VPFView User's Guide


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Contents

Preface

Section 1:Introducing the VPFVIEW software

Section 2: VPF database terms

Section 3: Getting started with VPFVIEW

Starting VPFVIEW and displaying a preconstructed view

Fundamental VPFVIEW operations

Section 4: Working with VPFVIEW

Working with a preconstructed view

Creating views and themes

Performing a spatial query

Section 5: The VPFVIEW Main menu

File menu

Symbology

VPF Contents menu

Feature Selection menu

Map Utilities menu

Text Report menu

Window menu

Help menu

Section 6: Using the Library Reference window

Section 7: Using the Map window

Section 8: Using the Feature Selection window

Appendices

Appendix A: Terminology

Appendix B: References

Appendix C: Hardware/software requirements

Appendix D: VPFVIEW files and subdirectories


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Related NIMAMUSE Documents


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Preface


This manual explains the use of the VPFVIEW application software, which isintended for use with databases structured in Vector Product Format (VPF).It begins with sections that introduce the VPFVIEW software and provide generaloperating instructions; it then explains how to use each of the VPFVIEWwindows.

- Intended audience: The VPFVIEW application software operates on Macintosh,UNIX - based workstations, or IBM PC/compatibles with Microsoft Windows orWindows NT. This manual assumes that you understand the concepts and termsmost commonly associated with the use of your system (e.g., window, filedirectory, pathname, menu, and mouse). Terms having to do with the VPFVIEWsoftware and VPF databases are defined in Section 2, and acronyms and termsrelated to geographic information systems (GISs) are defined in AppendixA.

You do not need to know how to use the operating system to generate displayson the screen or to save views with VPFVIEW; but if you are comfortable workingin a windowing environment, you will find using VPFVIEW easier, and you willbe able to take full advantage of the software. For further information aboutthe various operating systems and VPF, see the references cited in AppendixB.

Familiarity with the system and hardware will also make it easier to installthe VPFVIEW software and connect the
CD - ROM. Installation instructions for the VPFVIEW software are providedunder separate cover. To find out how to connect your CD - ROM, however,please refer to the instructions provided by the manufacturer.





Section1: Introducing the VPFVIEW software


The VPFVIEW software is designed to access any database implemented in VectorProduct Format (VPF). The information in this VPFVIEW user's manual is genericand can be used with any VPF database. Therefore, some of the themes, coverages,views, and feature classes used as examples may not be present in the databasethat you are using.

The VPFVIEW software allows data to be selected for display from one or moredatabases by geographic region and data type. For example, you can zoom into a geographic area of interest and request a single type of feature, suchas dual - lane highways, to be displayed. Or, you can display a group ofrelated features (e.g., all road types), combinations of feature types (e.g.,dual - lane highways and international airports), or all features existingin a database. The software also allows you to display and evaluate the databasedirectly from CD - ROM, hard drive, or other media without loading or convertingthe data. The hardware and software requirements for VPFVIEW are given inAppendix C.

The VPFVIEW software is not a geographic information system. The softwareis designed to enable you to view and perform spatial queries on data containedin any VPF database, but its analytical capability is limited to constructingviews and themes.

Once you have generated a display, you can save the results of a data request(i.e., a graphic display or the text of a report), or the data request itself(i.e., a feature selection list) on the hard drive. You can also save selectedlibraries in a user - defined database.

For a description of VPFVIEW software files and subdirectories, see AppendixD. For further information about vector product format, see MIL - STD - 2407,Military Standard - Vector Product Format (cited in Appendix B). VPFalso belongs to a family of standards known as the Digital Geographic InformationExchange Standard (DIGEST). Within this standard, VPF is called the VectorRelational Format (VRF). For further information about DIGEST and VRF seethe Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (also cited in AppendixB).





Section 2: VPF database terms


A database is a logical collection of files managed as a unit. A VPFdatabase contains the information about a geographic area, including wherefeatures are located; whether they are represented as points, lines, or polygons;and what the attributes (or characteristics) of the feature are. Becausestoring this kind of information often requires large databases that arecumbersome to manipulate, the information is divided intolibraries.

A library is a database section defined by geographicextent. For example, a large world database containing country boundaries,roads, hydrographic features, and so on, could be divided into several libraries,each containing the data for a continent. The libraries might be North America,South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica.

A coverage is a basic unit of data storage. A coverage can be thoughtof as a kind of file folder. Within the database, information is put intoone of several "folders" according to a classification system created bythe database's designer. For example, a coverage named "Transportation" mightcontain all features and their attributes that are related to transportation,such as railroads, roads, and airports.

Coverages give the database its structure, so the coverages contained ina VPF database cannot be altered by the user with VPFVIEW software.

A coverage can have one or more feature classes. A featureclass is a group of related features that is made up of one or more typesof primitives (points, lines, and polygons; polygons are alsocalled areas). In the Transportation coverage used in the example above,railroads, roads, and airports might belong to different feature classes.The Airports feature class could be made up of point features representingairport terminal locations, line features representing runways, and areafeatures representing airport property.

A feature class can be classified as one of three feature classtypes. The Airports feature class just described is a complexfeature class, because it includes more than one kind of primitive. A featureclass that contains only one kind of primitive is called a simple featureclass. The third feature class type is text.

Each feature class has one or more associated themes. For example,a library might contain a coverage called "Roads" that contains line features.The line feature class might have an attribute that allows the linesto be categorized as follows:

- Highways

- Secondary Roads

- Tracks, Trails, or Footpaths

Each of these categories is a theme that is associated with the Roads linefeature class. The VPFVIEW software allows you to create themes from theinformation contained in the database according to your specifications. Atheme is defined with a logical expression that uses attribute names, logicaloperators, and attribute values. In the example above, the theme"Highways" might be defined as TYPE (the attribute name) equals 1 (the attributevalue).

Themes can be changed. For example, suppose that the Roads coverage containsanother attribute that specifies whether a road is functional or underconstruction. A different collection of themes could be created for the Roadsline features as follows:

- Highways, Functional

- Highways, Under Construction

- Secondary Roads, Functional

- Secondary Roads, Under Construction

A view is a collection of themes. If a database accompanies this manual,it includes a number of preconstructed views so that the database can bedisplayed immediately.

Whenever you create a new theme or delete a pre - existing one, you modifyyour view of the database. The views you construct to suit your own applicationsfor the database can be stored and retrieved, as well as displayed. VPFVIEWenables you to create a view with data from multiple databases andlibraries.

The relationships between a library and its coverages and feature classes,as well as user - defined views and themes, are illustrated in Figures 2- 1 and 2 - 2. The structure of the logical expressions that will allow youto create themes is discussed in Sections 4 and 8.

Other terms and acronyms related to geographic information systems (GISes)are defined in Appendix A.


Figure 2 - 1. Generic view structure for views accessinga single database. Note that views and themes (in italics) are not part ofthe Vector Product Format (VPF) data hierarchy; they are logical constructscreated by the VPFVIEW software.


Figure 2 - 2. Sample predefined view structure.






Section 3: Getting started with VPFVIEW


VPFVIEW has a user - friendly interface where tools and functions are accessedthrough various windows and menus. Once you learn the basic operations, suchas locating and selecting menu options, you will be able to successfullynavigate through the software.

This section will get you started with VPFVIEW. It explains how to startVPFVIEW and describes the default windows that first appear. It then relatesthe steps necessary to display a preconstructed view, which is the recommendedstarting point for learning the software

- Conventions: This manual contains many examples ofcommands and selection of menu options. In these examples, what the computerdisplays appears in plain text, and any characters typed in by the user appearin bold text. The names of menu options and buttonsare placed inside quotation marks, for example, "Load ..." or "Apply".

Starting VPFVIEW and displaying
a preconstructed view


Before you can start, the VPFVIEW software must resideon your hard drive. Hardware and software requirements are listed in AppendixC. Installation instructions are provided under separate cover.

- Starting VPFVIEW: VPFView v2.1 is started differentlydepending upon the operating environment (in cases where a command line istyped, appending a path to a pre - existing view to the command will causethe program to automatically load that view once the title screen clears).

Sun Sparcstation:

1) By typing the name of the VPFView v2.1 executable file on the system ina command window. An operating system path or alias should be set up so theuser may simply type 'vpfview' at the command prompt to start VPFView v2.1.The following process environments must be set up:

VPFVIEW_HOME variable set to the VPFView v2.1 installed directory

Ex: setenv VPFVIEW_HOME /express1/vpfview/bin

UIDPATH variable set to the VPFView v2.1 installed directory whichincludes a (%U) at the end of the path which XVT will fill in with an appropriateUID filename.

Ex: setenv UIDPATH /express1/vpfview/bin/%U

XVTPATH must identify the full path to the print directory providedwith the executable. This allows the program to print reports.

Ex: setenv XVTPATH /express1/vpfview/bin/print

The process should only be run from within Motif 1.1 or later, although itsstatic compilation will allow for it to operate under OpenLook version 3.0and later with some minor problems.

2) By double - clicking on the executable's icon within the file managerprovided with OpenLook. The process environments must be set up as shownabove.

Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Windows 95, and Microsoft Windows NT

1) By double - clicking on the icon for the program under Program Manager.

2) By typing the command line for the program from the FILE and RUN... optionswithin Program Manager.

3) By double - clicking on its executable icon in File Manager.

4) Under Windows NT and Windows 95, the program may also be started froman MSDOS shell by typing the program name 'vpfview'. The process environmentshould be modified to include the path to the executable directory in thePATH variable.

5) Under Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 95, the program may also be started byselecting "run" from the start menu located on the button bar which is usuallyat the bottom of the screen. Then type in or locate the path and name ofthe executable.

Macintosh

1) By double - clicking on the program icon. Since the Macintosh does notaccept command lines in the same manner as UNIX or MSDOS, it is not possibleto auto - load a view on the Macintosh.

- Default Screen Layout: After VPFVIEW is started, adefault window arrangement will come up on the screen. Because of the abilityto change screen resolutions, screen real estate is a problem for this program.At lower resolutions, it is not possible to display the three window GUI.Therefore, the program contains two operating modes: the one window modeand the three window mode. The program uses some startup code to check theplatform and to determine the appropriate mode in which to run.

The Three Window Mode: In the three window mode, VPFVIEW Version 2.1contains a map window, which displays all coverage level VPF data, a libraryreference window, which displays an outline of all libraries within the viewand the current study area, and a feature selection window, which displaysthe symbology and selection status of the themes within your view. The mainmenu resides at the top of the screen.

The One Window Mode: In the one window mode, VPFVIEW Version 2.1 willdisplay only the map window at all times so as to save on screen space. Further,the map window will take up the entire screen, whereas in the three windowmode it is relatively square and fits in the left - hand side of the screen.The feature selection window as well as others are still available, but arenow accessed through the main menu which takes on several modifications dueto the reduced screen real estate. This mode maintains all the functionalityof the three window mode, but more of the functionality is accessed fromthe menu. In addition, there is no library reference window. Any time thelibrary reference map is requested, it is displayed in the map window.

As a general rule, if the screen resolution is at or above 1024x768, theprogram will start in the three window mode. Otherwise, it will start inthe one window mode.

- Loading a view: You can begin displaying data eitherby loading/installing a preconstructed view or creating a new view. The procedurefor creating a view is described in Chapter 4. The procedure for installinga view is described in Chapter 5. The easiest way to begin learning the softwareis to start by selecting and loading an existing view following the stepsoutlined below.

- In the VPFVIEW window, select the "File" menu from the VPFVIEW window menubar.

- Select "View" (the first option), then slide your cursor to theright to view another list of options. Choose "Load ...".

- The Load View dialog window will appear. Select or enter the drive andpath to the "env" file for the desired view. The view is a directory whosename ends with a '%' and the env file is located within that directory.

