge (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 127) – Neucaledonischer Rucken by both Supan and Krummel nomenclature.

Newfoundland Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 56, 57) – “An abyssal plain is probably present in the basin, but no PDR soundings have been obtained in that area.  The name Newfoundland Abyssal Plain is suggested subject to confirmation by a precision survey…. For Cape Verde, Iberia, and Newfoundland abyssal plains we have followed the name Wust (1940b) proposed for the basin within which the plains lie.”

Newfoundland Bank (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with Newfoundland. Synonymous with the Grand Banks.
 
Newfoundland Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934; Tolstoy 1951; Luskin et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 56; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1; Pratt 1968) – Named for geographic association with Newfoundland.

Newfoundland Ridge (Heezen et al. 1954; Pratt 1968) –

Newfoundland Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Newfoundland Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Neufundlandschelf is Krummel nomenclature for this feature.

New Hebrides Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Hebrides.

New Hebrides Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Hebrides.

New Hebrides Trench (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with New Hebrides.

Newport Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Newport Beach.

Newport Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 83) – A variant of Newport Canyon.

Newton Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) -16 05 111 35.  Named for Sir Isaac Newton, 1643 – 1727, British physicist and mathematician, famous for discovering the law of gravity, independently developed differential and integral calculus several years before Leibnitz, and author of the Principia, among the greatest scientific books ever written.

New Zealand Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the islands comprising New Zealand.

Nintoku Seamount (Dietz 1954) – One of the Emperor Seamounts in the north Pacific Ocean, named for Emperor Nintoku who reigned from  313-399 (dates unlikely).  

Niobe Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Nizinat Fan (Shepard1963, p. 389) – Apparent mis-spelling of Nitinat Fan, named for association with Nitinat Canyon, Nitinat River, and Nitinat Lake of British Columbia.

Nola Seamount (List of Oceanic Soundings….1906…., pp. 20-21) – Discovered but not named by Tug CRUISER in 1906.  Least depth of 1460 fathoms observed at 17 12 N 25 43 W.

Noname Bank (Carsola, Dietz, and Russell 1949, p. 1878) – Variant name for Fieberling Tablemount.

Nordafrik Mulde (Supan 1899) (Nordafrikanisches-Mulde) – North Africa Trough.

Nordamerikanisches-Becken (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 119; Maurer and Stocks 1933) – By Maurer and Stocks having a depth of 4999m at 10 07N 50 18W.

Nordatlantischer Rucken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 05 08N 33 19W 2549m.  That part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Equator. The North Atlantic Ridge.

Nordbottnisches Becken (Supan 1899) – The basin in the Gulf of Boothnia.

Nordliche Echobank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – North Echo Bank at 26 0N 18 41W with a depth of 1079m.

Nordliches Kanaren-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – North Canary Basin. 

Nordliches Timor-Becken (Supan 1899) – North Timor Basin.

Nordmeer-Becken (Supan 1899) – North Sea Basin.

Nordsporaden-Mulde (Supan 1899) –

Norfolk Canyon and Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for the City of Norfolk, Virginia.

Norfolk Canyon (Pratt 1968) – Named for association with the city of Norfolk, Virginia.

Norfolk Island Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for association with Norfolk Island.

Norfolk Island Ridge (Menard1964) – Named for association with Norfolk Island.

Norfolk Island Trough (Menard1964) – Named for association with Norfolk Island.

Norfolk Ridge (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1896…., p. 9) – Sounding of 455 fathoms 27 miles north of Norfolk Island at 28 34.7 S 167 50.7 E made by H.M.S. WATERWITCH.

Norris Deep (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – South Pacific Ocean. Named for Lieutenant George A. Norris, USN, Navigator of the USS ENTERPRISE on its outbound portion of its around the world sounding cruise 1883-1886.

North America Basin (Luskin, et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1) – Named for association with the eastern coast of North America.

North American Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 119; Stocks and Wust 1934; Tolstoy 1951; Luskin, et al. 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12; Pratt 1968) – Named for association with the eastern coast of North America. Nordamerikanische Becken and Westatlantischen Mulde in Supan’s nomenclature.

North Antilles Arc (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

North Atlantic Basin (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949) –

North Atlantic Ridge (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Nordatlantischer Rucken by Maurer and Stocks 1933.  That part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Equator.

North Australian Basin (Fairbridge 1954) –

North Bonin Trench 6256m (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Nrdl. Boningraben.  Krummel noted a least depth of 6256m. 

North Brazilian Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

North Canary Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12) –

Northeast Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941) – No apparent geographic name for this bank as it is not the most northeast bank in the continental borderland, Chart 1.

Northeast Channel – Between Georges and Brown Bank s in the Gulf of Maine, a variant of Fundian Valley.

Northeast Providence Submarine Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 35) –

Northern Banda Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XIV; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Northern Canary Basin (Tolstoy and Ewing 1949; Tolstoy 1951; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1) – Named for association with Canary Islands.

Northern Echo Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 26 0N 18 41W 1079m.  Called Nordliche Echobank in Maurer and Stocks.

North European Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

North Fiji Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) – Named for geographic situation relative to the Figi Islands.

North Hazel Holme Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

North Heck Sea Valley (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for Captain Nicholas Heck (1882-1953), U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey who served continuously on the Coast Survey from 1904 until the end of World War II.  Captain Heck developed wire drag in the United States, developed radio acoustic ranging, and was head of the Division of Terrestrial Magnetism and Seismology for over twenty years.  He was a recipient of the Bowie Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1942.   

North New Hebrides Trench (Menard1964) – Named for geographic situation relative to New Hebrides Islands.

North Insular Slope (Gates and Gibson 1956) – North facing slope of the Aleutian Ridge.

North Pacific Basin (Hess 1948) – Named for geographic location within the Pacific Ocean.

North Polar Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 143; Sverdrup 1940, p. 51) – “At the present time one does not know whether or not the Polar Sea is characterized by one or several deep portions, and the name The North Polar Basin should therefore be used for the entire area with the reservation that future investigations may make subdivision necessary.” (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51)

North Rat Island Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for association with Rat Island.  This ridge is commonly called Bowers Ridge.

North Siberian Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Nordsibirischer Schelf.

North Somali Basin (Sewell 1940, Fig. 4, p. 82) – Located at 3N 60E on Sewell 1940, Figure 4. 

North Sporaden Trough (Supan 1899) – Nordsporaden-Mulde by Supan’s nomenclature.  A trough in the northern Aegean Sea.

North Tasman Seamounts (List of Oceanic Depths ….1899…., p. 9) – Sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN on December 21, 1898, at 33 23 S 156 09.6 W.  A sounding of 815 fathoms was observed.

North Terrebonne Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map and Pigmy Basin Map.

North Timor Basin (Supan 1899) – Nordliches Timor-Becken by Supan’s nomenclature.

North Vereker Bank – Sounded on in March 1889 by the Cable Ship RAMBLER, Cdr Hon. F.C.P. Vereker, commanding.

Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Canyon (Heezen et al., 1954; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 22, 66-72) –

Northwest Australia Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Nordwestaustralschelf.

Northwest Basin (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Named for its geographic location in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

North-west Christmas Island Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic situation relative to Christmas Island. An alternate name for Christmas Ridge.

Northwest Pacific Basin (Dietz 1954) –

Norwegian Deep (Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53) – A variant of Norwegian Basin.

Norwegian Trough (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – “… running south along the coast of Norway….” (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51).

Norwegian Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Norwegischer Schelf.

Noyo Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart IV; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) – Named for association with the Noyo River.

Nueces Dome (Grim 1992) – Madre Map and Mustang Map.

Nurakita Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – “The Nurakita Ridge is crowned by two islands, Nurakita at the extreme north-western end and Wallis in the extreme southeast.  Between are numerous banks and shoal, including Rose, Tuscarora, Adolph, Hera, Coombe, Isabella, Waterwitch, and Lalla Rookh.”



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O

Oceanographer Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939; Murray 1947, Figure 2; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 43; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7; Pratt 1968) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship OCEANOGRAPHER, one of the ships responsible for the surveys of the Georges Bank region 1930-1932.

Ochots Mulde (Supan 1899) –

Ochotsk-Sakhalin Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Ochotsk-Sachalinschelf.

Odessy Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Lieutenant Herman Odessey (1898-1940), USC&GS, who served numerous Alaskan tours as executive officer of the C&GS Ships PIONEER, DISCOVERER, and GUIDE.  Lieutenant Odessey invented the Odessey Protractor, a device used in plotting positions derived from pre-GPS range-range radio acoustic ranging and electronic navigation systems. [Note difference in spelling of published seamount name and surname. Odessy Seamount is a variant spelling of Odessey Seamount. Although Captain Gibson was the first to name this feature, he mis-spelled “Odessey” in his paper. Menard copied the error. ]

Oglala Trough (Gibson and Nichols, 1953; Gates and Gibson 1956) – Named for the USS OGLALA, vessel of the 1933-36 U.S. Navy Aleutian Island Surveying Expedition. A variant  name for Oglala Canyon.

Ojin Seamount (Dietz 1954) – One of the Emperor Seamounts in the north Pacific Ocean, named for Emperor Ojin who reigned from 270-310.

Okhotsk Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the Sea of Okhotsk.

Okhotsk Deep (Dietz 1954) –

Okhotsk Sea Basin (Dietz 1954, p. 1218) –

Okhotsk-Sakhalin Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Ochotsk-Sachalinschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Okhotsk Sea Shelf (Dietz 1954, p. 1219) – “The central portion of the Okhotsk Sea shelf is occupied by a large depressed area more than 300 miles square, immediately north of the Kuril Basin. This feature is of such grand proportions that it deserves special mention.  Soundings are sparse in this region but suggest a smooth, featureless plain like a continental shelf except for its abnormally great depth averaging 1200 meters.”

Okhotsk Trough (Supan 1899) – Ochots Mulde in Supan’s nomenclature.

Old Bahama Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 60; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) – Named for association with Bahama Islands.
 
Oldham Deep (Murray 1895) – Named for Commander C.F. Oldham, commanding officer of Her Majesty’s Indian Survey Steamer INVESTIGATOR 1892-1893.

Oman Basin (Sewell 1940, Fig. 4, p. 82, 84) – Located at 15N 57E on Sewell 1940, Figure 4. Named for association with the Gulf of Oman.  

Orient Basin (Supan 1899) – Orient-Becken in Supan’s nomenclature.  The East Basin encompassing the eastern half of Mediterranean Sea.

Orient-Becken (Supan 1899) – The East Basin encompassing the eastern half of Mediterranean Sea.

Oriente Deep (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – In the Caribbean Sea.

Orleans Basin (Grim 1992) – NOAA EEZ Pigmy Basin Map in the Gulf of Mexico.

Orphan Knoll (List of Oceanic Soundings…. 1905…., p. 17-18) – Sounded on by the Telegraph Maintenance and Construction Company SS CAMBRIA on June 23, 1905.  A least depth of 970 fathoms was observed at 50 37.0 N 46 43.2 W.   Feature named later.

Osborn Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941; Chart I) – Origin unknown.

Osborn Plateau – 14 55 S 87 00 E.  Cable Ship Sherrard Osborn sounded near here in June 1900.  A large area approximately  500-1000 fathoms shoaler than surrounding depths was discovered near here.  Shoalest depth of 995 fathoms observed.  Feature was not named at the time of discovery.

Oshawa Seamount (Shepard1963) – Named for HMCS OSHAWA which conducted oceanographic surveys in this area between 1956-1962.

Ostatlantische-Mulde (Supan 1899) – The East Atlantic Trough which extends from 55N to Walfisch Ridge.

Ost-austral Bucht (Supan 1899) –

Oster-Schwelle (Supan 1899) – East Pacific Rise south of the Galapagos Islands.

Outer Cascadia Channel (Shepard1963) – Named for association with the Cascadia Region of North America which encompasses much of the Pacific Northwest including the Cascade Mountains and the coastal areas to the west of the mountains. Outer Cascadia Channel is an alternate name for Cascadia Seachannel.

Outer Marianas Trough (Hess 1948) –

Outer Ridge (Luskin, et al. 1954) –

Outer Skoodic Ridge (Goode 1887, Chart No. 7, p. 26) – A fishing bank at 44 02 N 67 40 W as approximately determined from chart.



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P

Pacific-Antarctic Basin (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 128; MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254, 256, 257, 260;  Menard1964) – Pazifisch-antarktisches Becken  in Supan’s nomenclature. Pazifisch-Antarktische Becken in Krummel’s nomenclature. Pacific-Antarctic Basin  according to Herdman et al.  – Name first given by Supan 1899 “for the depression in the south-eastern Pacific.”  Used by Roos who worked up bathymetry of 2nd Byrd Antarctic Expedition; Mosby; MacKintosh; and Sverdrup et al. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947). On page 260, “Bounded on the west and north by the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge and the South-eastern Pacific Plateau…. Greatest depth 3570 fm., 6414 m., 66 58S 176 14W.  Sounding corrected by Matthew’s tables.  The uncorrected sonic sounding was 3480 fm., taken with a velocity of 4800 ft./sec.  According to MacIntosh,  “The deep basin southeast of the Cape Adare-Easter Island Ridge.”

Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 258; Menard1964) According to Herdman et al., “A broad ridge rising from a general depth of 2000 fm. and extending from about 40S 112W to 65S 180E.  Name proposed by the British Committee….”

Pacific Basin (Hess 1948, p. 423; Dietz 1954) – “The Pacific Basin proper is a huge area including that large part of the Pacific Ocean bounded by the Andesite Line on the north and west and by the continental slopes of North America, South America and Antarctica on the east and south.”

Pacific Bight (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) –

Paganini Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Paisley Seamount (Paisley 1956) – Named for Acting Commander J.T.K. Paisley, R.N., commanding officer of H.M.S. Surveying Ship DALRYMPLE in September 1954 when it discovered this feature.

