Fusion User's Guide




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Table Of Contents For Fusion

1.1 About Fusion

1.2 New Features in Fusion 2.1

1.2.1 Raster Products

1.2.2 Raster Browse Maps

1.2.3 Dead Reckoning

1.3 Getting Started: Tutorials

1.3.1 Tutorial 1: Using Existing Maps

1.3.2 Tutorial 2: Customizing an Existing Map

1.3.3 Tutorial 3: Creating a New Map

1.3.4 Tutorial 4: Using VPF Data Products

1.3.5 Tutorial 5: Annotating a Map

1.3.6 Tutorial 6: Configuring Default Map Settings

1.3.7 Tutorial 7: Using an RDBMS (WIN32 Only)

1.3.8 Tutorial 8: Realtime Mapping

1.3.9 Tutorial 9: Importing and Registering a TIFF Map Image

1.3.10 Tutorial 10: Raster and VPF Products

1.4 Using Fusion with other Programs

1.4.1 NIMAMUSE Raster and VPF Data Importers

1.4.2 NIMAMUSE Perspective Scene and Line of Sight

1.4.3 Other Software Packages

1.5 Fusion Menu Details

1.5.1 File Menu

1.5.2 Data Menu

1.5.3 Location Menu

1.5.4 Settings Menu

1.6 Fusion Control Window Details

1.6.1 Coordinate Systems

1.6.2 Symbol Selection Window

1.6.3 Graticule Configuration Window

1.6.4 Overlay Files Window

1.6.5 Product Area Reset Window

1.6.6 VPF View Configuration Component

1.6.7 Units Configuration Window

1.6.8 Monitor Calibration Window

1.6.9 Terrain Color Look Up Table Window

1.6.10 RDBMS Query Window

1.6.11 Text Edit Window

1.6.12 Map Tool Bar

1.6.13 Status Bar

1.7 Known Bugs and Limitations

1.7.1 Bugs On All Systems

1.7.2 Windows(PC) Specific Bugs

1.7.3 Sun OS Specific Bugs

1.7.4 HP specific Bugs


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Related NIMAMUSE Documents


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1.1 About Fusion

Fusion Version 2.1, October 1997.

Produced by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency.

Using NIMA's Mapping, Charting and Geodesy Utility Software Environment (NIMAMUSE).

Written by Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Code 7441.

Fusion is a 2D mapping program. It produces digital maps by fusing user overlays with NIMA's raster and vector data products.

1.2 New Features in Fusion 2.1

1.2.1 Raster Products

Most of the raster products (ADRG, CAC, CADRG, CIB, DTED, DBDB5) may now be used directly in Fusion. In prior versions it was necessary to use the Raster Import program to cut out the area of interest. When a raster product is added into the map, the location menu commands can then be used to locate the map.

1.2.2 Raster Browse Maps

Raster browse maps provide an aid to locating the area of interest.

1.2.3 Dead Reckoning

A simple dead reckoning moving map capability has been added. As the map center moves, the map image is scrolled and both VPF and raster product data are reloaded as necessary.

1.3 Getting Started: Tutorials

If your goal is to be a map user, you should work through Tutorial 1 and possibly Tutorial 2.

If your goal is to be a map maker, you should work through all of the tutorials.

You will have to install the tutorial directories from the NIMAMUSE Distribution page to a writable disk.

If you used Fusion2.0 and now you want to learn the new features, go to Tutorial 10.

1.3.1 Tutorial 1: Using Existing Maps

This tutorial explains how to open and view existing maps. Later tutorials will explain how to make simple modifications to the existing maps and how to create your own new maps.

1.3.1.1 A. Viewing Sample Maps

If the NIMAMUSE program Fusion is not already running, use your operating/window system to launch it.

You should see Fusion's menu and a map window titled "map0.map". The map has a default graticule.

A1. Select Fusion's menu item Settings / Working Directory...

The file open dialog appears.

A2. Move to the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor1 and double click any file. (This is to get the folder, so any file will do.)

The file open dialog disappears.

A3. Select Fusion's menu item Settings / Save Settings As Defaults.

This saves NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor1 as your working directory.