- Click "Load" and wait a few moments as the system accesses the data andloads the view. The extent of the library or libraries used for the viewwill appear in the Library Reference window. In one window mode you willbe presented with the Library Reference Window so you can choose a studyarea. Move the box over the area you would like to display. In three windowmode the study area is automatically set at the center of the Library ReferenceWindow. To move to the area you wish to display, Click on the "Zoom/Pan"button in the Library Reference window. A crosshair will appear inside theextent box, and you will be able to move it by moving the mouse. Enlargethe extent box by pressing the 'o' key (out) a few times. Reduce the extentbox by pressing the 'i' key (in) a few times. Finally, position the box ina new location and click the mouse button once to select it. For furtherdiscussion on selecting a study area and the Library Reference Window seeChapter 6.

- Drawing a theme: When you first load a view, all ofthe themes in the view may be deselected. As a result, the Map display windowwill appear blank. To display some features in the Map window, you will needto use some tools in the Feature Selection window, which is the lower rightwindow of the default three window arrangement. To bring up the Feature Selectionwindow from one window mode, choose "Select..." from the Feature Selectionmenu.

Use the Feature Selection window to select and display the themes you desire.You can view themes in different directories and/or libraries, as well asin different coverages, by making selections from the pop - up lists. Checkthe box next to the name of the theme you want to view. To save time, youcan select more than one theme before you click "Draw," and then all of thenewly selected themes will be drawn at once. (The order in which themes aredrawn is explained in Section 8, "Using the Feature Selection Window.")

If the display remains blank, the theme(s) you have selected may not haveany features within the geographic region that is selected. Try selectinga theme from a different coverage. Select a new coverage from the coveragemenu in the Feature Selection window. The themes available for the selectedcoverage will appear in the window.

You may also try zooming out to a larger geographic extent. Another possibilityis that the theme's symbol is white, like the background of the display window,and needs to be changed to a different color. Zooming and changing symbologyare explained in more detail in Chapter 4 and 5.

To cancel a "Draw" request in progress, click on the stop button in the Mapwindow.



- Note: The first time that a particular theme is drawn for a giventile, VPFVIEW creates selection set files and indexes in the view directory.These files store the results of a complex and time - consuming operationafter the initial draw for each tile, allowing subsequent draws to be executedfaster. See Appendix D for further discussion.


- On - line help: VPFVIEW is equipped with on - linehelp. To access on - line help, select an option from the help menu on theVPFVIEW main window. To search for a particular topic, use the keyword searchfacility or view the Contents.


- Ending a VPFVIEW session: To end a VPFVIEW session,select the "Quit" or "Exit" option from the "File" menu in the VPFVIEW mainwindow.

Fundamental VPFVIEW operations


If you have followed the exercise above (loading and displaying a preconstructedview) you have already gained some first - hand experience with VPFVIEW windowsand menus. This section summarizes the fundamental techniques necessary forusing VPFVIEW, including those used in the exercise.

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Opening and closing
menus and selecting menu options

The VPFVIEW main window contains several option menus.

- To open a menu, place the cursor arrow on the menu button and press andhold the mouse button. To select a menu option drag the cursor to the desiredoption, and release the mouse button. The mouse button can also be pressedand released and the menu and option buttons will remain visible.

- Some menu options have their own list of options. A small right - pointingarrow next to the menu option name indicates that there is another optionlist (for example, the "View" option in the "File" menu has a right - pointingarrow; the submenu lists the options "Load...," "Create...," "Delete...,""Copy...," "Rename", and "Install ...").

- The names of some menu options end in an ellipsis (e.g., "Data Dictionary...").The ellipses indicate that a dialog window will pop up if the option isselected.

- To close a menu without making a selection, move the mouse to another areaof the screen and release the mouse button.

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Command buttons

VPFVIEW also uses buttons for executing commands. Command buttons containa name (e.g., "Apply") but do not have an arrow or an ellipsis. When a functionis available, the command name will appear normal (i.e., dark). If the functionis not currently available, such as when another procedure must first becompleted, then the command name will appear gray and fuzzy. To execute acommand, click on the command button using the mouse button. Command buttonsin error or confirmation dialogs that have a black outline are default commandsthat may also be selected by pressing the <return> key.

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Pulldown menu bars

Pulldown menu bars are one method of accessing lists in VPFVIEW windows.They are most often used for selecting databases, libraries, and coverages,but projections and other display parameters are also selected from pulldownmenus. A pulldown menu bar has three parts: a title, a menu arrow, and adisplay of the currently selected item from the list. To view the menu ormake a new selection, use the mouse button to click on the menu arrow, thenselect the desired item from the list.

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Scrolling lists

Scrolling lists are used by VPFVIEW for displaying a long list, such as alist of colors, symbols, or names. A list is viewed using a slider bar, whichis usually located at the right side of the list. Use the mouse button tomove the slider bar to see more items.





Section 4: Working with VPFVIEW


This section describes the steps necessary to perform some of the most commonoperations with VPFVIEW, including modifying preconstructed themes and views,creating a new view, and performing a database query. The purpose of thissection is to help you to begin learning the VPFVIEW software. It does notcover all of the VPFVIEW tools, and those it does cover may not be discussedcompletely. Sections 5Û8 describe the uses and functions of all VPFVIEWwindows, dialogs, command buttons, and menu options.

Note: In this section, "click on..." means to click on an object usingthe mouse button.



Working with a preconstructed view


If you have not already loaded a view, begin by following the steps in Section3, "Getting started with VPFVIEW," for loading an existing view.

Creating views and themes


- Creating a view: Access the "Create a View" windowby selecting the "File" menu in the VPFVIEW window at the top left of thescreen. Select the first option, "View," and then select "Create..." fromthe submenu. The "Create View" window will pop up.

Add a database to the list by clicking "Add." A dialog window will ask youto locate a Database Header Table (DHT) or Library Attribute Table ( LAT) file within the database. These files are located within the databasedirectory. If you want the view to access more than one database, click "Add"again. (If you make a mistake, the "Remove" button will delete the highlighteddatabase from the view.) At this point, all of the available libraries ineach of the selected databases will be included in the view. If you wishto include only certain libraries, highlight the appropriate database inthe scrolling list, then add or remove the desired libraries from the scrollinglist of libraries. Then press "create".

Next is a dialog window asking you to locate the symbol set which you doby locating any one of the ".sym" files in the symbol set directory (ex.:markers.sym). This directory will have been installed in the same directoryas the VPFVIEW binary or executable file.

Please note that VPFVIEW 2.x will not work with the symbol sets deliveredwith previous VPFVIEW versions. The software employs a version detectionscheme on the symbol set to determine if it is valid.

You will now be prompted to enter the location and name for the view. Rememberthat its name must be less than or equal to eight characters in length andthat the last character must be a percent (%) symbol. After you have selectedthe name and path, the view will be created and loaded by the application.This may take a couple of minutes depending upon the speed of your machineand the complexity of the VPF databases involved.

The selected database libraries will be loaded and the default themes willappear in the Feature Selection window. Default themes include one themefor every feature class within the library. A default theme includes allfeatures in a feature class. You can create themes, however, that specifya subset of features within the library. The next few paragraphs explainhow to create such a theme.

- Creating a theme: Begin creating a theme by clicking"New Theme..." in the Feature Selection window. The Theme Properties windowwill appear.

First, select a database, library, and coverage using the corresponding menus.Then select a feature class by clicking on the Feature Class arrow and makinga selection from the list. All of the feature classes that are availablefor the selected coverage will be listed.

Click on the "Dictionary..." button at the bottom of the Theme Propertieswindow to display the data dictionary. Within the Dictionary window, selectthe correct library, coverage, and feature class if they are not alreadyselected.

You will be able to scroll through a list of attributes that are availablefor the selected feature class. The attributes should be defined, and thevalid values or codes and their meanings should be shown. Because the featureclasses and attributes vary from one database to the next, an actual examplefrom your database cannot be given here. Look for an attribute that classifiesthe features. For example, a Political Boundary Lines feature class may containan attribute called "TYPE" that has the following codes:

1 = International

2 = Subnational, level 1

3 = Subnational, level 2

4 = Municipal

Another example is a Buildings Point feature class that contains an attributecalled "HGT" which indicates the height of the building in meters.

- Building a logical

expression: You can define a theme that includes only some of the featuresin the feature class using a logical expression, which you type on the linemarked "Expression:" in the Theme Properties window. The proper format forlogical expressions is described in detail in Section 8. A simple expressionmust take the following form:

<attribute name> <logical operator> <value>.

Some logical expressions that use the hypothetical Political Boundary Linesand Populated Places Points feature classes are given in Table 4 - 1. Anasterisk (*) on the Expression line selects all of the features in the featureclass.


Table 4 - 1. Examples of logical expressions for defining afeature selection set, called a theme

Expression Selection set

TYPE = 1 International boundaries

Type < 3 International and level one Subnationalboundaries

HGT >= 46 Buildings with height greater than or equal to46 meters

type=2 AND type=3 Subnational boundaries

After you have defined the theme using a logical expression, enter the nameor description of the theme on the top line in the Theme Properties window.This name will identify the theme in the Feature Selection window.

The current symbol for the theme is shown in the Theme Properties window.To choose different symbology, click on the symbol. The Symbology windowwill pop up, and you can select a color and symbol just as you did previouslyin this section when you were working with a preconstructed view.

When you are satisfied with the definition, name, features, and symbol forthe theme, click "Apply." In a few moments, the new theme will be generatedand should appear at the bottom of the list of themes in the Feature Selectionwindow. To display the new theme, click on the theme check box in the FeatureSelection window, then click "Draw."



- Note: The first time that a particular theme is drawnfor a given tile, VPFVIEW creates selection set files and indexes in theview directory. These files store the results of a complex and time - consumingoperation after the initial draw for each tile, allowing subsequent drawsto be executed faster. See Appendix D for further discussion.


- Zooming and panning: The Library Reference window displaysa map of the entire extent of the selected library or libraries. A red rectangledefines the extent of the area that is currently displayed in the Map window.Click on the "Zoom/Pan" button in the Library Reference window. (In one windowmode, this Reference map is accessed by choosing Zoom/Pan - >ReferenceMap from the Map Utilities menu.) A crosshair will appear inside the extentbox, and you will be able to move it by moving the mouse. Enlarge the extentbox by pressing the 'o' key (out) a few times. Reduce the extent box by pressingthe 'i' key (in) a few times. With a three button mouse, you may also usethe right mouse button to zoom out and the center button to zoom in. Finally,position the box in a new location and click the mouse button once (the leftbutton on the three button mouse) to select it. The display will be drawnagain showing the new extent. If you want to get out of the "Zoom/Pan" modewithout making a selection, press <escape>.

Another way to pan or zoom is by clicking on the "Zoom" button in the Mapwindow. (In one window mode, using zoom on this Coverage Map is done by choosing

Zoom/Pan - >Coverage Map from the Map Utilities menu.) Position the crosshairwhere you want the center of the new display to be. Press the 'i'key to zoom in, the 'o' key to zoom out, and click themouse button to finalize the selection. With a three button mouse, you mayalso use the right button to zoom out, the center button to zoom in and theleft button to select it. If you want to get out of the "Zoom" mode withoutmaking a selection, press <escape>.

- Changing symbology: In the Feature Selection window,click on the symbol for the selected theme. The Symbology window will popup. This window contains two scrolling lists, one for symbols and one forcolors, for each feature class. Which list is activated will depend on whetherthe theme you selected contains areas, lines, point features, or text.

Change the color by scrolling through the list and clicking on the desiredcolor. Select a new symbol in the same way. When you are finished makingselections, click "Apply." If you change your mind, you can click "Reset"to go back to the last applied symbols and colors. The new symbology willappear in the Feature Selection window. Close the Symbology window. Click"Draw" in the Feature Selection window to display the new symbology.