Palaus Ridge (Menard1964) –

Palau Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116; Hess 1948; Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Pelaugraben in Krummel’s nomenclature with a reported maximum depth of 6868m.

Palawan Trough (van Riel, 1940, p. 92) – “In view of the scanty number of soundings west of the Palawan Islands (Southern China Sea), the limits of the Palawan Trough are still uncertain.”

Pamplona Ridge (Gibson 1960) – Ridge trending to SW from Pamplona Bank, in the northeast corner of the Pacific Ocean. Named for association with bank.  This bank and ridge have a curious history of having repeatedly been reported as having breaking water sighted at various times although there is no present-day evidence to support these early reports. Present common name is Pamplona Spur.

Pamplona Spur (Jordan, G. F. 1962,  p. 22) –

Pandora Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – “This bank in turn was named after its discoverer H.M.S. PANDORA under Captain E. Edwards.”  PANDORA played a historic part in the search of the Bounty mutineers (1791) as well as in Pacific exploration.

Pandora Basin (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – Named for association with Pandora Bank. Variant of North Fiji Basin

Pandora Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – “Pandora Ridge is named after the Pandora Bank which lies in the middle of the ridge.” P. 103.

Panulirus Seamount (Pratt 1968) – 39N 65W  Named for the Woods Hole vessel Panulirus.

Para Rise (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Para-Schwelle, a point on which is located at 0 48N 36 54W with a depth of 4584m by Maurer and Stocks.

Patagonischer Schelf (Maurer and Stocks 1933) –  39 06N 56 49W.  83m.  Patagonian Shelf. 

Parker Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for Captain William E. Parker (? – 1942), USC&GS.  Captain Parker served with the Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1901-1934 in Alaska, Panama, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and throughout the continental United States. He was the first commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER prior to retirement.

Parker Ridge (Murray 1947,  Plate IV) – Named for Captain William E. Parker (? – 1942), USC&GS.  Captain Parker served with the Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1901-1934 in Alaska, Panama, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and throughout the continental United States. He was the first commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER prior to retirement.

Parker Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Captain William E. Parker (? – 1942), USC&GS.  Captain Parker served with the Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1901-1934 in Alaska, Panama, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and throughout the continental United States. He was the first commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship HYDROGRAPHER prior to retirement.

Partington Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941) – Named for association with Partington Creek and Partington Canyon in the Santa Lucia Mountains, Chart III.

Pascagoula Dome (Grim 1992) –  Located on Dorsey Canyon Map and Mitchell Dome Map.  Named for an extinct Indian tribe: when first known in 1699 the Indians lived in southwestern Alabama and southeastern Mississippi.

Pasco Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1898…., p. 5; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Sounded on by H.M.S. PENGUIN October 19, 1897, with a least depth of 16 fathoms found at 13 06.3 S, 174 19.1 W.  The longitude is listed erroneously as E in the 1898 List of Oceanic Depths.   Probably named for British naval officer Frederick G.C. Pasco who is noted in 1901 as commanding the survey ship H.M.S. DART.  Pasco Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 13 04 S 174 37 W with a least depth of 14 meters. Discovered in 1897.

Pascoe Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 108) – Variant of Pasco Bank.

Patagonia Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Patagoniaschelf.

Patagonian Shelf (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93) – “The continental shelf east of Patagonia.”

Pathfinder Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for the second C&GS Ship named PATHFINDER, in service 1941-1971.  This vessel spent numerous seasons in Alaskan waters and conducted many tracklines between Alaska and Seattle.  It was the most well-known survey ship of WWII and  received commendations from both Admiral Nimitz and Admiral Halsey.  It was said “The road to Tokyo was paved with PATHFINDER charts.”

Patterson Bank (Grim 1992) – Sweet Bank Map. Named for Carlile Pollock, superintendent of the coast survey, born in Shieldsborough, Mississippi, 24 August, 1816; died near Washington, 15 August, 1881, was appointed as a midshipman in the United States navy in 1830, served in the Mediterranean squadron, returned home in 1836, and was graduated at Georgetown college, Kentucky, as a civil engineer in 1838. Resuming his duties as midshipman, he was assigned to duty in the United States coast survey, to which, after a period of sea-service, he returned in 1845, and was placed in charge of a hydrographic party in the Gulf of Mexico, having meanwhile, on 8 September, 1841, attained the rank of lieutenant. In 1850 he retired from the navy to accept the command of the Pacific mail steamer "Oregon," in which capacity and other private duties he continued until 1861. He then returned to the survey in the capacity of hydrographic inspector, and so remained until he became superintendent in February, 1874. In his hands the scope of the survey was greatly enlarged, and its character as a general geodetic survey became fully recognized, and he continued its superintendent  until his death. Supt. Patterson was chairman of the committee that was appointed in 1869 to examine into the condition of the revenue cutter service, and in 1872 a member of the commission that was created to examine and test lifesaving apparatus. He also served for many years as a member of the light-house board. He was a member of various societies, and in 1878 received the degree of LL. D. from Amherst. Besides his various reports of special duty, he edited the annual reports of the United States coast and geodetic survey during the years of his administration.

Patterson Deep (Petermann 1877) – East of Brisbane, Australia, probably named for Carlile Pollock Patterson (1816 – 1881), fourth Superintendent of the Coast Survey – formerly a naval officer, merchant sea captain, and assistant in the Coast Survey.  Carlile Pollock Patterson, superintendent of the coast survey, born in Shieldsborough, Mississippi, 24 August, 1816; died near Washington, 15 August, 1881, was appointed as a midshipman in the United States navy in 1830, served in the Mediterranean squadron, returned home in 1836, and was graduated at Georgetown college, Kentucky, as a civil engineer in 1838. Resuming his duties as midshipman, he was assigned to duty in the United States coast survey, to which, after a period of sea-service, he returned in 1845, and was placed in charge of a hydrographic party in the Gulf of Mexico, having meanwhile, on 8 September, 1841, attained the rank of lieutenant. In 1850 he retired from the navy to accept the command of the Pacific mail steamer "Oregon," in which capacity and other private duties he continued until 1861. He then returned to the survey in the capacity of hydrographic inspector, and so remained until he became superintendent in February, 1874. In his hands the scope of the survey was greatly enlarged, and its character as a general geodetic survey became fully recognized, and he continued its superintendent  until his death. Supt. Patterson was chairman of the committee that was appointed in 1869 to examine into the condition of the revenue cutter service, and in 1872 a member of the commission that was created to examine and test lifesaving apparatus. He also served for many years as a member of the light-house board. He was a member of various societies, and in 1878 received the degree of LL. D. from Amherst. Besides his various reports of special duty, he edited the annual reports of the United States coast and geodetic survey during the years of his administration.

Patton Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Charts I and II.; Menard 1955; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) – Named for Rear Admiral Raymond Stanton Patton, 1882-1937.  Discovered as a result of Coast and Geodetic Survey sounding operations.  Rear Admiral Patton served in the C&GS from 1904 until his death.  He served on ships on both coasts, Alaska, and the Philippines.  Rear Admiral Patton served on the ships GEDNEY, PATTERSON, and EXPLORER in Alaskan waters and was responsible for revising the U.S. Coast Pilot from Yakutat Bay to the Arctic Ocean in 1916. He was appointed Director of the C&GS following the death of Ernest Lester Jones in 1929. 

Patton Guyot (Menard1964) – A variant of Patton Seamount.

Patton Seamount (Murray1941; Gibson 1960; Menard1964)  – Named for Rear Admiral Raymond Stanton Patton, 1882-1937.  Discovered by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.  Rear Admiral Patton served in the C&GS from 1904 until his death.  He served on ships on both coasts, Alaska, and the Philippines.  Rear Admiral Patton served on the ships GEDNEY, PATTERSON, and EXPLORER in Alaskan waters and was responsible for revising the U.S. Coast Pilot from Yakutat Bay to the Arctic Ocean in 1916. He was appointed Director of the C&GS following the death of Ernest Lester Jones in 1929.

Paumotu Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the Paumotu Group, also known as the Tuamotu Archipelago.

Pazifisch-antarktisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Pazifisches Becken (Supan 1899) –
 
Peake Deep (Murray 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 119; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for submarine telegraph cable surveyor R. E. Peake. Krummel noted that it has a greatest depth of 6006 meters at 43 09 N 19 45.5 W.

Peck Ridge (Murray 1947 Plate I) – Named for   Master R. G. Peck, USN, of the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE who served in this area in 1875.

Pectolus Bank (Menard1964) – Variant of Pactolus Bank.  Named for American ship PACTOLUS which discovered this shoal on 6 November 1885, Captain W.D. Burnham. USS WYANDOT investigated in 1956 and found no indication of a shoal.

Pedro Bank (Vaughn 1940, p. 63) – Lies upon the Mosquito Plateau in A. Agassiz’s nomenclature.

Pelican Basin (Grim 1992) – Arcadiana Basin Map.

Pelorus Shoal (List of Oceanic Depths….1888…, p. 2-3) – 22 51 S 176 27 W.  Sounded on by H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888 with a least depth of 14 fathoms noted.  Probably named for H.M.S. PELORUS which was flagship of the Australia Station between 1860-1862.

Penchant Basin (Grim 1992) – Sweet Bank Map.

Penguin Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1897…., p. 22. – 20 58 N 157 37.5 W.  Discovered by H.M.S. PENGUIN  on July 20, 1897.  Two soundings of 30 and 36 fathoms observed.

Penguin Bank – 11 29 S 175 29 E.  H.M.S. PENGUIN in this area on October 14 and 29 and November 7, 1896. 

Penguin Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Penguin Bank IV (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 15 20 S N 177 09 E with a least depth of 91 meters. Discovered in 1896.  In the vicinity of Braemer Ridge.

Penguin Bank V (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 15 51 S 176 41 E with a least depth of 155 meters. Discovered in 1896.  In the vicinity of Braemer Ridge.

Penguin Ridge – 11 40 S 176 00 E.  H.M.S. PENGUIN sounded in this area in October and November 1896.

Penguin Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 103) –  “… 130 miles in length and is separated from Pandora Ridge by the Alexa Trough.  “The ridge is named for the middle of the three banks and also honours H.M.S. PENGUIN, which, under the command of Captain A.M. Field, carried out the pioneer hydrographic surveys in this region during the year 1896.”

Penguin Seamount I (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 08 03 N 160 29 W with a least depth of 1443 meters. Discovered in 1897.  On the Line Island Ridge.

Penguin Seamount II (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 06 32 N 161 22 W with a least depth of 1500 meters. Discovered in 1897. On the Line Island Ridge.

Penguin Seamount III (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 05 37 N 161 38 W with a least depth of 1624 meters. Discovered in 1897. On the Line Island Ridge.

Pennant Trough (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Pennell Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255, 257) – North of Ross Ice Shelf.  Named for Commander H. Pennell, Royal Navy, the commanding officer of the S.Y. TERRA NOVA. Also noted by Roos who worked up bathymetry of 2nd Byrd Antarctic Expedition. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Pernambuco Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 318) – This plain is located to the southeast of the Ceara Abyssal Plain, covers 80,000 mi2, and lies to the eastward of Pernambuco Province, Brazil. 

Peru-Chile Trench (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 60; Menard1964; Menard et al., 1964. Fig. 1 and Fig. 3 ) –

Petacalco Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Petacalcograben  is a segment of the Middle America Trench centered at 17 N with a maximum observed depth of 5160 meters.

Peters Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964) – Named for Captain John H. Peters (1886-1951), USC&GS, who served in Alaska, the Philippines, Hawaii, and as supervisor of construction for the ships PATHFINDER (second) and EXPLORER (second).  During WWII he was C&GS liaison to the Commandant, Navy Northwest Sea Frontier.

Petit Bois Dome (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Petrel Bank (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Ship PETREL, discovered by Lt. Commander B. F. Sherman, USN, who discovered this bank while commanding the USBF PETREL in 1904  (Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, p. 752).

Philippine Basin [on Indian Ocean Map 1C, Murray 1895] (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Philippine Basin (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Hess 1948) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Phillpine (sic) Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Philippine Basin (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Philippine Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Philippinen-Bucht (Supan 1899) – Supan uses the term “bucht” here as in the sense of a basin as opposed to a bay.

Philippine Sea Basin (Dietz 1954) –

Philippine Trench (Dietz 1954; Wiseman and Ovey 1954 [spelled Phillippine Trench]; Menard1964) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Philippine Trench (Menard1964) – Named for geographic association with the Philippine Islands.

Phoenix Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for the ship PHOENIX that brought settlers to Virginia in 1608.

Physalia Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for Woods Hole Oceanographic Research Vessel PHYSALIA.  Located by Pratt at 39 45N 67W.

Picket Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Origin of name uncertain.  Perhaps this seamount was named for an Atlantic Barrier Radar Picket Station. There was a USS PICKET but its records do not indicate that it served in the North Atlantic. Located at 39 40N 66W by Pratt.

Pickle Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Pillar Reef (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Pillar Rock which is on the north shore of Kiska Island.

Pillar Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Pillar Rock which is on the north shore of Kiska Island. 

Pillsbury Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for naval officer John Elliott Pillsbury who served as Executive Officer on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE in the Gulf of Mexico in the mid-1870’s and then later commanded the BLAKE during classic Gulf Stream studies. Mitchell Basin Map.

Pioneer Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) – Named for the first Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship named PIONEER which surveyed this area in the 1930’s. 

Pioneer Fracture Zone (Menard1964; Rea and Naugler 1971) – Named for the third Coast and Geodetic Survey ship named PIONEER.  This was the same PIONEER that was instrumental in discovering magnetic striping on the seafloor, a key to plate tectonics.

Pioneer Ridge (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12, fig. 23; Menard1964) – Named for the third Coast and Geodetic Survey ship named PIONEER.  This was the same PIONEER that was instrumental in discovering magnetic striping on the seafloor, a key to plate tectonics.