A4. Select Fusion's menu item File/Open.

The file open dialog appears.

A5. Move to the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor1.

This should be your beginning directory.

You will see a list of files with the ".map" extension.

A6. Select the file "world.map".

A world map of seafloor relief from DBDB5 is displayed.

A7. Move the mouse around over the map.

You should see the geographic position and the ocean depths displayed at the bottom of the map window.

A8. Select menu item File/Close or click in the map window close box.

The map goes away.

A9. Repeat the above steps to view other sample maps.

The maximum number of maps you can open at one time is determined by the menu command Settings / Max Maps Displayed.

A10. Experiment with resizing, scrolling, and arranging the map windows. They should behave as windows normally do under your windowing system.

1.3.2 Tutorial 2: Customizing an Existing Map

This tutorial can only be completed if you have installed the tutorial on a writable media.

This tutorial will show you how to make minor changes to existing maps such as modifying the cursor shape, choosing a coordinate system used for the spatial position readout, and adding and modifying a graticule.

1.3.2.1 A. Opening tutor2.map

A1. Exactly as you did in Tutorial 1, set the working directory to the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor2.

A2. Exactly as you did in Tutorial 1, open the map file tutor2.map

A world map of seafloor relief from DBDB5 is displayed.

A3. Move the mouse around in one of the oceans.

Note the position (in decimal degrees) and depth ( in meters) readout at the bottom of the map window. We are about to change the cursor shape and the units on this readout.

1.3.2.2 B. Using Map Settings

B1. Choose the menu item Settings / Map Cursor / Style / Cross.

The map cursor changes to a cross.

B2. Choose the menu item Settings / Map Cursor / Coordinate System.

The Coordinate System Selection control window appears.

B3. Select the Universal Transverse Mercator 84 system and press OK.

The cursor readout is now in UTM on a WGS84 datum.

B4. Choose the menu item Settings / Units of Measure...

The Units control window appears.

B5. Set the Vertical Linear unit to feet and press OK.

The Units control window disappears and the depth readout is now in feet.

B6. Choose the menu item Settings / Raster Basemap / Grays Only.

The map is redrawn using shades of gray.

B7. Choose the menu item Settings / Raster Basemap / Terrain Sun Position / E.

The map is redrawn with the light coming from the east.

1.3.2.3 C. Adding a Graticule

C1. Choose the menu item Data / Graticule / Add.

A default graticule is drawn over the map.

The default graticule complies with the guidelines presented in NIMA Technical Manual 8358.1 "DATUMS, ELLIPSOIDS, GRIDS, and GRID REFERENCE SYSTEMS, Edition 1".

C2. Choose the menu item Data / Graticule / Modify.

The Graticule dialog appears.

C3. Change the Border Labels from Black to Yellow and press OK.

The Graticule dialog goes away and the graticule labels are drawn in Yellow.

1.3.2.4 D. Saving the Modified Map

D1. Press the menu item File/Save As... and save your map using the name "mymap.map" in the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor2.

D2. Close mymap.map.

The map disappears.

D3. Open mymap.map.

Note that your changes to the original tutor2.map have now been saved in mymap.map.

1.3.3 Tutorial 3: Creating a New Map

This tutorial can only be completed if you have installed the tutorial on a writable media.

New maps can be created from a combination of raster and vector data. NIMAMUSE programs are available to extract data from the various raster and vector products. For this tutorial, we will assume that you are using the sample map data files that were installed on your writable disk from the NIMAMUSE Distribution page in the directory muse/data/fusion/tutor3.

1.3.3.1 A. Adding the Basemap Image

In this section, you will create a new map containing an ADRG basemap image of Norfolk.

A1. Launch the Fusion program if it is not already running.

A2. As you did in Tutorial 1 and Tutorial 2, set the working directory to the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor3.

A3. Choose the menu command File / New

A new empty map window is created.

A4. Choose the menu item Data / Raster File /ADRG.

The open file dialog appears.

A5. From the folder NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor3 select the file "norfolk.adr".

The ADRG image is displayed in the map window.

Note: If the image appears in shades of gray instead of color, choose menu command Settings / Raster Basemap / Colors Only to display the map in color.