* Warning: The changes you have made to the symbology must be savedbefore exiting the program or the original symbology will be restored uponprogram exit. See Chapter 5, Symbology, for a discussion on saving yourchanges.


- Saving a feature selection list: If you want to usethe list of features that you have selected in a future session with thisview, you must save the feature selection list. To save the current featureselection list, go to the VPFVIEW window and click the "File" menu. Choosethe option "Feature Selection List," and then choose "Save As..." in thesubmenu. A window entitled "Save Feature Selection List" will appear. Entera name for the file, and click "OK." If the feature selection list is named"default.fsl" it will automatically be loaded with the view in future sessions.


Performing a spatial query


You can find out attribute information about a feature that is displayedby clicking on the "Spatial Query" button in the Map window. (In one windowmode, spatial query is activated by selecting the spatial query option underthe VPF contents menu.) If more than one feature class type is currentlydisplayed, a pop - up window will appear in which you can select the typeof feature classes you want to query: line, point, or area features, or acombination of them. When you have chosen the feature class types, click"Continue."

Next, position the crosshair that appears in the display on the feature(s)in which you are interested, and click the mouse button. Four things willoccur.

- The point that you selected will be displayed with a small circle.

- The selected feature(s) will be identified in the display by a rectangle(for an area or a line) or a circle (for a point) that contains the extentof the feature.

- The identification number of the feature(s) will be displayed, as wellas a small point which indicates the location that was queried.

- The attributes in the data dictionary that are associated with the selectedfeature(s) will be shown in a pop - up window.

The spatial query function is discussed in greater detail in Section 7, "Usingthe Map window."





Section 5: The VPFVIEW Main Menu


The VPFVIEW main menu contains most of the options for performing specifictasks within the application. In one window mode (see Section 3, Gettingstarted with VPFVIEW/default screen layout), all functions are accessed fromthis menu (Figure 5 - 1). The default menu in the three window mode containsthe following menu options: File, VPF Contents, Text Report, Window andHelp.

The "File" menu contains options for performing operations on files, suchas saving and restoring symbology, feature selection lists, views, and screenimages; generating plot files of the map contents; saving a portion of aVPF database and library; and quitting the application.

The "VPF Contents" menu contains options for displaying the information inthe metadata files for selected VPF databases and libraries contained withinyour view, displaying the on - line data dictionary for a specified VPF database,and selecting a new study area by querying the gazetteer coverage (if oneexists) of a VPF database for a specific place name. In the one window mode,there is an additional option for performing spatial queries which is normallyaccessed through a button in the map window.

The "Text Report" menu contains options for generating two types of reports.An area content summary report lists the number of features found withinthe current study area. This can be performed on selected themes or all ofthem. A feature location list report shows the geographic location or boundingrectangle of all features from a specified feature class which fall withinthe current study area.

The "Window" menu allows the user to bring focus to any window currentlyopen in the program.

The "Help" menu has on line help. Click on the contents option to see helpspecific to VPFVIEW.

The one window program mode also contains the "Feature Selection" menu, whichopens the Feature Selection window from which all feature selection and drawingis controlled; and the "Map Utilities" menu, which contains options forperforming zooms/pans and distance calculations on the map, and modifyingthe properties of both the coverage map and library reference displays.

The operation and functions of options within these menus are described inthis section.




Figure 5 - 1. The VPFVIEW main menu (one window mode)



Note: In this section, "click on..." means to click on an object usingthe mouse button. For more information on using buttons, windows, and dialogs,see page 3 - 5 Fundamental VPFVIEWoperations.


File menu


The "File" menu contains options for performing operations on files, suchas saving and restoring symbology, feature selection lists, views, and screenimages; generating plot files; changing the default workspace for files;saving a portion of a VPF library; and installing views. The option to Quitthe application is also contained in this menu.

- View: The "View" option contains a sub - menu thatallows the user to manipulate existing views and create new views. (Thedefinition of a view and a discussion of its relationship to other data structurecomponents can be found in Section 2, "VPF database terms".) The availableoptions include Load, Create, Delete, Copy, Rename, and Install. The functionsof each of the sub - menu options are explained below.

Load...

When the "Load..." option is selected, the program will display the loadview dialog. Using the mouse, navigate through the file system to locatean "env" file for a view. This file is located in the view directory. Rememberthat views are folders with an eight character maximum length name, and thelast character must be a percent (%) symbol. If you are attempting to loada view from CD - ROM, the view names will most likely end in an underscore(_) character. This is the standard naming convention for views containedon a CD - ROM. However, views cannot be run directly from CD - ROM. If theapplication finds that the view is not in the proper VPFVIEW version 2.1format for your system, it will alert you to the fact with a message andask if you want to install the view on your system. Installing a view isthe process of updating the view's format and correcting the paths to thedatabases and/or symbol set used by the view.

Create...

When the "Create..." option is selected, a dialog window named "Create View"appears. The Create View dialog provides a means to create a new view froma set of selected databases and libraries.

Add a database to the list by clicking "Add." A dialog window will ask youto locate a Database Header Table (DHT) or Library Attribute Table ( LAT) file within the database. These files are located within the databasedirectory. If you want the view to access more than one database, click "Add"again. (If you make a mistake, the "Remove" button will delete the highlighteddatabase from the view.) At this point, all of the available libraries ineach of the selected databases will be included in the view. If you wishto include only certain libraries, highlight the appropriate database inthe scrolling list, then add or remove the desired libraries from the scrollinglist of libraries. Then press "create".

Next is a dialog window asking you to locate the symbol set which you doby locating one of the ".sym" files in the symbol set directory (ex.:markers.sym). This directory will have been installed in the same directoryas the VPFVIEW binary or executable file.

Please note that VPFVIEW 2.x will not work with the symbol sets deliveredwith previous VPFVIEW versions. The software employs a version detectionscheme on the symbol set to determine if it is valid.

You will now be prompted to enter the location and name for the view. Rememberthat its name must be less than or equal to eight characters in length andthat the last character must be a percent (%) symbol. After you have selectedthe name and path, the view will be created and loaded by the application.This may take a couple of minutes depending upon the speed of your machineand the complexity of the VPF databases involved.

The selected database libraries will be loaded and the default themes willappear in the Feature Selection window. Default themes include one themefor every feature class within the library. A default theme includes allfeatures in a feature class. You can create themes, however, that specifya subset of features within the library.

.

The "Cancel" button closes the dialog and cancels the view creation process.

Delete...

When the "Delete..." option is selected, the application will display thedelete dialog from which you select a view to delete by locating the "env"file within a view. Once you have located the file, the software will askyou to confirm the deletion of the view. If you elect to delete the view,the software will remove it from your system, prompting you if any errorsoccur during the delete process. Please note that you may not delete a viewwhich is currently loaded.



* Warning: The pre - defined views can be deleted. Therefore itis important that you have a backup copy of these views as they were providedon the distribution medium. To maintain the integrity of the pre - definedview, make use of the "Copy" and "Rename" options (described below) to createviews that you can modify.


Copy...

When the "Copy..." option is selected the application will display the copydialog from which you may select a view to copy by locating the "env" filewithin the view. Once you have selected a view, the software will displaythe standard file dialog from which you may specify a name and path for thecopy. Please remember that the name of the copied view must be no longerthan eight characters, and the last character must be a percent (%) symbol.If the view already exists, the program will ask you to confirm the overwrite.If another folder exists with the same name but is not a view, the programwill report an error and ask for a new name and path for the copy. Once youhave entered an acceptable name and path for the copy, the program will makea duplicate of the chosen view. Note that you may not overwrite a view whichis currently loaded. In addition, you may not copy a view over itself.

Rename...

When the "Rename..." option is selected, the application will display thestandard file dialog from which you may select a view to rename by locatingthe "env" file within the view directory. Once you have selected a view,the software will display the standard file dialog from which you may specifya name and path for the renamed view. Please remember that the name of therenamed view must be no longer than eight characters, and the last charactermust be a percent (%) symbol. If you only wish to move the view, locate anew path and keep the same view name. The program will then move and/or renamethe view. Note that you may not overwrite another view with this option andthat you may not rename the currently loaded view.

Install...

The install process gives you the capability to copy a view from one systemto another or to update any view for which you have changed the locationof the databases or symbol set. In addition, it can update view formats tothe new VPFVIEW 2.1 view format. This process currently works for views youare transferring between UNIX, MS - Windows, and the Macintosh environments,and it will also update any views stored in the original DOS format. Pleasenote that this process completely overwrites the existing view, so you mightwant to make backup copies in case any problems occur during the install.

When the "Install..." option is selected, the software will warn you thatthe install view process completely overwrites the view. It will then displaythe standard open file dialog from which you may select the view which youwant to install by locating the "env" file within the view directory. (Press"Cancel" if you want to abort the install process.) Once you have selecteda view, the program will read the information contained in the view to determineits format and will display the install view configuration dialog.

Each database path in the view must be updated. To change these paths, performthe following steps

1) Click on a database path you want to change.

2) Click on "Modify Database Path". The open file dialog will appear fromwhich you may locate the matching database on your file system by locatinga Database Header Table (DHT) or Library Attribute Table (LAT) from withinthe database directory.

After all database paths have been updated click "Install". Next, the symbolset path must be selected by locating a ".sym" file from within the symbolset directory (ex. "markers.sym").

The view will be installed and you will be asked if you want to load theinstalled view


- Symbology: A view's symbology file includes the symboland color identifiers that VPFVIEW uses to represent a theme when it drawsthe theme's coverage data. The current symbology file name is always displayedin the map window status bar beside the name of the view. When a view iscreated, a default symbology file named default.sym is created for it andis loaded with the view every time the view is loaded. When you first loada view, this is the symbology file name that you will see displayed in themap window. The available options under the symbology menu include Save,Save As Default, Save As..., Load..., Add CGM Symbol..., and Refresh AllSymbols.



Note: Since point symbols are coded with special formatting to allowmulti - colored symbols, the color of a point symbol is not saved with asymbology file.

Save...

The "Save" option will save any changes you have made to the symbology setthat is currently in use. (The name of the current symbology file is alwaysdisplayed in the bottom right corner of the map window.) When this optionis selected, a warning dialog will appear and ask you to confirm that youwish to proceed, since the current symbology file will be overwritten.

Save As Default

The "Save As Default..." option will save any changes you have made to thesymbology file that is currently in use to the file "default.sym". ("default.sym"will then become the current symbology file and displayed in the bottom rightcorner of the map window.) When this option is selected, a warning dialogwill appear and ask you to confirm that you wish to proceed.

Save As...

The "Save As..." option allows you to save any changes you have made to thesymbology file currently in use as a new file. When this option is selected,a standard file save dialog will be displayed prompting you to enter thename and location for the new symbology file (the extension ".sym" willautomatically be added). The new symbology file can be recalled for use withthe view at a later time, such as when the default symbol set is loaded withthe view in your next VPFVIEW session. The ability to save various symbologyfiles is also useful when more than one person will be using the same view,but different symbology is required or preferred.

Load...

Use the "Load..." option to load a previously saved symbology file. Whenthis option is selected, a standard open file dialog is displayed, promptingyou to locate a symbology file to load. One of the available files shouldbe default.sym. Select a symbology file name from the list, and click "Open."The program will load it and update both the map window display and the featureselection window. If you want to exit without changing symbology files, click"Cancel."

Add CGM Symbol...

Use the "Add CGM Symbol..." to add one or more Clear - Text CGM (ComputerGraphics Metafile) formatted symbols to a VPFVIEW symbol set. This menu optioninvokes the CGM dialog from which you may add new symbols to the markers.symfile for a particular symbol set. Note that this operation makes permanentchanges to the VPFVIEW symbol set.

Refresh All Symbols

Use the "Refresh All Symbols" option to reload all symbols and refresh thecurrent symbology. The software presently allows you to modify the colorof the multi - colored point symbols. However, the color of the entire symbolis modified. This operation will reset the changes you have made to the colorof any marker symbols and will update both the map and all themes in thefeature selection window.