Pioneer Seamount (Shepard and Emery 1941 Chart III; Menard 1964) – Named for the first Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship PIONEER which surveyed this area in the 1930’s.   

Planet Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912; Hess 1948) – Named for the German research vessel PLANET which conducted oceanographic explorations in the early 1900’s and obtained the deepest known depth in the Indian Ocean as observed up until 1912.  In Hess’s synopsis, a deep in the Mindanao Trench 10 miles to the northeast of the Emden Deep.

Plaquemines Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map.

Plato Seamount (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 98) –

Platt Bank (Coast Survey 1875; Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30; Murray 1947)   – Named by the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, Carlile Pollock Patterson, for Acting Master Robert S. Platt, commanding officer of the Coast Survey Steamer Bache, who discovered this bank in 1874.  In: “Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey  … 1875”, pp. 16-17. By Goode’s Chart No. 8, it is located at 43 09 N 69 07 W .  According to Goode it is also known as New Ledge.

Platt’s Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – 43 09 N 69 07 W ; also known as New Ledge. A variant of Platt Bank.

Pochnoi Sea Valley (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to  Pochnoi Point, the eastern tip of Semispochnoi Island.

Poincare Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) – 15 15 111 20.  Named for Jules Henri Poincare (1854-1912), French mathematical genius, famous for the Poincare conjecture, and many advanced mathematical concepts and techniques.

Point Dume Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 85) – A variant of Dume Canyon.

Point Mugu Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897) –

Pontine Basin (Supan 1899) – Pontisches Becken in Supan’s nomenclature.  Refers to the basin of the Black Sea.  Named for association with the Pontic Mountains of northern Turkey.

Pontisches Becken (Supan 1899) (Black Sea) –

Popcorn Ridge (Menard1964) –

Porcupine Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 318; Cherkis et al 1973) – Located to the west of and named for geographic proximity to Porcupine Bank.

Port Hudson (Grim 1992) – Basin Sweet Bank Map.

Portorico-Graben (Supan 1899) – Variant of Puerto Rico Trench.
 
Porto Rico Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Porto Rico Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116) 8341m – First indication of the Puerto Rico Trench was a 7087 m sounding at 19 41 N 65 07 W by H.M.S. CHALLENGER in March 1873.  In 1882 the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE sounded at 19 36 N 66 26 W and obtained a depth of 8341 m under Lieutenant Commander Willard H. Brownson.  The trench has been called Brownson’s Deep and International Deep.  Murray referred to the whole general area as Nares Deep.

Pourtales Bank (Murray and Hjort) – Probably  a variant of Pourtales Terrace.  

Pourtales Plateau (Agassiz 1869; Petermann 1870) – Variant of Pourtales Terrace. Named by Louis Agassiz for Louis Francois de Pourtales (1824-1880), Swiss naturalist who had been affiliated with the Coast Survey and then took over the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University.  Studied continental shelf and deep sea deposits.– “ Permit me a suggestion here.  You have repeatedly commemorated the discovery, by officers of the Coast Survey, of some submarine ledge or ridge, or peculiar configuration of the sea-bottom, by associating their names with the field of  their operations. It would be appropriate and just that this extensive coral plateau, the characteristic fauna of which M. Pourtales has so faithfully explored, should bear his name and be called the “Pourtales Plateau.” (Agassiz, p. 210)

Pourtales Deep (Murray  and Hjort 1912) – Named for Louis Francois de Pourtales (1824-1880), Swiss naturalist who had been affiliated with the Coast Survey and then took over the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University.  Studied continental shelf and deep sea deposits.

Pourtales Escarpment (Jordan 1962, p. 12) – Named for Louis Francois de Pourtales (1824-1880), Swiss naturalist who had been affiliated with the Coast Survey and then took over the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University.  Studied continental shelf and deep sea deposits.

Pourtales Plateau (Agassiz 1869; Pourtales 1870) – A variant of Pourtales Terrace.  This feature was named by Louis Agassiz for his colleague Louis Francois de Pourtales of the Coast Survey as the result of pioneering dredging cruises by the Coast and Geodetic Survey ships CORWIN and BIBB in 1868-1869 in the Straits of Florida south of the Florida Keys. Results of these cruises aided in driving the nail in the coffin of Edward Forbes’s azoic theory of life extinguishing at 300 fathoms. 

Pourtales Terrace (Jordan1962,  p. 12) – Named for Louis Francois de Pourtales (1824-1880), Swiss naturalist who had been affiliated with the Coast Survey and then took over the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University.  Studied continental shelf and deep sea deposits.  This was the first offshore Atlantic Ocean feature that was not on the continental shelf that was named.  It is situated south of the Florida Keys in the Straits of Florida.  

Pratt Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for Commander John Francis Pratt, 1848-1930.  Commander Pratt served on the Coast Survey from 1871 to 1920.  He commanded the PATTERSON in Alaskan waters and the PATHFINDER in the Philippines.  A special duty assignment involved commanding the Carnegie Institution Magnetic Survey Ship GALILLEE while engaged on its first magnetic survey cruise in the Pacific in 1905.  Commander Pratt also was a pioneer surveyor on the 141st Meridian Alaska Boundary Survey.

Pratt Seamount (Murray1941; Menard 1955; Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – “Pratt Seamount, a guyot in the Gulf of Alaska….” [Menard 1955, p. 1157.]  Named for Commander John Francis Pratt, 1848-1930.  Commander Pratt served on the Coast Survey from 1871 to 1920.  He commanded the PATTERSON in Alaskan waters and the PATHFINDER in the Philippines.  A special duty assignment involved commanding the Carnegie Institution Magnetic Survey Ship GALILLEE while engaged on its first magnetic survey cruise in the Pacific in 1905.  Commander Pratt also was a pioneer surveyor on the 141st Meridian Alaska Boundary Survey.

Pratt-Welker Chain (Menard1964) –

Princesse Alice Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1907…., pp. 5; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – Sounded on by Prince Albert of Monaco on the  PRINCESSE ALICE in September 1905 with a least depth found of 115 fathoms at 37 55 N 29 10 W.  According to Krummel, Princesse Alice Bank lies at 37 58 N 29 18 W with a least depth of 44 meters and was discovered in 1895.

Pritchett Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Henry S. Pritchett (1857-1939), the ninth superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey (1897-1900).   Pritchett reorganized the survey,  revamped geophysics, and set the stage for the transfer of the Office and Weights and Measures to a separate organization, the Bureau of Standards. He became President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after leaving the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Puccini Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Puerto Ridge (Pratt 1968) – North of the Puerto Rico Trench.

Puerto Rico Swell (Vaughn 1940, p. 73) – “North and north-east of the Brownson Deep the bottom slopes upward to depths less than 3000 fathoms, while farther north there are greater depths.  Stocks and Wust (1935, pp. 22, 26) propose for this feature the name Porto Rico-Schwells….”

Puerto Rico Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116; Luskin, et al. 1954; Officer et al. 1957; Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 17, 36, 52, 56, 60; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 14, Fig. 22; Menard 1964; Pratt 1968) – In Krummel’s nomenclature called the Porto Rico Trench with a maximum depth of 8341m.   First indication of the Puerto Rico Trench was a 7087 m sounding at 19 41 N 65 07 W by H.M.S. CHALLENGER in March 1873.  In 1882 the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE sounded at 19 36 N 66 26 W and obtained a depth of 8341 m under Lieutenant Commander Willard H. Brownson.  The trench has been called Brownson’s Deep and International Deep.  Murray referred to the whole general area as Nares Deep.

Puerto Rico (Trench) Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 60; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 333-334) – “The smallest, yet perhaps the most striking, Atlantic abyssal plains, are those at the bottom of the Puerto Rico Trench at depths of about 4358 fathoms (4585 corrected). They exhibit the proper degree of flatness, low gradient…, and the shallow-water clastic sediments typical of abyssal plains.”

Puerto Rico Trough (Report of the Superintendent of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 1883;  U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 71) – “The presence of a deep trough or trench north of Puerto Rico was first discovered by the CHALLENGER in 1873, which records one sounding of 3875 fathoms (7087 metres) deep.”  This was the first sounding to give an indication of an oceanic trench although the CHALLENGER did not sound in its axis.  The trench was subsequently surmised and then outlined by Lt. Cmdr. W. H. Brownson, USN, on the C&GS steamer BLAKE in 1883. 

Punta Gorda or Mattole Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 95) – Variants of Mattole Canyon.

Putnam Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for George Rockwell Putnam, Coast and Geodetic Survey officer, geophysicist, first Director of the Philippine Coast and Geodetic Survey, and named Commissioner of Lighthouses in 1910. Author of many works on lighthouses including “Sentinels of the Coast”, published in 1937. Known for modernizing and improving the Bureau of Lighthouses in the years before it was absorbed into the Coast Guard.



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Q

Queen Charlotte Trough (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for proximity to Queen Charlotte Island.  The axis of the trough is  parallel to the general trend of the island.

Queenslandischer Riffrucken (Supan 1899) –

Queensland Reef Ridge (Supan 1899) – Queenslandischer Riffrucken  in Supan’s nomenclature. 

Queensland Ridge (Krummel 1907, p. 127) – Queenslandrucken in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Queensland Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Queenslandschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Quinn Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Captain Francis B. Quinn (?-1958), who served in Alaska on at least two assignments including chief of triangulation party in the interior of Alaska in 1943 and commanding officer of the PATHFINDER in 1958 at which time he was evacuated from the ship suffering from a terminal disease.

Quita Sueno Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – Located at 14 20N 81 05W on Chart 5487. 



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R

Rachmaninoff Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Ramapo Bank (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939) – Named for the USS RAMAPO which conducted over 60 trackline surveys across the North Pacific in the 1930’s.

Ramapo Deep (Hydrographic Office, USN 1939; Fisher 1954) – Named for the USS RAMAPO which conducted over 60 trackline surveys across the North Pacific in the 1930’s.  In the Japan Trench.

Ramapo Depth (Dietz 1954) – Named for the USS RAMAPO which conducted over 60 trackline surveys across the North Pacific in the 1930’s.

Rameau Ridge (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Rat Island Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Rat Island.

Ravel Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Recherche Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Redfish Valley (Grim 1992) – Mitchell Dome Map.

Redondo Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941) – Named for proximity to Redondo Beach, Chart 1.

Redondo Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 84) – A variant of Redondo Canyon.

Redondo Submarine Fan (Menard1964) – Named for association with Redondo Canyon.

Red Sea Basin (Sewell 1940, p. 85) –

Rehoboth Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for USS REHOBOTH, a hydrographic survey ship that conducted work in the North Atlantic between 1949 and 1955.

Renard Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Alphonse Renard (1842-1943), Belgian scientist, who worked with John Murray to characterize the deep sea deposits of the world oceans.

Researcher Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER.  Researcher Basin Map.

Retriever Seamount (List of Oceanic Soundings ….1900 …., p. 19; Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – The Cable Ship BRITTANIA sounded at 39 45.5 N 66 16 W and observed 1675 fathoms on June 9, 1899. At least two cable ships have been named RETRIEVER.  The first served between 1880 to 1907 and the second was in service from 1961 and scrapped in 1995.  Among the first jobs of the second RETRIEVER was the laying of a Bermuda to USA cable in 1961 which may account for the name of this seamount. Located at 39 45N  66 20W by Pratt.

Reykjanes Ridge (Krummel 1907, p. 120; Stocks and Wust 1934, p. 25; Cherkis et al. 1970) – That portion of mid-Atlantic Ridge to the south of Iceland and on the north side of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. Discovered by H.M.S. VALOROUS in 1876.  Possibly sounded on by the BULLDOG in 1860.  Termed Reykianesrucken in Krummel nomenclature.

Rhine Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Rhone Abyssal Cone (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 328) – “The Balearic Abyssal Plain seems to be fed predominantly from the north.  It apparently spreads out from the Rhone Abyssal Cone.”

Richards Deep (Murray 1895, Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Admiral G. H. Richards, Hydrographer of the Admiralty, at the time of the CHALLENGER EXPEDITION.

Ridge and Trough Province (Menard1955; Menard1964) – This is the area now known as the Juan de Fuca Ridge area. 

Riemann Seamount, one of the Mathematician Seamounts (Menard and Fisher 1958) - 12 03 110 04  Named for German mathematician Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866), famous for the Riemann Hypothesis.

Rio Grande-Rinne (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 29 47S 39 27W. 4920m.

Rio Grande Rise (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 119; Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 74) – Named Rio Grande-Rucken by Alexander Supan, as being on the same latitude as Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  Discovered by the USS ENTERPRISE, Albert Barker commanding in 1883.  Named Barker Rise by Sir John Murray.  31 02 S 34 27 W with a least depth of 692 m. 

Rio Grande-Rucken (Supan 1899) (has initial B. for becken but undoubtedly Rio Grande Rise) –

Rio Grande-Schwelle (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 29 48S 39 34W. 2812m.
 
Robbie Bank (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1898…., p. 6; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 108) – H.M.S. PENGUIN sounded on Robbie Bank November 1, 1897, and observed a depth of 10 fathoms at 11 05.5 S 176 55.1 W.  The feature had been discovered and named prior to survey by the PENGUIN.

Rochambeau Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1901…., p. 37) – The steamship BRITTANIA sounded here while engaged in the Pacific Cable Expedition under Mr. Peake et al. and obtained a sounding of 400 fathoms at 15 10.9 S 176 39.7W.  This sounding was near to the pre-existing named Rochambeau Bank.

Rockall Bank (Murray and Hjort,  p. 135) –

Rockall Basin (Cherkis et al. 1973, p. 1601) –

Rockall Channel (Cherkis et al. 1973, p. 1601) –

Rockall Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 78; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Cherkis et al. 1973, p. 1601) –

Rodgers-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 17 07 S 36 47W 46m.  A pre-existing name.