Note: you can make your own Raster Background files using the NIMAMUSE program RAST_IMP.

1.3.3.2 B. Adding Overlay Files

In this section, you will add several vector file overlays. (The files were created from Digital Chart of the World(DCW) using the NIMAMUSE VPF Import program.) To do this section you must have just completed Section A and be viewing an ADRG map of Norfolk.

B1. Choose the menu command Data / Overlay FilesÖ

The open file dialog appears.

B2. Press the Add button.

The open file dialog appears.

B3. From the folder NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor3 select "roads.vec".

Roads.vec appears in the overlay list.

B4. In a similar manner add the overlay file named "pop_pla.vec".

Pop_pla.vec appears in the overlay list.

B5. Click the OK button in the Vector Overlay List Dialog.

The features from DCW are drawn as black lines on top of the ADRG basemap image.

Note: you can make your own Vector Overlay Files using the NIMAMUSE program VPF_IMP.

1.3.3.3 C. Setting the Drawing Order

To do this tutorial, you must have just completed Sections A and B and be viewing a map containing an ADRG image and VPF overlays of roads and populated places from DCW.

The basemap is always drawn first. You can set the order in which vector overlay files are drawn.

Note that currently, the area features are drawn on top of the roads.

C1. Choose the menu command Data / Overlay Files .

The Vector Overlay List window appears.

C2. Select "roads.vec" and press the Down button.

"roads.vec" is moved to bottom position, "pop_pla.vec" is moved up.

Note: To select a row in the list you have to click near one of the vertical bars.

C3. Press the OK button.

The Overlay File List control window disappears and the map is redrawn in the new drawing order.

1.3.3.4 D. Switching Basemaps

To do this section, you must have just completed Sections A, B, and C, and be viewing a map containing an ADRG basemap image and DCW overlays.

In this section you will switch among a set of Raster Background images while maintaining the same set of vector overlays.

D1. Choose the menu item Data / Raster File /CAC and choose the file "norfolk.cac" from the folder "NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor3".

The Compressed Aeronautical Chart image is displayed in the map window. The two vector overlay files are still present.

D2. Similarly, choose the menu item Data / Raster File /DTED and choose the file "norfolk.dte" from the same folder.

The DTED image is displayed in the map window . The two vector overlay files are still present.

1.3.4 Tutorial 4: Using VPF Data Products

In this tutorial you will learn how to create maps using VPF products. Sample data is provided by the sample VPF database on the NIMAMUSE Distribution Page under /data/dcw. This sample database contains the Browse Library only.

1.3.4.1 A.. Creating a View

In this section, you will create a new map using the sample VPF database on the NIMAMUSE Distribution page. The user interface is similar to the VPFVIEW program.

A1. Launch the Fusion program if it is not already running.

A2. Select menu item File/New and add a graticule using menu command Data / Graticule / Add.

A new map window appears, and then a graticule is added.

A3. Select the menu command Data / VPF View / Add.

The open file dialog appears prompting you to open the file "dht". Dht stands for Database Header Table. It is a file that sits atop each and every VPF database. On some systems you must press the Database Add button to get this prompt.

A4. Download the following from the NIMAMUSE Distribution page to your writable media, then go to the folder "data / DCW" and select the file "dht".

The Add Library control window appears.

A5. Select "BROWSE" and press the OK button.

Note: The list in the Add Library window shows all VPF libraries not already added to the view. This small demonstration VPF database contains only the one library "BROWSE".

After a pause in which a default view is being created based on the chosen library's contents, the Add Library control window disappears and the Feature Selection control window comes to the front.

A6. Choose the Coverage "Political / Oceans".

"Political / Oceans" appears to the right of the word "Coverage".

The default themes contained in the "Political / Oceans" coverage appear in the list in the bottom half of the Feature Selection control window.

A7. Click the check box next to the themes "Political / Oceans Lines".

The check box next to "Political / Oceans Lines" appears checked.

A8. Click OK in the Feature Selection control window.

The Feature Selection control window disappears and the Vector Product Area Reset dialog appears.

A9. In the Browse Map box, click the "Keep Same Map Center (No Browse Map)" radiobutton and press OK.