- Feature Selection List: The Feature Selection ListMenu contains several options for loading and saving feature selection lists.A feature selection list contains the set of all themes which you have chosento display in the map window. The current feature selection list is maintainedinternally by the application and is only updated when you press the drawor apply buttons in the feature selection window. These options are helpfulif you frequently display the same features because, by default, the FeatureSelection List is reset with all themes turned off each time the selectedview is changed. If you save a feature selection list to a file called"default.fsl", this will automatically be loaded when you load the view.The available options in this menu include "Save As..." and "Load..."


Save As...

Save the current set of selected themes with the "Save As..." option. Inthe standard save file dialog, enter a name for the selected theme list (theextension ".fsl" will automatically be added), and click "Save." If the fileis named default.fsl, it will be loaded automatically when the view is loadedand any selected themes will be displayed for the default study area. Toexit without saving a feature selection list, click "Cancel."

Load...

Load a previously saved set of themes by selecting the "Load..." option.The standard open file dialog will appear. It displays the names of the featureselection list files that are available in the current view. Select a fileby clicking on its name, then click "Open". When the file is loaded, thethemes in the feature selection window are updated, but the map is not redrawnuntil you press the draw button in the feature selection window. To exitwithout loading a file, click "Cancel."

- Image: The "Image" menu allows the user to save thecontents of the map window to a user - specified bitmap file or to displaya bitmap. This menu contains two options, "Load" and "Save", with furtheroptions for supporting the Microsoft Windows Bitmap (BMP) and Apple MacintoshPICT image formats. Please note that PICT is only supported on the Macintoshdue to limitations in the XVT development toolkit. Image loading is handleddifferently depending upon the program mode.

When you load an image in the one window mode, it is displayed in the mapwindow and the main menu is inaccessible. The label on the stop button inthe map window is changed to "Restore", and you must press this button torestore normal program operation.

When you load an image in the three window mode, it is displayed in its ownwindow. You may have a maximum of ten images loaded at any one time.

Save

Select the "Save" option, then select either a Windows Bitmap or MacintoshPICT file. You will be presented with the standard save file dialog fromwhich you may select the name and directory for the saved image. You maysave this image in any directory/folder on your system provided that VPFVIEWhas write permission at that location. Once you have selected the name andlocation, the software will save the image. This image may be inserted intoother applications, word processing documents, or loaded and displayed withinVPFVIEW.

Load

Select the "Load" option, then select an image format from the displayedmenu. You will be presented with the standard open file dialog from whichyou may select an image in the format you have chosen. The program will thenload that image and display it. The manner in which the image is displayedvaries depending upon the current operating mode.

In the one window mode, the program will save the current program state includingthe map window display and show the image in place of the map. The main menuwill be inaccessible and the stop button on the map window will read "Restore"instead of "Stop". You will need to press this button to return to normalprogram operation.

In the three window mode, the program will display the image in its own separatewindow. You may have up to ten images loaded at any given moment. The programwill alert you if you have the maximum number loaded and attempt to loadanother image.

- Hardcopy: The "Hardcopy..." option of the file menu allows you to createa vector - based encapsulated Postscript plot file of the current display.The Hardcopy dialog provides the setup and print facility for generatingan encapsulated Postscript output of the contents shown in the Map window.The user is responsible for printing this file to a Postscript Level 1 printer(Level 2 for color). The "Hardcopy" dialog contains several options whichyou may choose to include or not on the plot using the check boxes. The optionsare as follows:

- Legend (A legend consists of the symbology descriptions of all themes foundin the output)

North Arrow

Projection Name

Scale Bar

Lat - Lon Grid

Color (gray scale or color Postscript - When checked, the output will bein color. To print color, your printer must be Postscript Level 2 capable.Otherwise, it must be Postscript Level 1 capable.

The Title edit box allows you to type in a title for the output. If leftblank, no title will appear.

You should also enter the page width and height (in inches) in the respectiveinput fields. The recommended minimum page size is 8.5 by 11 inches; themaximum page size should not exceed the maximum page size of your outputdevice.

Click "Continue" and the standard save file dialog will ask you for a pathand filename for the hardcopy file.

To dismiss the "Hardcopy" window without taking any action, select"Cancel."

- Save Selected Data: Selecting the "Save Selected Data"option enables you to save selected coverages of a library being used togenerate your current display. The saved data will include all coveragesthat you have selected from the library for the study area shown. When theoption is selected, the Save Selected Data dialog appears.

The "Save Selected Data" option requires that you specify a database pathname and library name, which allows you to save the current study area ina different database or library. Be aware that the "Selected Data" optionresults in the creation of a new VPF database containing hundreds or perhapsthousands of files, and as a result may be a lengthy process. In addition,a significant amount of disk space may be necessary to accommodate the saveddata. There is a "Check disk space first?" option you may choose to check,but it is time consuming and is not an accurate assessment of the disk spacerequired. (Note: an error dialog will appear only if there is notadequate disk space.)

Although the area for which data are saved resembles the display area, itis not precisely the same as the display area. To understand exactly whatthe subset will include, you need to know certain things about the organizationof VPF databases. The fully detailed libraries within a VPF database maybe subdivided into geographic areas or tiles of a predetermined size (thesize of a single tile will differ from one database to another). The "SaveSelected Data" option saves data by complete tile, not by display area (Figure5 - 4). This option will save the data for an entire tile even if your studyarea overlaps only part of a tile or if the study area is contained entirelywithin a single tile. However, the "Save Selected Data" option will not workfor untiled data. When you are ready to proceed, select "Save". To dismissthe window without taking any action select "Cancel".

Figure 5 - 4. Relationship between study areas andtiles


- Exit: The "Exit" option exits the application.

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VPF Contents menu


- Database: The "Database" menu option reveals the pathnames of the databases in the current view. Selecting one of the path nameswill activate the Database Contents window for displaying textual informationabout a database. The left - hand column in the pop - up window lists oneor more file names which can be selected. The contents of the selected filewill be displayed in the right - hand section of the window.

These files (known as "VPF database metadata tables") may include suchinformation as the name of the database, the data source, the publisher ofthe data, the number of media volumes required for database distribution,the geographic extent of the database, and the available database documentation.The information list may contain two parts: first, the attributes and theirdefinitions (e.g., XMIN Westernmost longitude), followed by another listof the same attributes and their contents (e.g., XMIN: Û61.500000).

When you are finished viewing the files, dismiss the window by pressing theclose button.

- Library: The "Library" menu option reveals the pathnames of the databases in the current view. Selecting one of the path nameswill activate the Library Contents window for displaying textual informationabout the libraries in a database.

Select a database path name to display information about the libraries itcontains. The left - hand column in the pop - up window contains a scrollinglist of the libraries in the selected database as well as a list of filenames.The contents of the selected file will be displayed in the right - hand sectionof the window.

These files (known as "VPF library metadata tables") may include such informationas a list of the coverages within the library, data quality, and geographicreference (e.g., the datum and projection used). The information list maycontain two parts: first, the attributes and their definitions, followedby another list of the same attributes and their contents.


- Data Dictionary: The "Data Dictionary" option provides on - line informationabout the attributes and codes used for the selected database. When thisoption is selected, the path names of the databases in the current view aredisplayed. Select a database to activate the Data Dictionary window withthe name of the selected database. Scrolling lists of the libraries, coverages,and feature classes in the database will be displayed along with the datadictionary information

Select the library, coverage, and feature class in which you are interested.Metadata information will be displayed that lists the name of the coverage,the attributes associated with that feature class, and, where applicable,any attribute codes and their meanings.

- Place Name Index: VPFVIEW has the ability to locate all places within thelibrary or libraries in the current view that begin with a specified stringof characters. (A gazetteer coverage must be present in the library, however.)By selecting the "Place Name Index..." option you will activate the PlaceName Index dialog in which you can type a place name. The characters youtype may represent a complete name or part of one, but the search will lookfor names that begin with the characters you have entered. For example,if you typed "Mex," the search would locate "Mexico," "Mexico City," and"Mexicali," but not "Gulf of Mexico." After you enter the desired place name,click "Locate." (If you wish to exit without making a search, click "Cancel.")

Each of the matching names in the place name index coverages for the librariesin the view will be displayed in the Library Reference window (or Map windowif using one window mode), and can be selected for attribute display or forchanging the map location.

When the search is completed, the "Place Names" window will pop up that liststhe search results on the left. The places will also be located on the mapin the Library Reference window. If you are interested in further informationabout a specific name on the list, select it from the list. Information suchas the latitude and longitude of the place, the country in which it is located,and so on will be shown in the box on the right side of the window (the exactinformation given will depend on the information in the selected database).If you click "Set Study Area," the highlighted outline in the Library Referencewindow will be positioned to incorporate the selected place, and the displaywill be redrawn. When you are finished viewing the selected list of placenames, click "Cancel."

- Spatial Query: In the one window mode the spatial querycapability is listed under the VPF contents menu. A spatial query is a searchby geographic coordinates for any features lying at or near the specifiedcoordinate. The results are displayed in the Spatial Query window. When thisoption is selected, the Spatial Query dialog pops up.

The "Spatial Query" option allows you to find out information about theattributes associated with a feature you have identified. (You may be morefamiliar with other terms for the spatial query function such as "identify".)This function is especially useful because it allows you to see the attributesof a particular feature that are not indicated by the display. For example,an airport symbol on the map indicates only that an airport is located atthat point. By querying that airport feature, however, other attributes thatare contained in the database, such as the name of the airport, the lengthof its runway, and so on, can be viewed on the screen.


Feature Selection menu (one window mode)


Note: The "Feature Selection" menu appears only in one window mode.

Choosing "Select..." brings up the Feature Selection window. See Section8 "Using the Feature Selection window" for more information.

Map Utilities menu (one window mode)


Note: The "Map Utilities" menu appears only in one window mode. The optionsunder this menu perform the same functions that are available in the threewindow mode's Map window and Library Reference window. They are outlinedhere:

- Zoom/Pan: The Zoom/Pan menu under the Map Utilitiesmenu, contains options for moving about or zeroing in on a specific studyarea from either the coverage map or library reference displays. The availableoptions include Coverage Map and Reference Map.

The Coverage Map Display option allows you to zoom into the coverage mapdisplay. When selected, the mouse cursor will be moved to the center of themap window and a red box will be displayed which follows the movement ofthe mouse cursor. This box displays the bounding rectangle of the study areaand the zoom level. By using the mouse buttons and/or keyboard, you can zoomfurther into a specific area or slide the study area. Press the 'i'key to zoom in, the 'o' key to zoom out, and click themouse button to finalize the selection.

The Reference Map Display option allows to select a new study area from thelibrary reference map display. When you select this option, the library referencemap will be displayed in the map window and the mouse will be moved to thecenter of the map window. A red box will be displayed which follows the movementof the mouse cursor. The initial size of this box represents that of thestudy area. By using the mouse buttons and/or keyboard, you can pan overto a new study area and select a new zoom level.

For more information on Zoom/Pan operations see Section 7, "Using the Mapwindow.

- Coverage Map

Distance: The "Coverage Map Distance" option allows you to measure approximatereal - world distances from one location to another on the Coverage Map.For more information on how to use this function see Section 7, "Using theMap window".

- Coverage Map

Properties: When the "Coverage Map Properties..." option is selected, theMap Display Properties dialog appears. This window lets you specify theappearance of the Map display. It contains controls for selecting the mapcenter, projection, scale bar, and lat/lon grid. In addition, it displaysthe extent of the current view. For more information on this feature seeSection 7, "Using the Map window".

- Reference Map

Properties...: When the "Reference Map Properties..." option is selected,the Reference Map Properties dialog appears. This window lets you set thedisplay parameters of the Library Reference Map. For more information onthis feature see Section 6, "Using the Library Reference window".