Rodgers Basin (Murray 1947 Plate IV) – Named for Naval Officer Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (1819-1892) who served on the Coast Survey and while commanding the Coast Survey Schooner MORRIS conducted an offshore reconnaissance of this area that extended to the east of George’s Bank in 1857.  Rodgers served for a number of years on the Coast Survey commanding at various times the Coast Survey vessels BIBB, GALLATIN, and MORRIS; was Superintendent of the Naval Academy just prior to the Civil War; had a distinguished Civil War record; and was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1874.  He retired from the Navy in 1881.

Rodgers Pass (Murray 1947 Plate IV) – Named for Naval Officer Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (1819-1892) who served on the Coast Survey and while commanding the Coast Survey Schooner MORRIS conducted an offshore reconnaissance of this area and extending to the east of George’s Bank in 1857.  Rodgers served for a number of years on the Coast Survey commanding at various times the Coast Survey vessels BIBB, GALLATIN, and MORRIS; was Superintendent of the Naval Academy just prior to the Civil War; had a distinguished Civil War record; and was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1874.  He retired from the Navy in 1881.

Rodgers Swell (Murray 1947 Plate IV) – Named for Naval Officer Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (1819-1892) who served on the Coast Survey and while commanding the Coast Survey Schooner MORRIS conducted an offshore reconnaissance of this area and extending to the east of George’s Bank in 1857.  Rodgers served for a number of years on the Coast Survey commanding at various times the Coast Survey vessels BIBB, GALLATIN, and MORRIS; was Superintendent of the Naval Academy just prior to the Civil War; had a distinguished Civil War record; and was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1874.  He retired from the Navy in 1881.

Rodriquez Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for association with Diego Rodgriquez Island.

Rodriguez Ridge (List of Oceanic Depths …. 1901…., p. 24) – Soundings taken by the steamship CLAN McNEILL of the Eastern Telegraph Company in September 1900.  A least depth of 249 fathoms was obtained at 19 19.3S 61 41.5E.  Feature not named at the time.

Rodriquez Seamount (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II; Menard 1955) – Named for Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo, an early Spanish explorer along the United States West Coast.

Romanche Deep (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Romanchetiefe in Krummel’s nomenclature with a greatest depth of 7370 meters.  Named for the French research vessel ROMANCHE which discovered this deep in 1883. 

Romanche Fracture Zone (Heezen et al., 1964) – “On October 11, 1883, workers aboard the French research vessel ROMANCHE on a passage between Tierra del Fuego and France, made a 7370m (3863 fm) sounding in the center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 00 11S 1815W.  This deep trench has long been of particular interest in geotectonics because it was the first known exception to the rule that deep-sea trenches over 7000 m in depth lie either on the convex side of island arcs or along continental margins.” (Heezen et al. P. 11.)

Romanche Gap (Koczy, F.F. 1954) –

Romanche Trench (Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) –

Roncador Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – Located at 13 40N 80 10 W on U.S.H.O. Chart 5487. 

Rosalind Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 63) – Lies upon the Mosquito Plateau.

Rose Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

Ross Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Named for Sir James Clark Ross of the Erebus-Terror  Expedition to Antarctica.  In the Weddell Sea, named by Murray 1895, and based on an erroneous sounding of 4000 fathoms without reaching bottom (as noted by Ross in 1847, Vol. 2, p. 363). This 4000 fathom sounding was shown to be erroneous both by the Valdivia Expedition and the S.Y. SCOTIA in 1903 and Murray accordingly renamed the Ross Deep the Valdivia Deep, after a sounding of 3134 fathoms in 58 05S 35 54E taken in 1898 by the VALDIVIA.  The name “Ross Deep” was then used for a depression north of South Georgia Island.

Rossini Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Rotuma Basin (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Rotuma Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Rotuma Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 105) – Separates Eaglestone Ridge on the southwest from the Penguin-Rotuma Ridge.

Rowley Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Roti Timor Trench (Fairbridge 1954) – Variant of Timor Trough.

Rottenest Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Royal Charlotte Bank (List of Oceanic Depths ….1897…., p. 28) – Soundings taken by H.M.S. EGERIA on March 22, 1897, with a least depth of 132 fathoms at 16 05.6 S 37 52.2 W.  Note to effect “On ‘ROYAL CHARLOTTE’ 1803” and “On ‘LA MARNE’ (1865)”.  The ROYAL CHARLOTTE was an East Indiaman of the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries.  The shoal depth of 132 fathoms was “on LA MARNE”. This feature is a continuation of the continental shelf in the area. 

Russel Basin (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.

Ryukyu Basin (Dietz 1954) –

Ryukyu Trench (Dietz 1954) –


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S

S-21 Depth (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – “Depths up to 3958 fathoms were sounded in 1928, 60 miles east of Cabo Cruz, Cuba, latitude 19 42N., 76 52W., by U.S.S. S-21 on a Vening Meinesz gravity expedition.”  This depth is in the Cayman Trough. 

Saba Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – 17N 63 30W.

Sable Island Bank (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 24) –

Sable Mound Atwater (Grim 1992) – Valley Map.

Sahul Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Sable Island Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 4, p. 67) – 43 30N 61W.

Saint Croix Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 130) – Saint Croixbecken in Krummel’s nomenclature.  Noted as being 4900 meters deep between St. Thomas and St. Croix by Krummel.

Saint Lazarus Bank (List of Oceanic Sounding….1889…., p. 11) – Discovered and named by H.M.S. STORK February 3, 1889.  A least depth of 3 ½ fathoms was obtained at 12 08 S 41 22 E.

Saint Pierre Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 5, p. 16) – 46 N 56 W as approximately determined from chart.

Salajar Trough (van Riel 1934, Chart XXI; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Saleyar Trough (van Riel, 1940,  p. 89) – Noted as being used by Tydeman in 1922.

Sala Y Gomez Ridge (Menard1964; Menard et al., 1964) – A segment of the Easter Island Fracture Zone.

Sambesischelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Zambezi Shelf.

Samoan Ridge (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

Samos Basin (Supan 1899) – Samos-Becken  in Supan’s nomenclature but not shown on his map.

Samos-Becken (Supan 1899) (not shown on map) –

San Bernardino Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Sanbernardinograben in Krummel’s nomenclature.  Earliest name for the Philippine Trench.  Krummel lists a depth of 6382 m.

San Clemente Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for its proximity to San Clemente Island.

San Clemente Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Clemente Island.

San Clemente Rift Valley (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Clemente Island.

San Diego Trough (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for its proximity to San Diego.

San Felix-Juan Fernandez Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Sangihe Trough (van Riel 1934, Chart IV; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Named for proximity to Sangihe Islands.

San Jose Deep (Krummel 1907, p. 126) – In the Pacific, southeast of  San Jose, Guatemala with a depth of 4572 meters observed. Part of the Middle-America Trench system.

San Juan Seamount (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II; Menard 1964) – Supposedly named for a mythical island.

San Nicolas Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Nicolas Island.

San Pablo Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962; Pratt 1968) – Named for USS SAN PABLO, a hydrographic survey ship that worked in the North Atlantic between 1949 and 1968. Located at 38 55N 61W by Pratt.

San Pablo Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 100) – Lower California at 27 13.  A variant of San Pablo Canyon.

San Pedro Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Pedro Bay.

San Pedro Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Pedro Bay.

San Pedro Sea Valley (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to San Pedro Bay.

Santa Barbara Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II) – Named for location within Santa Barbara Channel.

Santa Catalina Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 89) – A variant of Catalina Canyon.

Santa Cruz Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Santa Cruz Island in the Channel Islands of California.

Santa Cruz-Becken (Supan 1899) – Named for proximity to St. Croix in the Virgin Islands.

Santa Cruz Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Santa Cruz Island.

Santa Cruz Island Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 89) –

Santa Lucia Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II) – Named for proximity to Santa Lucia Range.

Santa Lucia Escarpment (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart II) – Named for proximity to Santa Lucia Range.

Santa Monica Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Santa Monica Bay.

Santa Monica Basin (Menard1964) –

Santa Monica Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Santa Monica Bay.

Santa Monica Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 85) – A variant of Santa Monica Canyon.

Santa Rosa – Cortez Ridge (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named because it extends from vicinity of Santa Rosa Island and Cortez Bank.

Sars Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 259) – Designated SW 5936 6857 by Herdman on p. 258.  Rises from a general depth of 1500 fm. to 369 fm.  Discovered in February, 1934, by S.S. THORSHAVN, and named after the Norwegian scientists Michael and Ossian Sars….”

Sars Seamount (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Sawoe Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XXIV; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Saxton Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Joseph Saxton (1799-1873), chief instrument-maker of the United States Coast Survey, charter member of the National Academy of Sciences, and inventor of several precision instruments including a self-registering tide gauge.

Saya de Malha Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 105; Sewell 1940, p. 83, 84) – Saya daMalhabanke in Krummel’s terminology.

Scarlatti Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Schmidt-Ott Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Schmidt-Ott Hohe (Kap-Schwelle) in Maurer and Stocks and located at 39 27S13 42E with a least depth of 1287m.  Named for Friedrich Schmidt-Ott (1860-1956), a German science administrator and statesman, who supported the METEOR Expedition. Spelled Schmitt in the SCUFN Gazetteer.

Schoppe Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Captain Raymond L. Schoppe (1890-1951), USC&GS, served on the Coast and Geodetic Survey for 35 years and was commanding officer of eight C&GS ships including the GUIDE, DISCOVERER, and SURVEYOR all of which operated on the West Coast of the United States and in Alaskan waters. 

Schott Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Charles Anton Schott (1826-1901), chief mathematician and geodesist of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Schubert Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Schumann Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) –

Scotia Arc (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – A name given by MacIntosh to the South Antilles Arc after rejecting Pratje’s earlier name. According to MacIntosh,  “The ridge connecting Tierra del Fuego, the Burdwood Bank, South Georgia, the South Sandwich Group, the South Orkney Islands and the South Shetland Islands.”

Scotia Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – “The Scotia Ridge is named after the Scotia Sea as it forms the northern, eastern, and southern margin of that sea….” (P. 257) “A general name given to the ridge which extends with some small gaps from Staten I. through Burdwood Bank, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Is. to Graham Land.  Name proposed by Herdman (1932)…..”

Scotian Shelf (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 23-24) –

Scott Channel (Shepard1963) –

Scott Island Bank (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 257) – Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

Scott Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Lieutenant (j.g.) Gordon D. Scott (1925-1953), (USC&GS) who was killed in an aircraft accident while conducting triangulation surveys near Mount McKinley National Park.

Scott Seamount (Menard1964) –

Scripps Canyon – Discovered by Lieutenant Caspar Durgin of the Coast and Geodetic Survey working with Professor Moberg of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Scripps Seamount (Menard1964) –

Seamount 52-170 (Dietz 1954, p. 1214) – “Seamount 52-170 in the axis of the Aleutian Chain, may be the northernmost member of this chain.”

Seamount GA-3 (Menard1964) –

Sebastien Viscaino Deep (Krummel 1907, p. 126) – Sebastien-Viscainotiefe in Krummel’s nomenclature. In the Pacific, at 28 N on the coast of Mexico. Named for the Spanish explorer, Sebastien Vizcaino, who passed this way in 1602-1603.

Second Honshu-Mariana Ridge (Dietz 1954) –

Sedlo Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths….1906…., p. 18) – Sounded on by Tug CRUISER in 1906 at 40 22 N 27 00 W with a depth of 1180 fathoms.  A shoal area extends to the south towards the Azores from this point.  Not named by the CRUISER.

Segula Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Segula Island.

Seine Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320) – Located to the east of and named for geographic proximity to Seine Bank.

Seine Bank (Murray and Hjort,  p. 195) – Variant of Seine Seamount.

Seine Seamount (List of Oceanic Depths….1907…., pp. 4-5; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – sounded on by PRINCESSE ALICE in July 1905 with a least depth of 99 fathoms found at 33 46 N 14 21 W.

Seine Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 33 46 N 14 20 W with a least depth of 146 meters.  Discovered in 1882. Probably named for the British Cable Ship Seine.  

Sengfeller Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) –  A misspelling.  Named for Joseph Sengteller of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Serrana Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) – Located at 14 20N 80 15W on U.S.H.O. Chart 5487.

Serranilla Bank (Vaughn 1940, p. 63) – Lies upon the Mosquito Plateau in A. Agassiz’s nomenclature.

Setubal Canyon (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 37) –

Sewell Swell (Murray 1947 Plate V ) – Named for Master W. E. Sewell, USN, who helped conduct surveys in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1875.

Seychelles Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 105) – Seychellenbanke in Krummel’s terminology.
 
Seychelles Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with the Seychelles Islands.

Seymour Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Seymour Ridge (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Shallop Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for early type of vessel used in New England fishing.

Shamrock Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 108) – On map approximately at 48 30 N 07 30 W with 110 meters least depth.

Shanghai Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Tunghaischelf.

Sharpshooter Canyon (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for early type of vessel used in New England fishing.

Sharrer Basin (Murray 1947 Plate IV) – Named for Lieutenant Washington O. Sharrer (1848-1889) who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1875.

Sharrer Ridge (Murray 1947 Plate IV) – Named for Lieutenant Washington O. Sharrer (1848-1889) who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1875.

Shaw Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Lieutenant Commander Charles Shaw (?-1946), USC&GS.  He was a graduate of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a pioneer in the field of electronics within the C&GS.  Commander Shaw was on duty in the Philippines prior to the outbreak of WWII and was attacked by a juramentado bolo-wielding native. He was still in the hospital at the time that the Japanese occupied the Philippines and he was interred for the duration of the war.  He never fully recovered from his wounds and died upon return to the United States in 1946.

Shepard Meander – Discovered by Francis P. Shepard of  the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1964.  Named by NOAA Exclusive Economic Zone Mapping Project about 1988.

Shikoku Basin (Hess 1948) –

Shimada Bank (Menard1964) –

Ship Basin (Grim 1992) – Researcher Basin Map.