(Explanation: Most VPF libraries include a Library Reference coverage which can be used to create a browse map for the library. Since this library does not have a Library Reference coverage the Reset Map Area feature is not helpful. It is very helpful for many other VPF libraries.)

A map of worldwide coastlines and political boundaries is drawn.

1.3.4.2 B. Modifying a View

Once a view of VPF data has been added into the map, the view can be modified in many ways. Additional databases and libraries can be added. Databases and libraries can be removed. Themes can be added, removed, modified, and re-ordered. Symbology can be reassigned.

B1. Choose the menu command Data / VPF View / Modify.

The VPF Feature Selection control window comes up again.

B2. Choose the Coverage "Populated Places" and turn on the theme "Populated Places Points".

The checkbox in the Selection column is checked.

B3. Double click on the symbol for the "Populated Places Points" theme and choose a better symbol in the Symbol Selection control window.

B4. Click the OK button in the VPF Feature Selection control window to close the window.

The Feature Selection control window goes away and the populated places features are added to the map.

1.3.4.3 C. Defining a Location

There are several ways of defining a map location. Most of them are found in the "Location" menu. VPF data is automatically reloaded from the VPF product as you move around. Most of the Location menu commands can't be used when a Raster File is present, but that's not the case here. Let's try some.

C1. Choose the menu item Location / Sweep Out Area. Move the mouse to one corner of your area of interest, push the left button down and hold it down as you move the mouse to the opposite corner of your area of interest, then let the mouse button up.

The map zooms to your area of interest.

C2. Choose the menu item Location / Zoom In.

The map scale is enlarged by one half (a zoom in.).

C3. Choose the menu item Location / Zoom Out.

The map scale is reduced by one half (a zoom out.).

It should be back to the area of interest you set in B1.

C4. Choose the menu item Location / New Map Center / Click On Map. Then click a new map center point.

The map is recentered at the new point

C5. Choose the menu item Location / New Map Center / By Dialog Then enter a desired center point..

The map is recentered at the new point

C6. Choose the menu item Location / By Dialog....

The Area Configuration control window appears. If you have been wondering how to change the size of the map display area, well here it is.

C7. In the Area Configuration control window set the Map Image Size Limit Width to 600 pixels and the Height to 300 pixels.

The map area is changed to 600 by 300 pixels. Note that this is the size of the map area which is scrolled around within the window. The map window itself can be changed used the resize handles around the edge of the map window.

C8. Choose the menu item Location / Zoom Out Max.

The map scale is zoomed out to the maximum extents of the Map Display Coordinate System.

1.3.4.4 D. Drawing in Different Coordinate Systems

This tutorial assumes you just completed Tutorial 3 Sections A, B, and C above.

D1. Choose the menu command Settings / Map Display Coordinate System...

The Coordinate System Selection control window appears.

D2. Choose "North American | NAD27", press the OK button, and at the "Clip" prompt press the Clip button. At the "Change map cursor coordinate system" prompt press the Change button.

The map area is clipped to the area for which the North American Datum 1927 system is valid. The VPF data is redrawn in the chosen coordinate system.

D3. Similarly, choose the "European | ED-EUR coordinate system.

The map area is clipped to the area for which the European Datum coordinate system is valid. The VPF data is redrawn in the chosen coordinate system

D4. Choose the menu command Location / Zoom Out Max.

The map is zoomed out the maximum area for which the coordinate system is valid

D5. Similarly, choose the "Lambert Conformal Conic US | USLCC coordinate system.

The map area is clipped to the area for which the chosen coordinate system is valid. The VPF data is redrawn in the chosen coordinate system

D6. Choose the menu command Location / Zoom Out Max.

The map is zoomed out the maximum area for which the coordinate system is valid

D7. Similarly, choose the "World Geodetic System 1984 | WGS84 coordinate system.

The map is redrawn in the chosen coordinate system

Note: Before you try the other map display coordinate systems you should read the Known Bugs section of this user's guide.

1.3.4.5 E. VPF Spatial Query

To do this tutorial, you should have a Fusion map open that has a VPF View showing at least point and line features.