Text Report menu


The "Text Report" menu gives you the option of generating two types of pre- defined text reports. The generated reports are displayed in the Reportwindow from which you may save the report as a text file or print it to aprinter (or Postscript file).

- Area Content Summary: The Area Content Summary option generates summaryreports of the feature classes and features present in the current map displayarea for either the currently selected themes or all of the themes in theview.

Selected Features

The "Selected Features" report shows the feature classes, features, and featurecount for themes in the current selection set within the current displayarea.

All Features

The "All Features" report shows feature classes, features, and feature countfor all features in the view within the current display area (i.e., for allthemes in all database libraries).

- Feature Location List: The "Feature Location List"option generates a list of either the point locations of a particular theme,or the bounding rectangles for a theme's primitives, depending upon the typeof primitives that make up the theme. The Theme Description list box is usedto specify a theme for a Feature Location Report. This report lists thegeographic location of all instances of a particular theme found in the extentsof the Map window.

The "Close" button cancels the report creation process.

The Database List contains the names of the databases in the current view.You may select one of these databases to access the themes for the librariesand coverages contained therein.

The Library List contains the names of the libraries in the current database.You may select one of these libraries to access the themes for the coveragescontained therein.

The Theme Description list box displays the descriptions for each theme availablein the current selected coverage. Double - click on one of these tobuild a Feature Location Report on that particular theme.

- Saving or Printing Text Reports: When the text reportis displayed, an option menu replaces the VPFVIEW main menu . You may electto save the text report to a file by selecting the "Save As..." option fromthis menu. The save file dialog will appear where you can enter the locationand file name for the report file. Or, you may elect to print the report.Select the "Print..." option to activate the "Print Report" window whereyou can select an output device and print the report.


.

Windows menu


This menu lists each open window in the program by the title listed in itsborder. Selecting any of the windows listed here will bring that window tothe top of the window stacking order and give that window focus.

Help menu


VPFVIEW is equipped with on - line help. Click on the contents option tosee help specific to VPFVIEW.





Section 6: Using the Library Referencewindow


The Library Reference window displays an outline map of the total extentof the selected library or libraries and a rectangle (the extent box) thatrepresents the area being displayed in the Map window. The extent box, and,in turn, the display, can be moved or resized using the window's "Zoom/Pan"button, and the geographic coordinates of the center of the extent box aredisplayed. A latitude - longitude grid, tile boundaries, text, and referencepoints may be added to the Library Reference Display through the ReferenceMap Properties dialog by pressing "Properties ...".

*This window is only seen in the three window mode. In the one window mode,the Library Reference window will be shown in the Map window when necessary,such as when picking an initial area of interest or when performing a zoomon the Reference Map.

Note: In this section, "click on..." means to click on an object usingthe mouse button. For more information on using buttons, windows, and dialogs,see page 3 - 5 Fundamental VPFVIEW operations.

- Properties: The "Properties..." button displays theReference Map Properties dialog from which you may set the display parametersof the Library Reference window.


The Reference Map Properties dialog displays the names of the databasesand libraries in the current view along with the geographic extents of theview. In addition it lets you select several options concerning how the referencemap appears when it is displayed in the Library Reference window.

The Tile Boundaries checkbox determines whether or not tile boundarieswill be displayed on the reference map. When checked, tile boundaries willbe displayed on the reference map.

The Lat/Lon Grid checkbox determines whether or not a lat/longrid will be displayed on the reference map. When checked, the grid willbe displayed.

The Text Features checkbox determines whether or not any text featurescontained in the reference coverage of each library will be shown on thereference map. When checked, they will appear.

The Point Features checkbox determines whether or not any point featurescontained in the reference coverage of each library will be shown on thereference map. When checked, they will appear.

The "Apply" button sets the changes you have made, and redraws theLibrary Reference window, if necessary.

The "Cancel" button closes the dialog and cancels any changes you have made.

The "Reset" button restores the display parameters to their system defaults.You must press the Apply button to reset the reference map.

- Zoom/Pan; The "Zoom/Pan" button has three functions.You can move the extent box to a different location on the library map, andyou can enlarge or reduce the size of the rectangle. You can perform thesefunctions separately or in combination by clicking on the "Zoom/Pan" button,then

- To pan: slide the mouse until the extent box is in the desired location.

- To zoom in: press the <i> key. Each time you press,the extent box is slightly reduced.

- To zoom out: press the <o> key. Each time you press,the extent box is slightly enlarged.

When you are finished zooming and panning, click the mouse button. This willend the zoom/pan process and cause the display in the Map window to be redrawnwith the new extent. If you want to revert to the original location and extent,you may escape zoom/pan mode by pressing the <Escape> key (this onlyworks before you select with the mouse button).

The Lat/Lon Display shows the current geographic cursor location indegrees, minutes, and seconds as you move the cursor over the drawing region.

The Status Bar displays information to you when you are performinga zoom/pan operation in the Library Reference window. Otherwise, this areais blank.





Section 7: Using the Map window


The large Map window is the main graphic display window in VPFVIEW. In itare drawn the selected features for the geographic area outlined by the extentbox in the Library Reference window. The Map window contains one or morecontrols, a Lat/Lon display, and a Status Bar at the bottom. The functionalityand use of the controls are described in this section.

Note: In this section, "click on..." means to click on an object usingthe mouse button. For more information on using buttons, windows, and dialogs,see page 3 - 5 Fundamental VPFVIEW operations.


Lat/Lon Display

The Lat/Lon Display shows the current geographic cursor location in degrees,minutes, and seconds as you move the cursor over the drawing region.

Status Bar

The Status Bar displays the security level and name of the current view.If no view is loaded, it shows a ready message. When the software is performingan operation, it will display any pertinent information.


- Properties...: When the "Properties..." button is activated, the Map DisplayProperties dialog appears. This window lets you specify the appearance ofthe Map window. It contains controls for selecting the map center, projection,scale bar, and lat/lon grid. In addition, it displays the extent of the currentview. These options are described below.

Scale Bar (display and units options)

The Scalebar checkbox determines whether or not the map will displaya scale bar. When checked, the scale bar will be displayed.

The Scalebar Units list specifies whether the scale bar will displayits measurement in terms of miles, nautical miles, or kilometers.

LatÛLon Grid

The Lat/Lon Grid checkbox determines whether or not a lat/lon gridwill be displayed on the map. When checked, the grid will be displayed.

Distance

The Distance Units list specifies whether map distance measurementswill be made in terms of miles, nautical miles, or kilometers. Distancesare approximate; the accuracy varies by dataset and projection.

Projection

The Projection list displays the current map projection and lets youchange it to any of the projections supported by VPFVIEW.

When multiple libraries stored in different projections are accessed by aview, VPFVIEW automatically converts them to a common projection for display(usually geographic coordinates in decimal degrees). You can still use the"Projection" option to select a different projection.

VPFVIEW currently supports seven projections, which are as follows:

- None (Decimal Degrees)

- Azimuthal Equal Distance

- Lambert Conformal Conic (one standard parallel)

- Mercator

- Transverse Mercator

- PlateÛCarrÈe

- UPS

Be aware that some regions of the world may not be suitable for screen displaywhen projected into one of these projections (e.g., the Transverse Mercatorprojection is not appropriate for polar regions). See the reference citedin Appendix B for additional information about projections and their uses.

Map Extent and Map Center

The Map Extent displays the latitude - longitude coordinates of thecorners of current map display.

Map Center contains the coordinates of the current map center.

The Center Latitude edit boxes display the current geographic centerlatitude of the map, and allow you to change the center latitude.

The Center Longitude edit boxes display the current geographic centerlongitude of the map, and allow you to change the center longitude.

The "Apply" button sets the changes you have made, and redraws the Map window,if necessary.

The "Cancel" button closes the dialog and cancels any changes you have made.

The "Reset" button restores the display parameters to their system defaults.You must press the "Apply" button to reset the map.

- Zoom: The "Zoom" button displays the zoom box on theMap which lets you further zoom into the selected viewing area When the "Zoom"button is selected, an extent box with a crosshair appears in the window.

- To pan: slide the mouse until the extent box is in the desired location.

- To zoom in: press the <i> key. Each time you press,the extent box is slightly reduced.

- To zoom out: press the <o> key. Each time you press,the extent box is slightly enlarged.

When the extent box is in the desired location, click with the mouse buttonto make your selection. The newly selected area will be drawn in the Mapwindow. If you want to get out of the "Zoom" mode without making a selection,press the <escape> key. Once you have zoomed into a smaller region,you may only zoom back out by using the zoom/pan functionality on the LibraryReference window.

- Spatial Query: The "Spatial Query" button (in one windowmode, this feature is located under the "VPF Contents" menu in the Main Window)allows you to find out information about the attributes associated with afeature you have identified. (You may be more familiar with other terms forthe spatial query function such as "identify.") This function is especiallyuseful because it allows you to see the attributes of a particular featurethat are not indicated by the display. For example, an airport symbol onthe map indicates only that an airport is located at that point. By queryingthat airport feature, however, other attributes that are contained in thedatabase, such as the name of the airport, the length of its runway, andso on, can be viewed on the screen.




When more than one feature type (i.e., point, line, or area) is displayed,clicking on the "Spatial Query" button pops up the Spatial Query dialog whichprompts you to select specific feature types for inquiry. You can selectone, two, or all three feature types. After you have selected the desiredfeature types, click "Continue". A crosshair will appear in the display window.Move the crosshair until it rests on the feature you are interested in querying,and click. Features will be selected according to the following criteria:


Table 7 - 1. Feature selection criteria in a spatial query.
Feature Selection criteria

Area All polygons that contain the crosshair

Line The line that is closest to the coordinates of thecrosshair

Point The point that is closest to the coordinates of thecrosshair


Note that you can use the coordinates at the top of the window to place thecrosshair on an exact location. The selected feature(s) will be identifiedon the display by a bounding rectangle (for an area or a line) or a circle(for a point) that contains the extent of the feature(s). The identificationnumber of the feature(s) will also be displayed, as will a small point thatindicates the location that was queried. The attributes from the data dictionarythat are associated with the selected feature(s) will be shown in the SpatialQuery window. If you decide not to make a query, you can press the<escape> key to exit the "Spatial Query" mode at any time.




* Tip: Be aware that if you have changed thesymbology for any selected themes, they must be redrawn before a spatialquery can be performed on them.


- Distance: The "Distance" button (available in threewindow mode) allows you to measure approximate real - world distances fromone location to another on the Map window. (In one window mode this featureis available under the map utilities menu.) Remember that distances areapproximate and the values will vary by dataset and type of projection. Theunit of measure is either miles (the default) or kilometers. (You can changethe unit of measure in the "Properties..." window.) When pressed, the cursormoves to the center of the map, and you are prompted to select the firstpoint. From that time until you press the <Escape> key, the Map windowStatus Bar displays the Great Circle distance (defined in Appendix A) betweeneach segment and the total distance each time you press the mouse button.To exit the "Distance" mode and get the final distance calculation, pressthe <escape> key.


- Stop and Restore: The "Stop" button cancels out ofa drawing operation. It is only accessible at that time, and is grayed outotherwise.

In the one window mode, the Map window is also used to display an image whichyou have loaded. To prevent the image from interfering with the normal operationof the program, the "Stop" button is also used to restore the drawing windowafter you finish viewing the image. When an image is displayed in the Mapwindow, the button reads "RESTORE", and all other program controls and menubars are grayed out, requiring you to press this button to restore normalprogram operation.






Section 8: Using the Feature Selectionwindow


The Feature Selection window contains

tools for the creation and display of themes. The themes are displayed inthe Map window, and are also used for most other operations in the programincluding spatial queries and hardcopy output. Within the Feature Selectionwindow you can control whether or not a theme is selected or displayed, andthe color and symbol which is used to display each type of feature. At thetop of the window are menus for choosing the database, library, and coverage.The window also includes a legend panel showing the available themes withinthe selected coverage, the symbols assigned to each theme, and a check boxfor selecting a theme. At the bottom of the window are several command buttons.The functions of the components in the Feature Selection window are describedin this section.