Shirley Trough (Menard1964) –

Shuyak Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for proximity to Shuyak Island and Shuyak Strait.

Siboga Ridge (van Riel 1940, p. 91) – “The eastern part of the rise separating the Northern and Southern Banda Basin has a complicated bottom configuration.  On the north-western edge, south of the island of Boeroe, a depth of about 530 metres below the surface (the Luymes Ridge).  On the south-eastern edge, the previous Siboga Ridge, represented on Tydeman’s chart, appears to consist of at least two elongated ridges, ranged ‘en echelon’ and separated by a passage at a depth of over 4000 metres.”

Siboney Seamount (Northrop et al. 1962) – Possibly named for USS SIBONEY CVE-112 which operated in North Atlantic waters as part of a submarine hunter-killer group in the 1950’s.

Sierra Leone Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – “A 50,000 mi2 abyssal plain lies between the continental rise off Sierra Leone and the Romanche Trench portion of the mid-oceanic ridge.”

Sierra Leone Basin (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Sierra Leone-Becken one point of which is at 08 36N 18 39W with a depth of 4780m.

Sierra Leone Rise (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks and Wust 1934; Heezen et al. 1959, p. 61; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 321) – Named Sierra Leone-Schwelle (Maurer and Stocks 1933) with one point located at 06 20N 22 40W with a least depth of 1311m.

Sigsbee Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 329-330) – “The Sigsbee Abyssal Plain lies in the center of the Gulf of Mexico at the foot of the Mississippi Cone.  It is virtually level in the central part where gradients as low as 1:7000 have been measured.”

Sigsbee Basin (Vaughn 1940, p. 62; Murray 1947,  Plate I) – In the Gulf of Maine.  Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.  Of this basin Vaughn says:  “The retention of the name Sigsbee Deep instead of applying the name Sigsbee Basin was advocated.”  Refers to deepest area of the Mexico Basin.

Sigsbee Deep (Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912; Vaughn 1940, p. 62; Heacock and Worzel 1955 ) – Off the coast of New England.  Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.Vaughn describes the Sigsbee Deep accordingly:  “There is within the Mexican Basin, but not centrally situated, a large triangular area with depths exceeding 2000 fathoms north-west of Campeche Bank, between latitude approximately 22 and 25 N. and longitude approximately 89 and 95W.  Regarding this area, J. E. Hilgard [Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey at the time of discovery] says ‘The large submarine plateau below the depth of of twelve thousand feet has received the name of the ‘Sigsbee Deep,’ in honor of its discover.’”  Commander Charles D. Sigsbee was commanding officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey steamer BLAKE at the time of discovery of this feature.

Sigsbee Escarpment (Gealy 1956, p. 212; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 330, Figure 13) – Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. Sigsbee commanded the BLAKE during surveys of the Gulf of Mexico accompanied on three trips by Alexander Agassiz, commemorated in Three Cruises of the BLAKE.  The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.

Sigsbee Knoll (Murray 1947,  Plate I) – In the Gulf of Maine.  Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.

Sigsbee Knolls (Gealy 1956; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) – In the Gulf of Mexico.  Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.

Sigsbee Rock (Goode 1887, Chart No. 8, p. 30) – A five fathom high on Cashe’s Ledge a mile from Ammen’s Rock.  Named for Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee who commanded the United States Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE during a period of explosive innovation including first use of steel cable for dredging and other oceanographic work as well as modification of the Thomson Sounding Machine to the Sigsbee Sounding Machine, the standard design for deep ocean sounding until the advent of acoustic sounding machines. The BLAKE worked in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter under Sigsbee and in the Gulf of Maine in the summer.  Sigsbee was best known for commanding the Battleship Maine which exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, starting the Spanish-American War.

Sigsbee Scarp (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) – A variant of Sigsbee Escarmpment in the Gulf of Mexico.

Silver Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 317) –

Silver Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14) –

Silvertown Bank (List of Oceanic Depths 1896 …., p. 18)  - Seventeen miles from present accepted position of Silvertown Bank the Indiarubber, Gutta-Percha, and Telegraph Works Company’s Ship Silvertown obtained a sounding of 174 fathoms at 21 42.8 N, 80 00.6 W.  This compares to Silvertown Bank at 21 25 N 79 55 W.

Simone Guyot (Menard1964) –

Sirius Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964; Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for USS SIRIUS AK17 which was attached to the Navy Aleutian Islands Surveying Expedition in 1934 and helped resupply the party.

Sitkin Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Sitkin Point on Little Sitkin Island.

Sixty Mile Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for its distance from Point Loma, San Diego.

Smook Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Lieutenant Joseph M. Smook (1897-1941), USC&GS, who served on numerous ships in Alaska, on the East Coast, and in the Philippines.

Snellius Ridge (van Riel 1940, p. 91) – “A free transport of bottom water from the Pacific Ocean to the deep Morotai Basin is hindered by a ridge extending from the island of Morotai in N.N.W. direction as far as the Nenoesa Island.  This ridge, limited by the depth contour of 2500 metres and unknown hitherto, has been given the name of Snellius Ridge.  A single wire-sounding of 1458 metres to the north of Morotai, occurring on Tydeman’s depth chart, pointed to its existence.  The smallest echo depth recorded on it is 360 metres.”  Snellius Ridge was named in honor of the Dutch research ship SNELLIUS which investigated the waters of Indonesia in 1929-1930. 

Sobaka Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for proximity to Sobaba Rock on south coast of Kiska Island.

Society Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Sockel der Kanarischen Inseln (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 28 02N 16 30W 628m.

Sockel der Sudshetland-Inseln (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 61 06S 55 49W 108m.

Sohm Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 55, 57, 71, 72, 74; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 312; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3, Fig. 22; Pratt 1968) – Named for CHALLENGER Expediton Naturalist Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, a native of Schleswig-Holstein, who died and was buried at sea in 1875 at the age of 28.  “The abyssal plain south of Newfoundland (Heezen et al., 1954) has been named the Sohm Abyssal Plain following the usage of Murray (1912) who referred to this area as the ‘Suhm Deep’ in several publications.”  Unfortunately, Heezen erred in his spelling.  Murray used the name “Suhm Deep”.  Heezen’s misspelling “Sohm” has propagated throughout the literature.

Sohm Deep (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 55) – Named for CHALLENGER Expediton Naturalist Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, a native of Schleswig-Holstein, who died and was buried in sea in 1875 at the age of 28.  Following the usage of Murray (1912) who referred to this area as the ‘Suhm Deep’ in several publications.”  Unfortunately, Heezen erred in his spelling.  Heezen’s misspelling “Sohm” has propagated throughout the literature.

Soledad or La Jolla Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 81) – A variant of La Jolla Canyon.

Solomon Islands Plateau (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic association with Solomon Islands.

Solomon Islands Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Somali Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) – This plain is un-named in Heezen and Laughton but they note that “East of the Somali coast a large abyssal plain extends from 4N to 7S.”

Somali Basin (Sewell 1940, p. 84) – Off the east coast of Africa between Madagascar and the Carlsberg Ridge. This basin was first subdivided by Sewell into a North and South Somali Basin. 

Soquel Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III) – Named for association with Soquel Point, northern Monterey Bay, California.

Sounder Canyon (Grim 1992) – Named for proximity to Dorsey Canyon.  Herbert Grove Dorsey invented the Fathometer. Thus the two canyons give the term “Dorsey Sounder.”  Dorsey worked for Submarine Signal Corporation until 1926 when he accepted the position of Chief of the Radiosonic Laboratory of the Coast and Geodetic Survey.  Dorsey Canyon Map and Mitchell Dome Map.

South African Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 120) – Sudafricanischen Becken in Krummel’s nomenclature.

South African Trough (Supan 1899) – Sudafrik. Mulde in Supan’s nomenclature.

South Antilles Arc (Stocks and Wust 1934; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Named by Pratje in 1928 when describing the morphological work of the METEOR Expedition “for the submarine connexion then postulated between Staten Island and Graham Land.”  Renamed Scotia Arc by Mackintosh; South Atlantic Arc by Mosby; and then Scotia Ridge by Herdman.

South Atlantic Ridge (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

South Australia Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Sudaustralschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

South Australia Basin (MacIntosh 1940, p. 93; Fairbridge 1954) – According to MacIntosh, “The deep basin lying roughly between the south coast of Australia and 50S.”

South Bonin Trench 6575m (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Sudlich Boningraben in Krummel’s nomenclature.

South Brazilian Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

South Brazil Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Sudbrasilienschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

South Canary Basin (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 12) –

South Chile Ridge (Menard1964) –

South-eastern Pacific Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – Name used by Littlehales in 1932.

South-eastern Pacific Plateau (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 22; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) –

Southern Banda Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XV; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Southern Borderlands (Menard1964) – Named Southern Continental Borderland in Menard’s 1964 Gazetteer, p. 259. Variants for Southern California Borderland.

Southern California Continental Borderland (Heezen and Menard 1963) –

Southern Echo Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Called Sudlich Echobank (Kanaren Schwelle) at 25 18N 19 23W with a depth of 271m by Maurer and Stocks.  This correlates with the GEBCO Gazetteer feature named “Echo Bank.”

South Fiji Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Menard1964) –

South Fiji Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

South Georgia Plateau (Murray 1895; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 254) – Named for geographic association with South Georgia Island.

South Honshu Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

South Honshu Ridge (Menard1964) –

South New Hebrides Trench (Menard1964) –

South Pacific Cross Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) –

South Pacific Ridge (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A name proposed by Mosby as an alternate name to Antarctic-Pacific Ridge.

South Sandwich Deep (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – A name given by Littlehales in 1932.

South Sandwich High (Stocks 1937) – Located at 55 00S 21 57W with a depth of1855m by Maurer and Stocks who named this feature the Sudsandwische Hohe.

South Sandwich Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

South Sandwich Swell (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 256) – A name proposed by Mosby.

South Sandwich Trench (Stocks 1937; Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 254, 260) – Sudsandwiche Graben  in Stocks nomenclature.   “In 1926 the Meteor Expedition discovered the South Sandwich Trench with a maximum depth of 4519 fathoms as well as the Captain Spiess High….” Herdman, et al.  According to Herdman on page 260,  “Situated on the east side of the South Sandwich Is.  Extends from approximately 55S 32W to 61S 27W, and is roughly defined by the 3000 fm., contour.  Name proposed by Spiess (1928, p. 226).  Greatest depth – the METEOR Depth – 4519 fm., 8264m., 55 5.3S 26 46.5W.  Sounding taken by the METEOR in February, 1926, and corrected for a velocity of 1517 m./sec….” Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).

South Somali Basin (Sewell 1940, Fig. 4, p. 82) – Located at 3S 50E on Sewell 1940, Figure 4.

South Tasmania Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Southwest Australia Ridge (Fairbridge 1954) –

Southwest Basin (Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – In the southwest Atlantic Ocean west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Southwestern Faeroe Channel (Cherkis et al. 1973, p. 1602) – A variant of Faroe Gap.  Cherkis notes Harvey’s use of Southwestern Faeroe Channel but uses the terminology Faeroe Bank Channel for this feature.

South-West Pacific Basin (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 

South-western Pacific Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Spanish Basin (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Spanish Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart IV; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) – Named for association with Spanish Flat.  The Canyon was originally termed Spanish Flat Submerged Valley by George Davidson in 1897.

Spanish Flat Submerged Valley (Davidson 1897, p. 95) – A variant of Spanish Canyon.

Spanisches Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Named Spanish Basin at 38 23N 15 36W with a depth of 5925m.

Spencer Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for Dr. J. W. Spencer who contributed many papers on submarine canyons between 1889 and 1910.

Spiess Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933; Stocks 1937; Herdman, Wiseman, and Ovey 1956, p. 254, 255, 257, 259) – Kapitan Spiess Hohe located at 54 44S 0 04E 412m by Maurer and Stocks.  “In 1926 the Meteor Expedition discovered the South Sandwich Trench with a maximum depth of 4519 fathoms as well as the Captain Spiess High….” .  Captain Fritz Spiess of the German Navy was the originator of the concept of the METEOR Expedition.  Captain Spiess was commanding officer of the METEOR and, after the death of Alfred Merz, took over as the chief scientists as well.  SHOWN ON U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947). Designated SE 5444-0004 by Herdman on page 259.  Rises from a general depth of 1000 fm. to 225 fm.  Sounding taken by the METEOR, profile V (Maurer and Stocks, 1933, p. 174) and corrected for a speed of sound of 1455 m./sec.  Formerly known as the Captain Spiess High….”

Spitsbergen-Greenland Ridge (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51, 53) – A variant of Nansen Ridge. “The existence of a ridge between the North Polar Basin and the Greenland Deep is inferred from oceanographic data…. Helland-Hansen and Nansen called this ridge the Spitsbergen-Greenland Ridge, but the writer has introduced the name The Nansen Ridge, considering it appropriate to link Nansen’s name with one of the outstanding topographical features of the Arctic area….” (Sverdrup 1940, p. 51)

Spitzbergen-Plateau (Supan 1899) –

Stellwagen Bank (Coast Survey Annual Report 1853; Goode 1887, Chart No. 10, p. 38; Murray 1947) – 42 15N 70 12 W.  Named for United States Naval officer Henry S. Stellwagen (1813 – 1866) who discovered this bank while serving with the United States Coast Survey in 1853.

Stephen Ridge (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) –

Stevens Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) –

Stewart Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for Harris B. Stewart, Chief Oceanographer of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and founder of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories.  Researcher Basin Map.

Stirni Seamount (Menard, H. W., 1964) – Named for Lieutenant Joseph Stirni of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey who was taken prisoner of war in the Philippine Islands in 1942 by the Japanese and killed by a United States bombing raid on the Japanese prison ship Oryoku Maru. 

St. Bernard Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map.