E1. Click the Spatial Query Tool ( looks like !).

The Spatial Query Tool is depressed.

E2. Click on one of the VPF Features.

After a pause, the attributes of the feature are displayed in a window.

E3. Press the Close button to close the window.

E4. Choose menu command Settings / Measurement / VPF Features.

The menu item becomes checked.

E5. Click the Spatial Query Tool.

The Spatial Query Tool is depressed.

E6. Click on a VPF line feature.

After a pause, the attributes of the line feature are displayed in a window. The attributes are followed by a detailed measurement of the line feature.

1.3.5 Tutorial 5: Annotating a Map

The annotation tools provide the capability to draw point, line, area, and text features. Annotations are saved as part of the map but may also be written to and read from binary or ASCII files, so that annotations can be moved from one map to another.

1.3.5.1 A. Learning the Toolbar

A1. If Fusion is currently running, close it and then relaunch it.

You should see one map window titled "map0.map" containing a graticule of the world. The map window contains a toolbar across the top.

A2. Move the mouse to the leftmost tool. Press the left mouse button down and hold it.

The tool is described at the bottom of the map window.

A3. Similarly, press each tool in turn, reading its description at the bottom of the map window.

Note: The Pointer or Selection Tool does not have a description, but it looks like an arrow.

1.3.5.2 B. Assigning Default Symbology

B1. Click on the Edit Symbology tool.

The Symbol Selection control window appears. A line is drawn around the currently selected symbols that will be used to create new features.

B2. Scroll through the symbols and colors to get an idea what's available and choose new default symbols.

A line is drawn around the newly selected symbols that will be used when new features are created.

B3. Click the OK button to close the Symbol Selection control window.

The Symbol Selection control window goes away.

1.3.5.3 C. Creating Features

Note: The tools used in this section are in the left section of the toolbar and will be used from left to right.

C1. Click on the Point Feature Tool.

The Point Feature Tool stays depressed.

C2. Click on the map where you want to place a point feature.

A point feature is created using the default point symbol that you assigned in section B above.

C3. Similarly, create several other point features.

You see the new point features.

C4. Click on the text symbol tool.

The Text Tool stays depressed.

C5. Click on the map where you want to place a text feature.

A text entry box appears.

C6. Click in the text entry box.

A typing cursor appears in the text entry box.

C7. Type in the desired text.

You see the text in the text entry box.

C8. Press either the ESC key or the right mouse button (outside of the text entry box) to end text entry.

A text feature is created using the default text color and font that you assigned in section B above.

C9. Similarly, create several other text features.

You see the new text features.

C10. Click on the Line Feature Tool.

The Line Feature Tool stays depressed.

C11. Click several points on the map to define a line feature, then press the right mouse button or the ESC key to end the line feature.

The new line feature appears.

C12. Similarly draw a polygon using the Polygon Line Tool.

Note that the polygon is automatically closed.

C13. Similarly draw a rectangle using the Rectangle Line Tool.

C14. Similarly draw a range ring using the Range Ring Line Tool.

1.3.5.4 D. Moving Features

In this section you will use the Selection Tool to move features around. Point features are selected by clicking at the center of the symbol. Text features are selected by clicking on the text. All line features (whether a line, a polygon, a rectangle, or a range ring) are selected by clicking anywhere on the line.

D1. Click the Selection Tool (The one with the arrow).

The Selection Tool stays depressed.

D2. Move the mouse to one of the features on the map and, while holding the left mouse down, drag the feature to a new location.

The feature is moved to the new location.

D3. With the Selection Tool still depressed, sweep out an area containing several features. (To sweep out an area, move the mouse to one corner, hold the left button down while moving the other corner.)

Selection handles appear on the features within a rectangle representing the swept area.

D4. Drag the rectangle to a new location.

All of the selected features are moved.

1.3.5.5 E. Changing Symbology

E1. Using the Selection Tool, select one or more features.

Selection handles appear on the selected features.

E2. Using the Edit Symbology Tool (EDIT SYM), choose new symbols for the selected features.

The features are drawn with the newly chosen symbol.

1.3.5.6 F. Measuring Features

F1. Using the Selection Tool, select one or more features.