Note: In this section, "click on..." means to click on an object usingthe mouse button.


- Database, Library, and Coverage lists: The DatabaseList contains the names of all the databases available in the current view,and the name of the selected database. The Library List contains the namesof all the libraries available within the current database, and the CoverageList contains the names of all the coverages available within the currentlibrary. The themes available for the selected coverage will be shown inthe legend panel along with the associated symbology.

- Legend panel: When a view is first loaded or created,VPFVIEW displays at least one theme for every feature class that is representedin a coverage. The default themes are equivalent to the feature classes.For example, a Political Boundaries coverage might contain lines and areas.By default, two themes would be available: Political Boundaries lines andPolitical Boundaries areas. Also, the symbology set that was specified whenthe view was created (or the default set) is used every time a view is loaded.

Check Boxes show which themes are selected (checked) or deselected (unchecked).You may set the status for a check box by clicking on it. Only those themeswhose check boxes are checked will be selected and/or displayed when youpress the Apply and/or Draw buttons.

Image Symbols show the current symbology for each theme. Clicking on a symbolinvokes the Symbol Editor window from which you may change the symbologyof that particular theme. Theme Controls show the textual description ofeach theme. Clicking on the text of any theme invokes the Theme Propertieswindow from which you may view all the details of a theme as well as modifying,adding, and deleting themes from the current view.

Apply, Draw, Reset, New Theme, All, None, Close

The "Apply" button updates the feature selection list held internal to theprogram with any changes you made to the list of selected and deselectedfeatures.

The "Draw" button performs the same operation as the Apply button, but alsodraws any selected features found in the viewing area in the Map window.

The "Reset" button sets the selected and deselected features list to itsprevious settings (this means the settings held internal to the program justafter you last pressed the Apply and/or Draw buttons).

The "New Theme..." button invokes the Theme Properties window with the currentselected database, library, and coverage, allowing you to create a new themein the current view.

The "All" button selects all the themes in the current coverage by checkingtheir check boxes. This does not set the internal list of selected themes.

The "None" button deselects all themes in the current coverage by clearingthe check state of their check boxes. This does not set the internal listof selected themes.

The "Close" button closes out the Feature Selection window, canceling anychanges you made since last pressing the Apply and/or Draw buttons. Thisbutton is only available in the one window mode.




* Tip: It is important to consider the order in which you selectthemes because it affects the sequence in which themes are drawn in the displaywindow. Feature classes - from any coverage - are always drawn in the followingorder: areas, lines, points, text. Within each feature class, themes aredrawn in the order in which they were selected (i.e., the first theme selectedis drawn first, and so on).


Symbology

The graphic next to the theme name shows the symbology currently assignedto the theme. You can change the color and/or symbol by clicking on the graphicto bring up the Symbol Editor window.

The Symbol Editor window displays the symbology for a particular theme andprovides symbology modification capabilities. The window contains a set offour list box control sets for each of the different feature display types:Points, Lines, Areas, and Text. Each control set consists of a list of availablesymbols and colors. The current selected symbol and color are shown via ablack box surrounding them. Only one set will be active at any particulartime corresponding the feature display type of the selected theme.

Please Note: The symbology for Point symbols is somewhat different from therest. Point symbols are multi - colored, so the color list may not show anyselected color. If you decide to set a color for a Point symbol, you willchange the entire Point symbol to that color. In addition, you will not beable to restore the original color scheme except through the Refresh Symbologymenu item under Symbology in the File menu. When changing a Point color symbol,you will be warned if you press the Apply button.

The Symbol Control List displays the available symbols for a particular featuredisplay type. A black rectangle is drawn around the current selected symbolin the list. You may select a new symbol by clicking on the desired symbol.

The Color Control List displays the available colors for a particular featuredisplay type. A black rectangle is drawn around the current selected colorin the list. You may select a new color by clicking on the desired color.

The "Apply" button applies any changes you have made to the symbology forthe selected theme. Both the Feature Selection window and the Theme Propertieswindow are updated.

The "Reset" button restores the color and symbol for the current theme toits current internal settings. This ONLY applies to the Symbol Editor windowand DOES NOT have any affect on the actual symbology for the selected theme.

The "Close" button closes the Symbol Editor window. If you have not appliedyour changes to the current theme symbology, they will be lost.

The Symbology window can also be accessed from the Theme Properties windowwhich is used to create or modify themes. The "New Theme..." button is describedlater in this section, as well as in Section 4. When the Theme Propertieswindow is activated in this manner, only the name (i.e., description), logicalexpression, and symbol tools are functional.

Symbology sets can be saved and recalled for use at a later time; the "Symbology"option is discussed in Section 5, "Using the VPFVIEW window." You can loada previously created symbology set automatically when you create a view,or after a view is loaded.


* Warning: The changes you have made to the symbology must be savedbefore exiting the program or the original symbology will be restored uponprogram exit. See Chapter 5, Symbology, for a discussion on saving yourchanges.


If you wish to perform a spatial query on themes after you have changed theirsymbology, you must first redraw the display by selecting "Draw."

The theme name

The themes for a coverage are listed in the legend panel in the order inwhich they were created. An existing theme can be modified or deleted throughthe Theme Properties window, which can be accessed by clicking on the themename. These tools are discussed under the "New Theme..." button, below.

- New Theme...: By default, VPFVIEW creates one theme for every feature classpresent in every coverage. You can create new themes by clicking on the "NewTheme..." button located at the bottom of the Feature Selection window. Thiswill activate the Theme Properties window. Please see Section 2, "VPF databaseterms" for an explanation of the concept of themes.


The Theme Properties window allows the user to enter a name (description)for the theme; access the data dictionary to view attributes and codes; definethe theme by building a logical expression; choose symbology for the theme;and perform other related functions. An example of the process of creatinga new theme can be found in Section 4, "Working with VPFVIEW." Below, thetools in the Theme Properties window are described in order of their positionin the window.

Description

The Theme Description edit box displays the description for the current theme.This edit control also allows you to modify the description. The words youenter here will be used to identify the theme in the legend panel of theTheme Properties window.

.

Expression

A theme can be defined by a logical expression The Theme Expression editbox displays the logical expression for the current theme. This text editalso allows you to modify the expression. Expressions may be simple or compound.To be valid, a logical expression must adhere to the format that follows.

<attribute name> <logical operator> <value>

Examples:

TYPE=3

hgt >= 46 AND hgt< 60

The expression must begin with the name of an attribute (i.e., the fieldname of the attribute, not the definition) in the selected feature class.This part of the expression is not case - sensitive, so you may type upperor lowercase letters, or a combination of the two.

The logical operator can be one of the following characters or characterpairs:

Character Meaning

= equals

< less than

> greater than

<= less than or equal to

>= greater than or equal to

<> not equal to

The value can be any valid value that the attribute field may contain. Thispart of the expression is case - sensitive, so if the field containsa "W," meaning "West," for example, you must type an uppercase letter. Charactervalues should not be enclosed in quotation marks.

If more than one logical clause is required to define the desired theme,the clauses can be connected by either "AND" or "OR" to build a compoundlogical expression. When VPFVIEW selects records from the database, clausesare evaluated from left to right; therefore, you cannot group by parenthesesas you could in a spreadsheet.

Connector Meaning

AND Both of the connected clauses must be true

OR Only one of the clauses must be true

Separating the different parts of an expression by a space makes the singleexpression more readable, but spaces are not required within a clause. Spacesare required before and after the connectors.

Valid attribute names and attribute values can be found in the on - linedata dictionary, which can be accessed from the Theme Properties window withthe "Dictionary..." button. The use of "Dictionary..." button is explainedbelow.

An asterisk (*) on the Expression line selects all of the features in thefeature class.

Database, Library

You can select any database and library available in the current view. TheDatabase List and Library List display the database and library for the currenttheme. When creating a new theme, you may change the database or libraryfor the new theme using these controls. When viewing or modifying an existingtheme, these controls are grayed out.


Coverage

You can create a new theme for any coverage from the currently selected library.The Coverage List displays the coverage for the current theme. When creatinga new theme, you may change the coverage for the new theme using this control.When viewing or modifying an existing theme, this control is grayed out.

Feature Class

You can create a theme for any feature class within the currently selectedcoverage. The Feature Class List displays the feature class for the currenttheme. When creating a new theme, you may change the feature class for thenew theme using this control. When viewing or modifying an existing theme,this control is grayed out.

Symbol

The Theme Symbol Control displays the symbology for the theme. You may changeit by clicking on the symbol, at which time, the Symbol Editor window isinvoked. Please note that if you change the symbology for a theme, and thenclose this window without applying your changes to the current theme, thesymbology for the theme IS NOT set. The tools in the Symbology Editor windoware described previously in this section under "Legend Panel - Symbology."

Apply

Clicking on the "Apply" button saves the specified theme properties. Onceyou have entered a theme name, expression, selected the symbology, and soon, you should click "Apply." A few moments after you apply, the new themewill finish being generated and should appear at the bottom of the list ofthemes in the selected coverage.

Reset

The "Reset" button restores the properties of the current theme to theirprevious settings. However, this DOES NOT include its symbology. Once thathas been changed, it can only be reset manually through the Symbol Editorwindow.


Dictionary...

The "Data Dictionary..." button invokes the Data Dictionary window, whichprovides on - line information about the attributes and codes used for theselected database. The window provides a list of the available libraries,coverages, and features classes for the selected database, and a scrollabletext box showing the attributes for the selected library, coverage, and featureclass. To use this window:

1) Select a library

2) Select a coverage

3) Select a feature class to view its attribution

This window automatically updates itself whenever you make new selectionsfrom any of the lists. When finished using the Data Dictionary, close thewindow by pressing the Close button. This function is helpful during theprocess of building a logical expression to define a theme.

New

The "New" button resets the Theme Properties window for a new theme. Thisincludes default settings for the symbology and a blank description andexpression. The database, library, coverage, and feature class lists willuse the defaults with which the Theme Properties window was invoked fromthe Feature Selection window. This button is grayed out when you are editinga new theme.

Delete

The "Delete" button deletes the current theme from the view. You are askedfor confirmation before it is deleted. This button is grayed out when youare editing a new theme. Note: if you delete the only theme in the view thatrepresents a particular coverage feature class (e.g., Roads text), and yousave the view, then later reload it, the theme will be displayed again. Whenevera view is loaded, VPFVIEW displays at least one theme for every feature classby default.

Next and Previous

The "Next" and "Previous" buttons allow you to "scroll" through the otherthemes in the view and see their properties. Themes are listed in order ofcreation, so the newest theme will be at the end of the list. If you click"Previous" until you are at the first theme in the list, the "Previous" buttonwill appear gray. Likewise, the "Next" button will be gray when you are atthe last theme.

Close

The "Close" button closes the window.






Appendices





Appendix A: Terminology


Acronyms

CD - - ROM Compact Disc - Read Only Memory

CGM - Computer Graphics Metafile

DMA - Defense Mapping Agency

DIGEST - Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard

GIS - Geographic Information System

MB - Megabyte

NFS - Network File System

OS - Operating System

PC - Personal Computer

RAM - Random Access Memory

SCSI - Small Computer Standard Interface

VPF - Vector Product Format

VRF - Vector Relational Format

Terms

Area/polygon - An area feature defined by the series of lines makingup its boundary.

Attribute - A characteristic of a map feature. For example, the attributesof a stream might include width or hydrographic category (e.g., perennialor intermittent).

Bounding rectangle - The smallest rectangle that completely surroundsa line or area feature. Also referred to as minimum bounding rectangle.