St. Croix Basin (Vaughn 1940, p. 70) – “A little north-west of the north-west corner of the Island of St. Croix a sounding reached a depth of about 2400 fathoms.  There appears to be a basin here circumscribed by the 2000-fathom contour (Schott, 1926).  It is suggested that the name St. Croix Basin be retained for this small depression.” 

St. Mary Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map.

St. Paul (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 0 56N 29 22W. 69m. Apparently a depth measured on the flank of St. Paul Rocks.

Stout Swell (Murray 1947 Plate V ) – Named for naval officer Acting Master Edward C. Stout, USN, who served on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in this area in 1854 under Lieutenant Henry S. Stellwagen.

Strandberg Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Possibly named for Harold Strandberg (1909-1995) pioneer mining engineer at Goodnews Bay, Alaska, became port commissioner of Anchorage 1955.

Strauss Seamount (Rea and Naugler 1971) – Not shown on Rea 1969.

Sudafrik Mulde (Supan 1899) –

Sudantillen Bogen (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 56 10S 30 42W 2420m.

Sudatlantischer Rucken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 41 04S 16 22 W. 1828m.  The South Atlantic Ridge, the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Sudbottnisches Becken (Supan 1899) –

Sudende des Guinea-Beckens (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 15 07S 09 58W 4616m.

Sudlich Echobank (Kanaren Schwelle) (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 25 18N 19 23W 271m.  South Echo Bank.

Sudliches Kanaren-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – South Canary Basin.  23 19N 26 41W. 5726m.

Sudlichster Punkt (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 63 51S 5 16E 4485m  Apparently the southern most point reached by the METEOR expedition.

Sudpolar-Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 55 00S 21 38W 5263m.

Sudsandwische Hohe (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 55 00S 21 57W 1855m.  The South Sandwich High, a ridge or seamount in the vicinity of the South Sandwich Islands. 

Suhm Deep (Murray 1895, Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for CHALLENGER Expediton Naturalist Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, a native of Schleswig-Holstein, who died and was buried in sea in 1875 at the age of 28. Variant name for Sohm Plain, Sohm being a misspelling of Suhm which has been perpetuated.

Suiko Seamount (Dietz 1954) – Named for Empress Suiko, daughter of Kinmei and wife of Emperor Bidatsu, reigned as Empress and first female ruler of Japan from 592-628.

Sulu Basin (Murray 1895; Krummel 1907, p. 131; van Riel 1934, Chart I; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Named for geographic association with Sulu Sea.  Krummel noted that the CHALLENGER had sounded at 8 32N 121 55E and observed 4663 meters.  Sulubecken in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Sunda-graben (Supan 1899) – A variant of Java Trench.

Sunda Shelf (Fairbridge 1954) –

Sunda Trench 6205m (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116, 121) – Sunda-graben in Supan’s nomenclature.while Sundagraben is Krummel’s nomenclature.   Sundagrabens in the plural on page 121 of Krummel.  British Cable Ship RECORDER sounded in 1888 and found 6205 meters at 11 22 S 116 50 E.  Subsequently, in 1906 the German Research Vessel PLANET sounded at 10 01.5 S 108 05 E and found 7000 meters what was at this time the deepest depth recorded in the Indian Ocean. This information was so new that Krummel did not correct his table of depths on page 116.  A variant of Java Trench.

Sunday Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Supan Deep (Murray 1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for the Austrian geographer Dr. Alexander Supan (1847-1920) who devised a nomenclature and terminology scheme for undersea features.  Apparently meant derisively by Murray as Supan was first to suggest that major features be named for geographic association and Supan had first named the Aleutian Trench.  Murray in turn named a small portion of the trench the Supan deep in response.

Sur Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart III.; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 12) – Named for association with Point Sur. 

Surveyor Channel (Menard1964) –

Surveyor Deep-Sea Channel (Gibson 1960) – Named for the first USC&GS vessel named SURVEYOR, in service 1915-1955.  This vessel spent many seasons in Alaskan waters. During WWI it was credited with disabling a German submarine off Gibraltar.

Surveyor Guyot (Menard1964) –

Surveyor Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for the first USC&GS vessel named SURVEYOR, in service 1915-1955.  This vessel spent many seasons in Alaskan waters. During WWI it was credited with disabling a German submarine off Gibraltar.

The Swatch (List of Oceanic Depths … 1896 …., p. 15; Hayter 1960) – A canyon near the mouth of the Indus River surveyed in 1959 by the Pakistan Naval Surveying Ship ZULFIQUAR.  It is noted in the article that this canyon “has long been known.”  The Swatch (List of Oceanic Depths … 1896 …., p. 15) – Two indications of the Swatch were sounded on by the H.M.I.M.S. INVESTIGATOR in January and February 1896.  The two distinct sections are at 23 17.3 N 67 15.2 E with a depth of 390 fathoms and at 23 03.5 N 66 49.5 E with a depth of 631 fathoms.

The Swatch of No Ground (Hayter 1960) – A canyon off the mouth of the Ganges River surveyed in 1959 by the Pakistan Naval Surveying Ship ZULFIQUAR.  It is noted in the article that this canyon “has long been known.”

Swire Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Navigating Sub-Lieutenant Herbert Swire, a junior naval officer of the CHALLENGER Expedition.   East of the Philippine Islands.

Sylvania Guyot (Dietz, et al. 1954; Menard1964) – Named for the USS SYLVANIA which conducted surveys here during atomic weapons testing.


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Tagus Abyssal Plain (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 56, 57; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3) – “A small abyssal plain west of the Tagus River takes its name from this river.” (Heezen et al. 1959) Located west of southern Portugal.  It receives its sediment form two large canyons SW of the Tagus River (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320). 

Tahoma Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with Tahoma Reef.

Tahoma Reef (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for the Coast Guard Cutter TAHOMA which struck this uncharted reef and sank in 1914.

Tahoma Swell (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for association with Tahoma Reef.

Talaud Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88, 92) – Named for proximity to Talaud Islands and located between the southern end of the Philippine Trench and the Talaud Islands.  Van Riel differentiates between this feature and the earlier variant name which referred to the Philippine Trench: “Moreover, a new narrow and deep depression has been discovered by the SNELLIUS to the east of Talaud Island, which I called the Talaud Trough.”

Talaut Trench 6758m (Krummel 1907, p. 116) – Talautgraben in Krummel’s nomenclature.  Krummel noted  a maximum depth of 6758 meters.  Talaut Trench is a variant of Philippine Trench.

Tammany Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Tamu Dome (Grim 1992) – Named for Texas A& M University.  Pigmy Basin Map.

Tamu Basin (Grim 1992)– Named for Texas A& M University.  Pigmy Basin Map.

Tanner Bank (Report Commissioner Fish and Fisheries … 1889, pp. 426-427; Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named by the Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey for Commander Zera Luther Tanner (1835-1906) of the Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS who discovered this bank on January 23, 1889. Tanner places the center of the bank at 32 43 N 119 10 W with a depth of 48 fathoms and a least depth of 28 fathoms near the eastern end of the bank at 32 42.5N 119 07.25W.   Tanner commanded the ALBATROSS for 12 years, 1882-1894, invented many oceanographic tools, and conducted many classic studies while associated with the ship.

Tanner Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Tanner Bank.

Tanner Basin (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – In the Southern California continental borderlands.

Tanner Basin (Vaughn 1940, p. 62, 69; Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) –  “It was agreed (at a meeting in the Navy Hydrographer’s Office  on February 18, 1939) to replace this name by Venezuelan Basin.” Tanner refers to Commander Zera Luther Tanner,  first commanding officer of the United States Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS which surveyed in these waters in 1884. On p. 69 Vaughn relates that Tanner Deep was synonymous with Tanner Basin and that it is “A dumb-bell shaped basin bounded on the west by Beata Ridge, on the north by the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, on the east by Aves Ridge, on the south by Leeward Ridge.”  Although the Navy Hydrographic Office had “agreed” to replace the name Tanner Basin with Venezuelan Basin, Vaughn writes on p. 69, “There is no appropriate geographical name for this basin.  As Tanner’s name has been in use for it for more than forty years, it is better not to disturb the name.  If a distinctive name should be given to the northern part of the dumb-bell, Tanner Basin should be retained for the southern part.”

Tanner Canyon (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart 1) – Named for proximity to Tanner Bank.

Tanner Deep (Murray 1895; Murray1899; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Commander Zera Luther Tanner (1835-1906),USN, commanding officer of the Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS.

Tasman Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Tasmanian Plateau (Murray 1895, Pacific map) – Named for geographic association with Tasmania.

Tasmania Plateau (Murray 1895, Indian Ocean Map) – Named for geographic association with Tasmania.

Tasmania Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Tasmaniaschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Taussig Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for Lieutenant Commanding Edward D. Taussig, USN, who served on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship McArthur on the Washington and Oregon coasts in the early 1880’s.

Taviuni Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1897…., p. 27; Krummel 1907, p. 98) – H.M.S. PENGUIN sounded here on  17 September 1897 at 12 05.8 S 174 34.9 W and found a least depth of 11 fathoms.  Probably named for the mail steamer TAVIUNI which frequented these waters instead of the island of Taveuni which is 300 miles to the east in the Fiji Islands. Taviuni Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 06 S 174 34 W with a least depth of 16 meters. Discovered in 1897.

Tchaikovski Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 29 23 162 05.

Tchefuncte Mound (Grim 1992) – Central Slope Map.  Named for association with the Tchefuncte River, Louisiana.

Tehuantepec Ridge (Menard and Fisher 1958; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 23, Fig. 25; Menard 1964) –

Telegraphic Plateau (Maury 1858; Krummel 1907, p. 102) – Between Ireland and Newfoundland. Named as result of survey’s off U.S.S. ARCTIC under Lieutenant Otway Berryman, USN, and H.M.S. Cyclops under Lieutenant Joseph Dayman, RN, which found no expression of Middle Ground (Maury’s name for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Their route ran through the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and thus missed the ridge north of the Azores and the Reykyjanes Ridge farther to the west. Maury interpreted this as a flat area and named it the Telegraphic Plateau in his 1858 edition of the Physical Geography of the Sea.

Tenchi Seamount (Dietz 1954) – Named for Emperor Tenchi who reigned from 668-671.

Ternate Trough (van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) – Named for association with Ternate Island.

Terrebonne Basin (Grim 1992) – Orca Basin Map.

Texas-Louisiana Shelf (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

Theta Gap (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 66, 72-74; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 320; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 257) – The Theta Gap provides a conduit for sediment transport from the Biscay Plain to the Iberia Abyssal Plain.

Thibodaux Basin (Grim 1992) – Houma Valley Map.

Thirtymile Bank (Shepard and Emery 1941, Chart I) - Named for geographic location relative to San Diego.

Thomson Basin (Murray 1895) – Possibly named for Sir Wyville Thomson of the Challenger Expedition, Sir William Thomson, inventor of the piano wire sounding machine, or for British Navy office Frank Tourle Thomson who replaced Nares as commander of the CHALLENGER midway through the expedition.

Thomson Deep (Petermann 1877; Quackenbos, et al. 1887; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Possibly named for Sir Wyville Thomson of the Challenger Expedition, Sir William Thomson, inventor of the piano wire sounding machine, or for British Navy office Frank Tourle Thomson who replaced Nares as commander of the CHALLENGER midway through the expedition.

Thoulet Deep (Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Julien Thoulet (1843-1936), French ocean scientist, colleague of Prince Albert I of Monaco, and early advocate of ocean mapping.

Three Dory Ridge (Murray 1947) –

Thunder Knoll (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Thurmond Basin (Gibson and Nichols 1953) – Named for Coast and Geodetic Survey Officer James D. Thurmond (1903-1951). Commander Thurmond served in the Coast Survey from 1924 until his death in 1951.  He had tours of duty with the DISCOVERER, PATHFINDER, and SURVEYOR in Alaskan waters, the MARINDUQUE in the Philippine Islands, as well as numerous ship tours in Atlantic waters.  He also worked on a number of triangulation and leveling field parties. He was transferred to the Army during WWII and served with the 3rd Engineer Special Brigade as an Amphibian Engineer Navigation Officer from 1942 until early 1945.

Thurmond Sea Cone (Gibson and Nichols 1953) – Named for Coast and Geodetic Survey Officer James D. Thurmond (1903-1951). Commander Thurmond served in the Coast Survey from 1924 until his death in 1951.  He had tours of duty with the DISCOVERER, PATHFINDER, and SURVEYOR in Alaskan waters, the MARINDUQUE in the Philippine Islands, as well as numerous ship tours in Atlantic waters.  He also worked on a number of triangulation and leveling field parties. He was transferred to the Army during WWII and served with the 3rd Engineer Special Brigade as an Amphibian Engineer Navigation Officer from 1942 until early 1945.

Tiger Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Tillie’s Bank (Goode 1887, Chart No. 10, p. 38) – A fishing bank located at 42 35N 70 10 W on Goode Chart No. 10.

Timbalier Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Timor Trough (van Riel 1934, Chart XXVI; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Tison Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for Rear Admiral James C. Tison, 16th Director of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Admiral Tison began his career with the Coast and Geodetic Survey after graduating from the Citadel in 1929 and served on numerous ships and field parties.  During WWII he was transferred to the Army Air Force in 1942 and remained with the Air Force until 1949 attaining the rank of Colonel.  Pigmy Basin Map and Researcher Basin Map.

Tittman Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – A mis-spelling that has been corrected.  Named for Otto Hilgard Tittmann.

Tizard Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Named for Thomas Henry Tizard (1839-1924), Navigating Lieutenant of the CHALLENGER and responsible for the ship’s survey work.  East of Brazil and west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Tobago Trough (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, pp. 72-73; Officer et al. 1957) –  12N 60 20W  “… It is a subovoid basin circumscribed by the 1000-fathom line, north of the island of Tobago, east of the Grenadine Islands, and west of the Barbados Ridge.  It is separated by a saddle < 1000 fathoms deep from the southern end of the Puerto Rico Trough.  The maximum recorded depth is 1370 fathoms.”  (Vaughn 1940, p. 73).