Coverage - A collection of feature classes.

Feature - An object on a map (i.e., a geographic entity) that isrepresented by a point, line, or area and has an associated attribute.

Feature class - A set of related features (points, lines, areas, orsome combination) with a common set of attributes. A feature class that containsonly one kind of primitive (e.g., lines) is called a simple feature class;a feature class that contains two or more types of primitives is called acomplex feature class. Text is a third type of feature class.

Feature selection set - A collection of themes selected by the userfor a particular view.

Great circle distance - A segment that represents the shortest distancebetween two points on the surface of the earth.

Library reference coverage - A default map display for each libraryin the VPF database. It contains predefined features and is used to selecta study area within a library.

Line - A set of ordered coordinates that represents the shape of afeature too narrow to be displayed as an area digitized at the map scale.

Macintosh PICT - A standard format supported by Apple Macintosh computersfor storing images.

Point - A single x,y coordinate that represents a feature too smallto be displayed as a line or area.

PostScript file format - A file format used by certain printers.

Primitive - The graphic representation of a feature; a point, line,or polygon.

Symbology - A unique collection of colors and styles (point, line,and area symbols) used to graphically represent themes within a view.

Theme - A collection of features with a combination of attributesspecified by a thematic query expression.

View - A directory containing files that tell VPFView where the datais located on the users systems and the collection of themes and associatedsymbology.

Windows Bitmap (.bmp) - A standard format for storing bit - mappedimages of any size with any number of colors.





Appendix B: References


For information about the UNIX operating system, see

Thomas, Rebecca and Jean Yates. c. 1982. A User Guide to the UNIXSystem. Berkeley: Osborne/McGraw - Hill, Inc.*

For information about DOS, see

DeVoney, Chris. c. 1986. Using PC DOS, Que Corporation, Indianapolis,IN.*

For information about projections, see

Snyder, John P., 1987. Map Projections - A Working Manual. USGSProfessional Paper 1395.

For information about the VPF data model used in VPF databases, see

MIL - STD - 2407, Military Standard - Vector Product Format, availablefrom the Defense Printing Service, 700 Robbins Ave. (Bldg. 4D),Philadelphia, PA 19111 - 5094.

and

Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard, Edition 1.1, Fall1992, available from the Canadian Directorate of Geographic Operations, NationalDefense Headquarters (NDHQ), 101 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaK1A OK2.

For information about the development of Vector Product Format and the earlyhistory of the Digital Chart of the World and Vector Smart Map databases,see

Development of the Digital Chart of the World, available from theUS Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, 5285 PortRoyal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.

* Reference of these materials does not constitute an endorsementby NIMA.





Appendix C: Hardware/softwarerequirements


For the VPFVIEW Version 2.1 software to function correctly with any databaseimplemented in VPF, VPFVIEW must be installed on a system containing theminimum system requirements specified below:

IBM PCs and Compatibles (32 - Bit Application)

Please note that this program does not make any system dependent calls withrespect to color palettes, so if you experience trouble, please make surethat you have the most current version of the graphics drivers for your chipand/or graphics card. Microsoft maintains a bulletin board containing thelatest drivers available to them, or you can contact your graphics cardmanufacturer directly. Also note that although this program will functionin a 16 - color Windows/95/NT graphics mode, most of the colors will be dithered,and due to the way in which the software implements its graphics primitives,you will most likely get a color other than the dithered one you chose. Thisprogram really requires a 256 - color mode or better to view the entire setof colors.

VPFVIEW for Windows/95/NT was developed in a Win32 environment under WindowsNT. The program runs under Windows NT, Windows 95, and Windows 3.1 or later.If you are running Windows 3.1 or later, you must install the Win32s libraries(version 1.25 or later) to run this program because VPFVIEW is now a 32 -Bit application. If the Win32s libraries were not distributed with theapplication, you may download them freely from Microsoft's ftp site atftp.microsoft.com from the directory Softlib.

The minimum system configurations are as follows:

Windows NT 3.1/3.5:

* IBM PC Compatible with an Intel 80386DX - 25MHz processor

* 16MB memory (20 preferred)

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 256 - color VGA graphics adapter

* CD - ROM drive meeting the MPC Multimedia standard

* Postscript output device (for printing hardcopy output) - optional

Windows 95:

* IBM PC Compatible with an Intel 80386DX - 25MHz processor

* 8MB memory (12 preferred)

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 16 - color VGA graphics adapter (256 - color SVGA adapter preferred)

* CD - ROM drive meeting the MPC Multimedia standard

* Postscript output device (for printing hardcopy output) - optional

The Windows 95 version does not handle the changing of color and/or screenresolutions on - the - fly. If you want to see the changes reflected in theapplication, restart the application.

Windows 3.1 or later:

* IBM PC Compatible with an Intel 80386DX - 25MHz processor

* 4MB memory (8 preferred)

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 16 - color VGA graphics adapter (256 - color SVGA adapter preferred)

* CD - ROM drive meeting the MPC Multimedia standard

* MS - DOS 5.0 or later

* Win32s version 1.25 or later - system must operate in enhanced mode touse

* Postscript output device (for printing hardcopy output) - optional

IBM PCs and Compatibles (16 - Bit Application)

Please note that this program does not make any system dependent calls withrespect to color palettes, so if you experience trouble, please make surethat you have the most current version of the graphics drivers for your chipand/or graphics card. Microsoft maintains a bulletin board containing thelatest drivers available to them, or you can contact your graphics cardmanufacturer directly. Also note that although this program will functionin a 16 - color Windows graphics mode, most of the colors will be dithered,and that due to the way in which the software implements its graphics primitives,you will most likely get a color other than the dithered one you chose. Thisprogram really requires a 256 - color mode or better to view the entire setof colors.

VPFVIEW for Windows 3.1 was developed in a 16 - bit environment under Windowsfor Workgroups 3.11. The program runs under Windows NT and Windows 3.1 orlater. It does not run correctly under Windows 95 because of changes in thehandling of printers between Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 (an XVT problem crashesthe program when it attempts to display the report window).

The minimum system configurations are as follows:

Windows NT 3.1/3.5:

* IBM PC Compatible with an Intel 80386DX - 25MHz processor

* 16MB memory (20 preferred)

* Approx. 5MB free hard drive space

* 256 - color VGA graphics adapter

* CD - ROM drive meeting the MPC Multimedia standard

* Postscript output device (for printing hardcopy output) - optional

Windows 3.1 or later

* IBM PC Compatible with an Intel 80386DX - 25MHz processor

* 4MB memory (8 preferred)

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 16 - color VGA graphics adapter (256 - color SVGA adapter preferred)

* CD - ROM drive meeting the MPC Multimedia standard

* MS - DOS 5.0 or later

* Postscript output device (for printing hardcopy output) - optional

Sun SPARCstations (SunOs)

VPFVIEW for SunOs was developed on a Sun Sparc 1 running Motif 1.1 and SunOs4.1.3. Please note that the program was compiled statically under Motif,so it should work fine under both Motif and OpenLook. However, it has onlybeen thoroughly tested under Motif. The minimum system configuration is asfollows:

* Sun SPARCstation or compatibles

* SunOs 4.1.1 or later

* Motif 1.1 or OpenLook Window Manager

* 8MB memory

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 256 - color graphics adapter

* Sun CD - ROM drive

* Postscript output device (for printing output) - optional

Sun SPARCstations (Solaris)

VPFVIEW for Solaris was developed on a Sun Sparc 2 running Motif 1.2.4 andSolaris 2.4. Please note that the program was compiled statically under Motif,so it should work fine under both Motif and OpenLook. However, it has onlybeen thoroughly tested under Motif. The minimum system configuration is asfollows:

* Sun SPARCstation or compatibles

* Solaris 2.1 or later

* Motif 1.2 or OpenLook Window Manager

* 8MB memory

* Approx. 10MB free hard drive space

* 256 - color graphics adapter

* Sun CD - ROM drive

* Postscript output device (for printing output) - optional

Apple Macintosh 68k - based machines

VPFVIEW for Macintosh was developed on a Macintosh Quadra 850AV under System7.5. Please note that you may experience trouble with color palettes if youswitch back and forth between this application and others or if you changecolor resolutions on the fly. This is an XVT problem. The minimum systemconfiguration is as follows:

* Apple Macintosh 68020/68030/68040/PPC

* System 7.1 or later

* 8MB memory (12 preferred)

* Approx. 5MB free hard drive space

* CD - ROM drive

* Postscript output device (for printing output) - optional





Appendix D: VPFVIEW files andsubdirectories


VPFVIEW defines certain file structures for its own use, in addition to theVPF database tables and file structures. VPFVIEW structures are stored inthe application directory and other user - defined workspaces. This appendixsummarizes these structures and gives additional details about the requiredformats for some of these files.

- The vpfview file executes and initializes the VPFVIEW application.

- The symbols subdirectory contains symbol set files.

- Subdirectories having a % suffix (e.g., noamer%) are views. Thesesubdirectories contain the following files:

- The env file contains the corresponding databases, library names,and symbol path for the view.

- The themes file contains the selection set (or theme) definitionsfor the view.

- The default.sym file is the default symbology for the view.

- Other files with a .sym extension are user - created symbologiesfor the view.

- Files with an .fsl extension are user - created feature selectionsets for the view.

- Files with an .rpt extension are report formatting files.

- Other files in the workspace may include plot files in Encapsulated PostScriptformat (these files usually have an .eps extension), image files inthe Windows Bitmap format (files with a .bmp extension), and reportfiles (files with a .txt extension)


Views

A view is implemented as a directory on a hard disk that contains informationto allow user - definable displays of the stored VPF data. A view containsat least three text files that define the data source display environment(env, themes, and default.sym) and a series of selectionset files that store the results of queries to speed the display of data.A view may also contain feature selection set files (.fsl). The filesin a view directory are as follows:

env

The env file is an ASCII file containing the databases and librariesthat the view is associated with and the path to a symbol set. The firstline conains a format delimter. Each database is on its own line. Followingeach database is a number representing the number of libraries in the database,followed by the library names. Each line ends in a carriage return. The lastline contains the path to a symbol set directory. The format of the fileis as follows:

{format delimiter}<cr>

({database1 path}<cr>

({number of libraries for database1}<cr>

{library1 name}<cr>

{library2 name}<cr>

...

{libraryn name}<cr>)

...

{databasen path}<cr>

{number of libraries for databasen}<cr>

{library1 name}<cr>

{library2 name}<cr>

...

{libraryn name}<cr>)

{symbol set path}<eof>

themes

The themes file is one that defines each theme in the view. A themeis a subset of the features in a feature class, based upon a logical selectionexpression. A theme record consists of six text strings each terminated inthe file by a carriage return. The first line of the record is a text descriptionof the theme that will appear on the feature selection menu. The next linesare the names of the database, library, coverage, and feature class,respectively, with which the theme is associated. The last line of the recordis the logical selection expression to be applied to the feature class'sfeature table. Every set of six lines describes a theme.

{description}<cr>

{database path}<cr>

{library name}<cr>

{coverage name}<cr>

{feature class}<cr>

{expression}<cr>

...nthemes...

<eof>

Selection set files - cndnnnnn endnnnnn edgnnnnn facnnnnntxtnnnnn (.til)

Given that each theme contains a logical expression that defines a subsetof rows in a feature table, the first time that a particular theme is drawnfor a given tile, VPFVIEW stores a bit representation of the related primitivesthat represent the features for the theme in the given tile. A selectionset file's name starts with the appropriate primitive type name - 'cnd','end', 'edg', 'fac', or 'txt', followed by the theme number (starting with0) that it is associated with, left padded with zeros to take up 5 places.For example, if the third theme defined in the themes file was associatedwith a simple area feature class, its corresponding selection set file wouldbe 'fac00002'. If a particular theme represented a selection against a complexfeature class, any of the appropriate selection set files would be defined.If the complex feature contained both entity nodes and edges, the theme (saynumber 10) would have an 'end00010' and 'edg00010' file. Each selection setfile is a binary file composed of multiple entries, one per tile, whose firstnumber is the number of rows represented in the tile. It is a 4 byte integer.After that, it is essentially a stream of bits with each bit representinga row number in the primitive table for the associated tile. If the bit isa 0 (off) the row is not in the selection set; otherwise it is. The bit numbersexactly match the row IDs in the table; therefore, bit number 0 is unused,since row IDs all start at 1.