Todos Santos Submerged Valleys (Davidson 1897, pp. 101-102) – Refers to a number of canyons to the northwest of Cabo San Lucas near the southern tip of Baja California.

Toms Valley and Canyon (Veatch and Smith 1939) – Named for the town of Toms River, New Jersey.

Tonga Graben (Supan 1899) –

Tonga Ridge (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1895…., p. 3; Krummel 1907, p. 127; Wiseman and Ovey 1954)  First sounded on but not named by H.M.S. PENGUIN on July 30, 1895.  A least depth of 684 fathoms was observed at 21 11.2 S 174 52.4 W.  Another crossing on August 26, 1895 gave a least depth of 458 fathoms at 20 31.8 S 175 20.2 W. Tonga Ridge  (Krummel 1907, p. 127) gives name in text.

Tonga-Kermadec Trench (List of Oceanic Depths….1888…., p. 4-5; 1889…., p. 5; 1896…., p. 2 ) – Two soundings greater than 4,000 fathoms observed by H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888.  4295 fathoms at 24 49 S 175 07 W and 4428 fathoms at 24 37 S 175 08 W.  4530 fathoms observed by H.M.S. EGERIA in May1889 at 17 04 S 172 14 W and 4428 fathoms at 24 37 S 175 08 W.  Deepest observed depth in Southern Hemisphere up to this time. The H.M.S. PENGUIN commanded by Commander Andrew F. Balfour, sounds in the Tonga-Kermadec Trench at 28 44.4 S and 176 04.0 W and measures a depth of 5147 fathoms on December 30, 1895.  Balfour recovers a red clay  bottom sample and records “An excellent ‘up and down’ sounding.”  This was the first time that any sounding greater than 5000 fathoms had been  observed.  He eclipses this record on the following day with a 5155 fathom sounding at 30 27.7 S 176 39.0 W with red clay bottom material being captured as well.

Tonga Trench (List of Oceanic Depths….1888…., p. 4-5; 1889…., p. 5; 1896…., p. 2;  Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 116, 126; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Fisher 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 251) – Two soundings greater than 4,000 fathoms observed by H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888.  4295 fathoms at 24 49 S 175 07 W and 4428 fathoms at 24 37 S 175 08 W.  4530 fathoms observed by H.M.S. EGERIA in May 1889 at 17 04 S 172 14 W.  Deepest observed depth in Southern Hemisphere up to this time. The H.M.S. PENGUIN commanded by Commander Andrew F. Balfour, sounded in the Kermadec Trench at 28 44.4 S and 176 04.0 W and measured a depth of 5147 fathoms on December 30, 1895.  Balfour recovered a red clay  bottom sample and recorded “An excellent ‘up and down’ sounding.”  This was the first time that any sounding greater than 5000 fathoms had been  observed.  He eclipses this record on the following day with a 5155 fathom sounding at 30 27.7 S 176 39.0 W with red clay bottom material being captured as well.  Tonga Graben in Supan’s nomenclature. Tongagraben in Krummel’s nomenclature who notes a maximum depth of 9184 meters.  

Tongue of the Ocean (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 3; Pratt 1968 ) –

Tonkin-Hong Kong Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Tongking-Hongkongschelf in Krummel’s nomenclature.

Tortugas Valley (Jordan, G. F. 1962, p. 12) –

Trinidad Rise (Stocks and Wust 1934) –

Trinidad Valley - Named for association with Trinidad Head.  Chart IV (Shepard, F. P. and Emery, K.O., 1941. Chart IV).

Tropic Seamount (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – Named Wendekreis-Banke by Maurer and Stocks 1933.  This feature was located at 23 55N 20 37W with a least observed depth of 1707m when discovered by the METEOR expedition on its homeward bound leg in 1927.  Presently named Tropic Seamount, the English translation of Wendekreis as this feature is located just north of the Tropic of Cancer.  

Truxton Basin (Murray 1947 Plate II ) – Named for either Passed Midshipman  William T. Truxtun who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in 1854 or Ensign William Truxtun (note difference in spelling) who served on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer BLAKE in the Gulf of Maine and the Cape Cod area between July and October 1885.

Truxton Swell (Murray 1947 Plate II ) – Named for either Passed Midshipman  William T. Truxtun who served in this area on the Coast Survey Steamer BIBB in 1854 or Ensign William Truxtun (note difference in spelling) who served on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer BLAKE in the Gulf of Maine and the Cape Cod area between July and October 1885.

Tuamotu Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 37) –

Tucker Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Commander William R. Tucker (? – 1951), United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.  Commander Tucker entered on duty with the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1931.  He served with various geodetic field parties and on the ships SURVEYOR, DISCOVERER, and Hydrographer prior to World War II.  He received two Bronze Star Medals during the was, the second for conspicuous bravery under fire as he spent several minutes exposed to enemy machine-gun fire while conducting a reconnaissance survey of the landing beach at Corregidor when the United States was retaking that island.

Tufts Abyssal Plain (Shepard1963; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 324) – Named for Tufts University, alma mater of Leo Otis Colbert, who had been Director of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1937 to 1950. This plain is bounded on the south by the Mendocino Rise, on the east by the ridge and trough province (Juan de Fuca Ridge area), and on the northwest by a low rise centered along 150W longitude. A line of ridges and seamounts separates this abyssal plain from the Alaskan Plain which lies to the north.

Turpie Bank (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 252) –  

Tuscarora Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1898…., p. 6; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – H.M.S. PENGUIN sounded on this bank on November 5, 1897 at 11 51.2 S 178 14.0 W and observed a least depth of 21 fathoms.  Note: Longitude is erroneously listed as East in tables. Variant of Tuscarora Seamount. Adolph-Tuscarora Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) 11 49 S 178 14 W with a least depth of 26 meters. Discovered in 1897.

Tuscarora Deep (Petermann1877; Quackenbos, et al. 1887) – Covered most of North Pacific Ocean north of 35 North Latitude.  Named for the USS TUSCARORA which under the command of Lieutenant George Belknap sounded in the Kuril Trench in 1874 and the northern rim of the North Pacific Ocean while conducting a cable survey between Japan and the West Coast of the United States.

Tuscarora Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Early name for Kuril Trench.  Commander George Belknap of the USS TUSCARORA discovered this deep, which turned out to be the first feature ever recognized as a trench, in 1874, while conducting a submarine cable survey.

Tuscarora Seamount (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 32 25 N 128 15 W with a least depth of 1785 meters.  Discovered in 1877.  Possibly the flank of Fieberling Tablemount.

Twin Seamounts (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Apparently named for appearance of two adjacent seamounts.

Tyrrhenian Basin (Supan 1899) – Tyrrhenisches Becken  in Supan’s nomenclature in the Mediterranean Sea.

Tyrrhenisches Becken (Supan 1899) –



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U

Unimak Seamount (Elvers et al. 1967) – Named for geographic association with Unimak Island.

Union Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964; Elvers et al. 1967) – Probably named for the USS UNION AKA 106 which operated in the North Pacific and Alaskan waters supplying North Slope DEW Line Coast and Geodetic Survey field camps and Air Force radar station construction parties, supplying Bureau of Commercial Fisheries facilities in the Pribilof Islands, and conducting amphibious training exercises in Alaskan waters.  In particular the UNION supplied North Slope parties between 1947 and 1949.

Unnamed Canyon indicated at 35 57 N (Davidson 1897) –

Unnamed Canyon indicated at 36 12 N (Davidson 1897) –  

Un-named Deep (Krummel 1907, p. 126) – 17 41 S 172 14.5 E with a depth of 8285 meters.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1888…., p. 2-3) – Least depth of 228 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 21 47 S 175 31 W in 1888.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1888…., p. 4-5) – Least depth of 108 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 22 58 S 175 40 W in 1888.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 3) – Least depth of 178 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 22 47 S 175 49 W in 1889.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 2) – Least depth of 171 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 22 40 S 176 23 W in November1889.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 3) – Least depth of 1564 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 28 22  S 175 16 E in November 1889 from 2000-2500 fathoms depth.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 4) – Least depth of 216 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 29 19 S 178 00 W in 1889.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1890…., p. 3) – Least depth of 88 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 23 01 S 175 44 W on July 4, 1890.  In vicinity of 108 fathom depth above.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 18) – Least depth of 1127 fathoms noted by  the Anglo-American Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company Ship SEINE at 01 23 S 15 38 W in 1889.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1889…., p. 20) – Least depth of 1563 fathoms noted by the Anglo-American Telegraph Company Ship MINIA at 47 53 N 30 34 W in 1889.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1890…., p. 2) – Least depth of 160 fathoms noted by H.M.S. EGERIA at 23 41 S 176 24 W on July 2, 1890.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1890…., p. 7) – Least depth of 952 fathoms noted by H.M.S. STORK at 06 50 S 52 51 E on February 14, 1890. Bracketed by 2925 and 2206 fathom soundings.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1890…., p. 18) – Least depth of 17 fathoms noted by Eastern Telegraph Company steam ship GREAT NORTHERN at 15 38 S 44 33 E on November 14, 1888.  Bracketed by 1125 and 1552 fathom soundings.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths…. 1896…., p. 7) – Least depth of 518 fathoms noted at 09 25 S 179 52 E by H.M.S. PENGUIN. Rises from general depths of 2500 fathoms.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1919 p. 3) – 50 31.5 N 24 36 W  1470 fathoms.  Four soundings in this area of 1600 fathoms or less.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Soundings …. 1901…., p. 33) – Depth of 842 fathoms observed at 27 08.8 S 169 55.6 W by the  BRITTANIA under Mr. Peake et al.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1908….,p. 18) – China Sea two depths registered, one of 430 fathoms at 15 05 N 116 18 E and a second of 725 fathoms at 15 02 N 116 25 E.  A high of 930 fathoms was noted at 15 34 N 116 09.5 E and 1200  at 15 39 N 116 04 E.  All of these come out of general depths exceeding 2000 fathoms.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1909 p. 17) – Western Indian Ocean 14 10 N 51 45 W with average depth of 860 fathoms rising out of over 2000 fathoms in vicinity of Alula-Fartak Trench.  Least depth of 810 fathoms registered at 14 06.5 N 51 38.7 E while depth of 2712 fathoms registered at 14 11 N 51 54 E in Alula-Fartak Trench.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1910 p. 5) – In vicinity of Sierra Leone Rise at 6 50 N 22 05 a 730 fathom sounding with others in the vicinity ranging between 750 and 900 out of general depths averaging 2000 fathoms.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1910 p. 5) – In vicinity of Sierra Leone Rise at 7 12 N 22 13 W a 1350 fathom sounding out of general depths averaging greater than 2100 fathoms.

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1910 p. 6) – In vicinity of Mid-Atlantic Ridge 1160 fathom sounding at 53 20 N 33 52 W with others in the vicinity rising out of general depths approaching 1600 fathoms. Other soundings in this area indicate roughness of bottom in vicinity of Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone.  

Un-named High (List of Oceanic Depths 1919 p. 6) – 53 18 N  33 50 W; 1130 fathoms.  An 1148 at 53 19 N 33 52 W (independent check on 1910 depth).

Un-Named High (List of Oceanic Depths ….1910, p. 7.) – A least depth of 1012 fathoms was noted at 53 18 N 34 47 W (north of Minia Seamount) and 945 at 53 15 N 34 26 (east of Minia Seamount) in May 1910. 



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V

Vaca Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for Cabeza da Vaca, 16th Century Spanish explorer.  Vaca Basin Map.

Valdivia Deep (Murray and Hjort 1912; Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – Named for the German research vessel “VALDIVIA.” which explored parts of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean in 1898-1899 under the leadership of Carl Chun. In the Weddell Sea, named Ross Deep by Murray in 1895 but based on an erroneous sounding of 4000 fathoms without reaching bottom (as noted by Ross in 1847, Vol. 2, p. 363). This 4000 fathom sounding was shown to be erroneous by the S.Y. SCOTIA in 1903 and Murray accordingly renamed the Ross Deep the Valdivia Deep, after a sounding of 3134 fathoms in 58 05S 35 54E taken in 1898 by the VALDIVIA.  The name “Ross Deep” was then used for a depression north of South Georgia Island. Shown on U.S.H.O. Chart 2562 (1947).  As used by Murray, the Valdivia Deep is a large area south of the Cape of Good Hope centered at approximately 61S 18E.

Valerie Guyot (Menard1964) – Named for Valerie Craig, wife of Scripps scientist Harmon Craig.

Veatch Canyon (Veatch, A.C. and Smith, P.A., 1939; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7; Pratt 1968) – Named for A.C. Veatch, geologist who worked with Paul A. Smith to produce “Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley”, Geological Society of America Special Papers No. 7, 1939.  Veatch passed away before final publication of the paper.

Vega Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Named for geographic proximity to Vega Bay which was named for the U. S. Navy Ship VEGA which supplied the U.S. Navy Aleutian Surveying Expedition of 1933-1936.

Vema Depth (Heezen et al., 1964) – Named for the Lamont research vessel VEMA.  On June 2, 1957, the VEMA under chief scientist R. J. Menzies sounded and observed a maximum depth of 4106 fm (7656 m) at 0 16S 18 35W.

Vema Fracture Zone (Heezen et al. 1964; Fleming, Cherkis, and Heirtzler 1970, p. 42) –

Vema Gap (Heezen et al. 1959, pp. 58, 66, 72, 74; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 318; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 14; Pratt 1968) –

Vema Trench (Heezen, B.C. and John E. Nafe, 1964) – Discovered by the Lamont Research vessel VEMA during a 1958 reconnaissance of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge in the Indian Ocean. Feature is centered at 9S and 67 20E.