Associated with each primitive selection set file is an index file with thesame name, but with an extension of '.til'. The index file is a binary filewith an entry for each tile in the library. Each entry in the index is abyte offset to the position in the selection set file at which the appropriatebit representation of the selection set is stored for that tile.

These selection set files and indexes allow VPFVIEW to very quickly determinewhich primitives make up a given theme without having to perform the relatesbetween the primitive and feature tables and apply the theme's selectionexpression to each feature row, after the initial draw. These files storethe results of this complex and time - consuming operation after the initialdraw for each tile. If for any reason a theme's selection set file is missingin the course of the program, or a particular tile is not contained in theselection set file, VPFVIEW will apply the theme's logical to the table,set up appropriate relates, and then save the results in the selection setfile for future use.

*.sym

A file ending in .sym is an ASCII file that contains the symbologyfor each theme in the view. A view may contain different symbology sets.A file named default.sym must be present in the view directory, and is loadedupon view initialization. Each theme's symbology is stored as a line of textcontaining a total of seven space - delimited integer values. The valuesare defined as follows:

{point symbol} {line color} {line symbol} {area color} {area symbol} {textcolor} {text symbol}<cr>

...nthemes...

<eof>

where the color numbers define a displayable color ID from the Xcolors.rgbfile contained in the symbol set directory, and the symbol numbers pointto a symbol definition in the respective symbol definition files locatedin the symbol set directory. The color for point symbols is a part of thepoint symbol definition so is not indexed.

*.fsl

A feature selection list file ends in .fsl. This is a binary filecontaining a list of theme numbers to be automatically selected when thefile is loaded. If a file named default.fsl is present in the view,it will be loaded upon initialization. Each theme number in the file is storedas a four - byte binary integer in the host platform's internal storagerepresentation.

{byte1 byte2 byte3 byte4} ...number of themes in fsl... <eof>

(first theme number)


Symbol Definition Files

The allowable symbols in VPFVIEW v2.1 are defined by the files in thesymbols directory which usually resides in the directory containing theexecutable. Other custom symbol set directories may be set up and referencedby a view, but they must match this format exactly. These files contain symbolattribute information for defining each of the symbols available to displaylines, areas, point markers, and annotation on a map display. When thesefiles are loaded, each symbol can then be referred to by its record numberin its respective symbol definition table. The files present arelines.sym, areas.sym, markers.sym, and text.sym.Each file is a standard ASCII text file.

lines.sym:

{width} {style} [{attributes...}]<cr>

- width is the width of the line in pixels. Zero (0) indicates thehardware dependent fast line drawing algorithm.

- style is one of the following numbers:

0 - SolidLine

1 - LineOnOffDash

2 - LineDoubleDash

3 - TickLine

4 - TickDashLine

5 - DoubleTickLine

6 - AltDoubleTickLine

7 - UpperTickLine

8 - LowerTickLine 9 - MarkerLine

10 - SawToothLine

11 - DragonToothLine

12 - MarkerDashLine

13 - MarkerOnOffLine

14 - CrossDotLine

15 - DotLine

16 - DoubleLine

17 - DoubleDashLine

Please refer to Figure D - 2 for the specificationsof each line style. If style is SolidLine, no other attributes appearon the line; otherwise, the attribute list varies with the style. Each attributeis an ASCII integer value, except for "filename", which is a valid systemspecific file name, assumed to be in the same directory unless a full pathis specified. The attribute lists for the line styles are given below.

LineOnOffDash

{dashlistlength} {dashlist...}

- dashlistlength is the number of dashes in the dash list.

- dashlist is the dash list used to set the line dash style as definedin the X11 Xlib Programming Manual. The dash list specifies a pattern ofpixels on and pixels off. For example, if the dash list is (2, 3, 4, 5),the line will be drawn with 2 pixels on, then 3 pixels off, then 4 pixelson, and 5 pixels off. The pattern would then repeat starting with 2 pixelson, and so on. The open space of the pattern leaves the existing backgrounddisplayed.

LineDoubleDash

{dashlistlength} {dashlist...}

- dashlistlength is the number of dashes in the dash list.

- dashlist is the dash list used to set the line dash style as definedin the X11 Xlib Programming Manual. The dash list works the same asLineOnOffDash, except that the open space of the dash pattern is filled inwith the current background color.

TickLine

{height} {distance}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the distance in pixels between the ticks.

TickDashLine

{height} {distance} {gap}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the length in pixels of the solid part of the dash.It should be an odd number so the vertical tick can be placed directly inthe center of the dash.

- gap is the gap in pixels between the dash lines.

DoubleTickLine

{height} {distance} {gap}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the distance in pixels between the ticks.

- gap is the gap in pixels between the double ticks.

AltDoubleTickLine

{height} {distance} {gap}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the distance in pixels between the ticks.

- gap is the gap in pixels between the double ticks.

UpperTickLine

{height} {distance}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the distance in pixels between the ticks.

LowerTickLine

{height} {distance}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular ticks.

- distance is the distance in pixels between the ticks.

MarkerLine

{filename} {justification}

- filename is the name of an existing VPFVIEW v2.1 marker file, asdefined for the markers.sym file with only one marker.

- justification specifies that marker to be placed on the top (1)of the line, in the center (0) of the line, or on the bottom (Û1) ofthe line.

SawToothLine

{height} {distance}

- height is the height in pixels of a spike either above or belowthe center line.

- distance is the distance in pixels between an upper spike and thenext lower spike in a saw tooth.

DragonToothLine

{height} {distance} {gap}

- height is the height in pixels of the perpendicular tooth indentations.

- distance is the number of pixels of the straight part of the line.

- gap is the gap between the straight parts of the line and definesthe width of the base of the tooth indentations.

MarkerDashLine

{distance} {gap} {filename} {justification}

- distance is the number of pixels of the solid part of the dashedline.

- gap is the gap in pixels between the solid dash lines. It must bewide enough to accommodate the specified marker. Any open space in the linedash is filled with the current background color before drawing the markersymbols.

- filename is the name of an existing VPFVIEW v2.1 marker file, asdefined for the markers.sym file with only one marker.

- justification specifies that marker to be placed on the top (1)of the line, in the center (0) of the line, or on the bottom (Û1) ofthe line.

MarkerOnOffLine

{distance} {gap} {filename} {justification}

- distance is the number of pixels of the solid part of the dashedline.

- gap is the gap in pixels between the solid dashes. It must be wideenough to accommodate the specified marker. Any open space in the line dashis left transparent.

- filename is the name of an existing VPFVIEW CGM marker file, asdefined for the markers.sym file with only one marker.

- justification specifies that the marker is to be placed on the top(1) of the line, in the center (0) of the line, or on the bottom (Û1)of the line.

CrossDotLine

{distance} {height} {radius}

- distance is the distance in pixels between the centers of the crossdots.

- height is the height in pixels away from the line to the centerof each cross dot.

- radius is the radius in pixels of both cross dots.

DotLine

{distance} {radius}

- distance is the distance in pixels between the centers of the dots.

- radius is the radius in pixels of the dots.

DoubleLine

{gap}

- gap is the distance in pixels between the line segments.

DoubleDashLine

{gap} {dashlistlength} {dashlist...}

- gap is the distance in pixels between the line segments.

- dashlistlength is the number of dashes in the dash list.

- dashlist is the dash list used to set the line dash style as definedin the X11 Xlib Programming Manual.

Figure D - 2. VPFVIEW - Supported line styleattributes.

areas.sym:

{style} [{stipple filename}] {outline width} {outlinestyle} [{outlineattributes}]

- style is a polygon fill style defined in "polyfill.h":

0 - FILL SOLID

1 - FILL TRANSPARENT

2 - FILL OPAQUE

- stipple filename is the name of a file containing a UNIX Pixmapstructure if style is not solid. If the style is solid, this entry will notappear on the line.

- outline width is the line width in pixels of the polygon outline.Û1 signifies no outline and the end of the input line.

- outline style is the style of the polygon outline. It takes thesame values as style in lines.sym above. If this is 0 (SolidLine), it isthe end of the input line; otherwise, it has the same attribute values presentbased upon the line style as in the lines.sym file above.

markers.sym

{id} {number of primitives} [{xhot}] [{yhot}]

{primitive type}

{primitive attributes}

- id is the marker ID number.

- number of primitives is the number of primitives (rectangles,circles, polygons, and polylines) which make up the marker symbol.

- xhot and yhot are optional hot spot identifiers that specifyan alternate center for the symbol. If the default center is to be used,these numbers are not present.

- primitive type is an identifier for a particular primitivewithin a marker symbol. It can be one of the following values:

0 = circle

1 = rectangle

2 = polygon

3 = polyline

The attributes for each primitive type follow this identifier, and theremust be a series of these for each marker symbol corresponding to the numberof primitives within that symbol. The attributes are as follows:

circle

{filled}

{color number}

{center x} {center y}

{radius}

filled is a boolean value indicating whether or not the circle shouldbe filled in (1) or left transparent (0) with only an outline.

color number is an index to a color specified in the xcolors.rgb filewhich resides in the symbols directory.

center x and center y represent the center coordinate offsetsin pixels within the marker symbol for the center of the circle.

radius is the radius of the circle in pixels.

rectangle

{filled}

{color number}

{x0} {y0}

{x1} {y1}

filled is a boolean value indicating whether or not the rectangleshould be filled in (1) or left transparent (0) with only an outline.

color number is an index to a color specified in the xcolors.rgb filewhich resides in the symbols directory.

x0 and y0 are the upper left corner coordinate offsets in pixelswithin the marker symbol.

x1 and y1 are the lower right corner coordinate offsets inpixels within the marker symbol.

polygon

{filled}

{color number}

{number of points}

{points...}

filled is a boolean value indicating whether or not the polygon shouldbe filled in (1) or left transparent (0) with only an outline.

color number is an index to a color specified in the xcolors.rgb filewhich resides in the symbols directory.

number of points is the total number of points in the polygon (thenumber of (x, y) pairs is

half this value)

points is a list of points marking the outside boundary of the polygon.Each line in the file consists of an (x, y) pair.

polyline

{color number}

{number of points}

{points...}

color number is an index to a color specified in the xcolors.rgb filewhich resides in the symbols directory.

number of points is the total number of points in the polyline (thenumber of (x, y) pairs is

half this value)

points is a list of points marking the polyline. Each line in thefile consists of an (x, y) pair.

text.sym

{font name}

- font name is simply a text string specifying the name and parametersof a text font in the X11 font naming convention.

Xcolors.rgb

{red} {green} {blue} {name}

Each combination of red, green, and blue integer values defines a 24 - bitcolor value which is allocated within an 8 - bit palette. There can onlybe a maximum of 256 of these values (236 under Microsoft Windows and WindowsNT), and ten colors are already reserved by XVT. The name is a one word textname of the color.

versinfo.dat

The format of the symbology markers has changed drastically since the originalVPFVIEW - UNIX version 1.1.1 was released. Since there is no easy way todetermine the format of the symbology set on - the - fly, it was necessaryto create a version information file. When the user specifies a new symbologyset path, the program looks for this file which contains a text string andthe creation date for the VPFVIEW v2.1 symbology. Any symbology set whichdoes not contain this file with the specific string will be refused by theprogram. The current text string and creation date are as follows:




---------------------------------------------





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