Venezolan Becken (Vaughn 1940, p. 77) – Vaughn reports on the use of this term which is variant of Venezuelan Becken

Venezuela Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 331; Heezen and Menard 1963, P. 257) –

Venezuelan Basin (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938; Vaughn 1940, p. 77; Officer et al. 1957) – 15N 68W.

Venezuelan Basin (Officer et al. 1957) –

Verb zwischen Kap- u. Agulhas Becken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 37 58S 15 22E 4945m.

Verdi Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – 32 09 163 31, in the Musicians’ Seamounts.

Verdunville Bank (Grim 1992) – Sweet Bank Map.

Verhoyansk Trough (Menard1964) –

Vermilion Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Viking Channel (Cherkis et al. 1973) – A variant of Maury Channel.  Viking Channel named by Cherkis and others in 1971.

Virgin Islands Trough (Officer et al. 1957) –

Vitiaz Trench (Menard1964) –

Vitiaz Trough (Heezen and Menard 1963, p. 252) –

Vizcaino Canyon - Named for Spanish explorer Sebastian Vizcaino. 

Vorhohe zum Sudatlantischen Rucken (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 48 24S 19 52W 2383m.



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W

Wachusetts Shoal (Menard1964) –

Wagner Seamount (Rea 1969; Rea and Naugler 1971) – In the Musicians’ Seamounts at 31 46N 162 54W.

Walfisch Ridge (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 119; Maurer and Stocks 1933) – First sounded on in 1898 by the German deep sea expedition by the VALDIVIA under Carl Chun, subsequently by English cable ships, the German Antarctic research ship GAUSS, and the research ship PLANET.  First sounding at 25 27 S 06 08 E with a depth of 936 m.  Named Walfisch Rucken by Alexander Supan for proximity to Walfisch Bay.  Walfisch means whale.  This has been corrupted to Walvis.  A variant of Walvis Ridge. Another point on the ridge is located at 28 31S 3 42E with a depth of 2400m as observed by the METEOR expedition 1925-27.

Wall Basin (Grim 1992) – Anderson Basin Map.

Wallis Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 105) – 

Walls Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Walls Plateau (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Derivation of name unknown.

Walls Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard 1964; Elvers et al. 1967) –

Walton Bank (U.S.H.O. Chart 5487, 1938) –

Walvis Ridge (Supan 1899; Krummel 1907, p. 119; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 27) – Walfisch-Rucken by Supan’s nomenclature and Walfischrucken by Krummel’s.  First sounded on in 1898 by the German deep sea expedition by the VALDIVIA under Carl Chun, subsequently by English cable ships, the German Antarctic research ship GAUSS, and the research ship PLANET.  First sounding at 25 27 S 06 08 E with a depth of 936 m.  Named Walfisch Ridge by Alexander Supan for proximity to Walfisch Bay.  Walfisch means whale.  This has been corrupted to Walvis. 

Ward Basin (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) –

Ward Canyon (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) –

Warick Seamount (mis-spelled, Warwick Seamount) (Menard1964) –

Warwick Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for Captain Henry C. Warwick (1896-1956), United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Washington Valley (Veatch and Smith1939) – Named for the city of Washington, D.C.  This canyon was listed as “Chesapeake” by Shepard (1938, p. 41).

Waterwitch Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1895…., p. 11; Krummel 1907, p. 98; Fairbridge and Stewart 1960, p. 104) – 12 31 S 176 44 W with a least depth of 12 fathoms.  Discovered by H.M.S. WATERWITCH on Sept. 23-24, 1895.  Recorded soundings of 400 and 355 fathoms.  Waterwitch Bank (Krummel 1907, p. 98) – 12 30 S 176 44 W with a least depth of 22 meters. Discovered in 1896.

Weber Deep (Murray 1899; Murray and Hjort 1912; van Riel 1934, Chart XVI; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, pp. 88, 89) in northeastern Banda -- Named for Max Weber who led the Siboga Expedition in the Dutch East Indies in 1899-1900.  The name Weber Deep was first used by Sir John Murray (Depths of the Ocean) in an enumeration of deeps. It is located in the eastern Banda Sea.

Weddell Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 322) – This abyssal plain in the far southern Atlantic Ocean has been traced from 20W to 20E Longitude.  At 20W it is over 200 miles in width. 

Weddell Basin (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 322) –

Welker Canyon (Veatch and Smith 1939; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 7; Pratt 1968) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey vessel WELKER which participated in surveys of Georges Bank, which in turn was named for Captain P.A. Welker, Coast and Geodetic Survey officer, (1857-1926).

Welker Seamount (Murray 1941; Gibson 1960) – Named for Philip A. Welker (1857-1926) an officer of the C&GS for 42 years from 1879 to 1921 who served in virtually every theater of Coast Survey operations including senior C&GS representative on the Alaska Boundary surveys.

Welker Guyot (Menard1964) – A variant of Welker Seamount.

Wendekreis Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 23 55N 20 37W 1707m.  Renamed in English, Tropic Seamount.

Westafrikanischer Schelf (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 15 11S 12 08E.

West Antarctic Basin (Herdman et al. 1956, p. 255) – Referred to as West Antarctic Basin or Ross Basin by Littlehales in 1932.

West Atlantic Basin (Krummel 1907, p. 103) – Westatlantisches Becken is Krummel terminology.

West Atlantic Trough (Supan 1899; Stocks and Wust 1934) – Westatlantische Mulde.

Westatlantische Mulde (Supan 1899) –

West Australia Abyssal Plain (Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 327) –  This plain is un-named by Heezen and Laughton 1963 but described as “An extensive abyssal plain lies west of Australia.  Its limits are ill defined but it appears to be centered between 20 and 30S.”

West Australian Basin (Fairbridge 1954) –

West Australian Ridge (Fairbridge 1954) –

West Caroline Basin (Hess 1948) –

West Caroline Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

West Caroline Basin (Menard1964) –

West Caroline Trench (Hess 1948) –

West Chitimacha Basin (Grim 1992) – Named for an Indian tribe forming the Chitimachan linguistic family, whose earliest known habitat was the shores of Grand Lake, formerly Lake of the Shetimasha, and the banks of Grand River, La.  NOAA EEZ Orca Basin Map.

Western Atlantic Basin (Murray 1895) – Named for geographic location. 

West Europe Basin (Heezen et al. 1959, 12; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 1) –
 
West Florida Escarpment (Heezen et al. 1959, p. 33; Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

West Florida Shelf (Heezen and Menard 1963, Fig. 15) –

Western North America Basin (Northrop et al. 1962) –

West Marianas Basin (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

West Philippine Sea Basin (Dietz 1954) –

West Pigmy Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

West Tamu Basin (Grim 1992) – Pigmy Basin Map.

Wetar Basin (van Riel 1934, Chart XXV; van Riel, 1940,  Fig. 5, p. 88) –

Wharton Basin ((Krummel 1907, p. 121) – Not named but described as a large deep in which the Cable Ship SHERARD OSBORN observed 6459 meters at 18 06 S 101 54 E.  

Wharton Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Northeast of the northeast coast of Australia centered at approximately 18S 105E.

Whiting Dome (Grim 1992) – Named for the NOAA Ship WHITING which conducted medium-depth bathymetric surveys on the upper slope of the Texas-Louisiana slope between 100 and 1,000 meters water depth. NOAA EEZ Mitchell Dome Map.

Whitney Ridge (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) –  Named for Captain Paul C. Whitney, USC&GS, who served in the C&GS from 1902 until the end of WWII.  During his long service in the field he was engaged in directing surveys of the coasts of Alaska, Philippine Islands, Pacific and Atlantic Coasts and acted as Chief of Section of Coast Pilots, Washington Office 1903-1917.  He was transferred to the Navy during WWI and returned to the C&GS at the end of hostilities.  He served as the chief of the Division of Tides and Currents from 1928 until 1942.

Wildcat Knoll (Murray 1947) – In the Gulf of Maine.

Wildcat Seamount (Gibson 1960) – Named for the Coast and Geodetic Survey Vessel WILDCAT which worked in Alaskan waters between 1919 and 1941.

Wild Rise (Murray 1895) – Named for CHALLENGER Expedition artist and secretary John James Wild.
 
Wilkinson Basin (Murray 1947 Plates I  and III) – Lieutenant Commanding John Wilkinson (1821-1891), USN, while assigned to the Coast Survey in command of the Coast Survey Steamer CORWIN, conducted offshore sounding operations in this area in 1859.  Wilkinson was among the most famous and elusive of blockade runners during the Civil War.

Wilkinson Divide (Murray 1947 Plate III) – Lieutenant Commanding John Wilkinson (1821-1891), USN, while assigned to the Coast Survey in command of the Coast Survey Steamer CORWIN, conducted offshore sounding operations in this area in 1859.  Wilkinson was among the most famous and elusive of blockade runners during the Civil War.

Willacy Dome (Grim 1992) – Madre Map.

Williams Crater (Gibson and Nichols, 1953) – Probably named for pioneering vulcanologist Howel Williams (1898-1980) who, although never having worked in Alaska, studied craters and calderas throughout the world.  The calderas discovered during these surveys were among the first submarine calderas discovered anywhere.

Wilmington Canyon (Pratt 1968) –

Wilmington Valley (Veatch, A.C. and Smith, P.A., 1939) – Named for the city of Wilmington under the plan of giving the canyons of this region names suggestive of their relative geographic positions.  A variant of Wilmington Canyon. This canyon was listed as “Delaware” by (Shepard 1938, p. 441).

Wini Seamount (Menard1964) –

Wolverine Bank (List of Oceanic Depths….1888…., p.2-3) – A least depth of 204 fathoms was found at 25 30 S 179 03 W by H.M.S. EGERIA in 1888 while searching for “Wolverene (sic) Bank.  Probably pre-existing name for H.M.S. WOLVERINE.

Woodlark Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Woodworth Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for Captain Ralph Woglom Woodworth (1899-1954 ), USC&GS, who served many years with the C&GS from the 1920’s until the mid-1950’s.  He was among the first Boy Scouts to attain the rank of Eagle Scout. His C&GS career was characterized by world-wide travel epitomized by WWII service with the AAF in which he conducted surveys for aeronautical charts in Africa, the Middle East, and the China-Burma-India areas of operations for which he received the Legion of Merit.  He was commanding officer of the first field party to conduct DEW Line surveys in Arctic Alaska following WWII.

Worzel Basin (Grim 1992) –  NOAA EEZ Worzel Basin Map.  Named for Joseph Lamar Worzel, a seismologist and colleague of Maurice Ewing.

Wright Swell (Murray 1947 Plate V ) – Named for Master Miers F. Wright (? -1890) who served here on the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1875. 

Wyer Seamount (Gibson 1960; Menard1964) – Named for USC&GS Chief Marine Engineer John Wyer (? – 1943).

Wyman Deep (Petermann 1877) – Northeast of Hawaiian Islands.  Probably named for Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), Harvard naturalist, evolutionist, and founder of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy.  Centered approximately at 23N 152W.

Wyman Deep (Murray 1895, Murray1899, Murray and Hjort 1912) – Probably named for Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), Harvard naturalist, evolutionist, and founder of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy.

Wyville Thomson Ridge (Murray 1895; Krummel 1907, p. 129; Sverdrup 1940, p. 50, 53) – Named for Wyville Thomson (1830-1882) who sounded in this area on the PORCUPINE and LIGHTNING between 1868-1870.  Thomson surmised the existence of this ridge based on temperature differences between bottom water temperatures to the north and to the south of the ridge. The ridge was subsequently discovered and named for Thomson posthumously. Thomson led the Challenger Expedition.  Wyville Thomsonrucken in Krummel’s nomenclature.




XYZ

Yakutat Canyon (Menard1964) – Named for proximity to Yakutat Bay, Alaska. 

Yakutat Seavalley (Gibson 1960) – Named for proximity to Yakutat Bay, Alaska.

Yamato Tai (Dietz 1954) – Refers to Niino (1935) as source of information. Alternate for Yamato Ridge.

Yap Ridge (Wiseman and Ovey 1954) –

Yap Trench (Krummel 1907, p. 116; Wiseman and Ovey 1954; Dietz 1954) – Yapgraben in Krummel’s nomenclature who noted a maximum depth of 7538 meters. 

Yap Trough (Hess 1948) –

Yasawa Trough (Fairbridge and Stewart 1960) – 

Yucatan Basin (Supan 1899; Vaughn 1940, p. 67-68; Heezen and Laughton, 1963. P. 332) –  “For the part of the Western Caribbean north and north-west of the Cayman Ridge the name here adopted is Yucatan Basin…. The southern boundary of this basin has already been indicated; the western boundary is the eastern side of the Yucatan Peninsula; the northern and eastern boundaries are the shores of Cuba….” (Vaughn 1940, p. 67-68) Named Yukatan Becken by Supan 1899.

Yukatan-Becken (Supan 1899) –

Yuryaku Seamount (Dietz 1954) –  This seamount is one of the Emperor Seamounts.  Named for Emperor Yuryaku who reigned from 456-479.

Zambezi Shelf (Krummel 1907, p. 113) – Sambesischelf in Krummel’s nomenclature. 

Zephyr-Bank (Maurer and Stocks 1933) – 11 52S 37 25W 30m .  There is no equivalent feature in GEBCO.  The origin of this name is not known.  

Zephyr Reef (List of Oceanic Depths ….1895…., p. 4-5) – Numerous soundings by H.M.S. PENGUIN between August 12 and 14, 1895, in this area indicated a seamount although no reef was discovered.  At 16 00S 177 08.6 W a sounding of 600 fathoms was obtained while at 15 51.7 S 176 46.7 W a sounding of 459 fathoms was observed.  General depths in the area range from 1000 to 1500 fathoms.


Bibliography



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