Selection handles appear on the selected features.

F2. Click the Measure Tool (looks like a caliper) to measure the selected features.

The Measurement window appears, displaying information like geodetic position for points, and distance and azimuth for lines.

Note: The units of measure can be changed using the menu command Settings / Units of Measure. The coordinate system of the geographic positions can be changed using the menu command Settings / Cursor / Coordinate System.

1.3.5.7 G. Deleting Features

G1. Using the Selection Tool, select one or more features.

Selection handles appear on the selected features.

G2. Press the DEL or DELETE key.

The selected features are deleted.

Note: On the HP, the DEL key seems to work like the ESC key and there is no way to delete features.

1.3.5.8 H. Working with Line and Area Features- Aggregating

Two or more line features can be combined into a single line feature. Similarly one or more line features can be combined to form an area feature. This is the only way to create area features.

If you don't have any line features, create two or more of them using the Line Tool.

H1. Using the Selection Tool, select two or more line features (hold the shift key down to select multiple features).

Selection handles appear on the selected line features.

H2. Click the Line Aggregation Tool.

The line features are aggregated into a single line feature.

H3. Using the Selection Tool, select one or more line features (hold the shift key down to select multiple features).

Selection handles appear on the selected line features.

H4. Click the Ring Aggregation Tool.

The line features are aggregated into a single ring or area feature.

1.3.5.9 I. Storing Annotations in Files

In this section we will save the annotations into a vector file and then bring them into another map. This is how you can move annotations from one map to another.

I1. Choose the menu command Data / Annotation File / Save As... to save the annotations out to a file of your choice.

The annotations are saved.

I2. Choose the menu command Data / Annotation File / Open to load the saved annotations from the file into the new map.

1.3.6 Tutorial 6: Configuring Default Map Settings

When you get all the settings for a particular map arranged to your liking, you can save them using the menu command Settings / Save As Defaults. New maps created using the menu command File / New will inherit these settings.

1.3.7 Tutorial 7: Using an RDBMS (WIN32 Only)

Fusion is able to connect to and manage data that is stored in a Relational Data Base Management System that has been configured as an Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) data source using the ODBC Administrator in the Windows Control Panel.

1.3.7.1 A. Configuring an ODBC Data source

A1. In the Windows Program Manager open the Main program group, open the Control Panel and then launch the ODBC icon.

The ODBC Data Sources list appears.

A2. In the ODBC Data Sources list click the Add... button.

The Add Data Source window appears.

A3. in the Add Data Source window choose Microsoft Access Driver and click OK.

The ODBC Microsoft Access xx Setup window appears

A4. In the ODBC Microsoft Access xx Setup window enter the Data Source Name "tutor7", then press the Select Button.

The Select Database window appears.

A5. in the Select Database window move to the folder NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor7, select the file tutor7.mdb, and click the OK button.

The Data Sources window comes back to the front showing the new data source named tutor7.

A6. In the Data Sources window click the Close (or OK) button, and then close the control panel.

If all this worked you now have a test data source.

1.3.7.2 B. Route Planning Example

This section illustrates route planning using an RDBMS table.

Each table contains a single route.

Each record is a waypoint.

You can insert, delete, and move RDBMS features much as annotation overlays are managed. The difference is that mouse operations are encoded in SQL queries, and sent to the RDBMS. The RDBMS is then queried to redraw the data.

B1. Select Fusion's menu item Settings / Working Directory...

The file open dialog appears.

B2. Move to the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor7 and double click any file. (This is to get the folder, so any file will do.)

The file open dialog disappears.

B3. Choose the menu command File / Open, and choose the file "route.map" from the folder NIMAMUSE/data/fusion/tutor7.

A sample route planning map appears.

B4. Use the Selection Tool (the arrow tool in the toolbar) to drag one of the waypoints to a new location.

B5. Click the Line Feature Tool, click several points on the map, and then press the ESC key (or the right mouse button).

The prompt "Insert Before Waypoint Number ? (0 to append)" appears.

B6. Enter 0 (the default) and click OK.

The new waypoints are appended to the route.

B7. Use the Selection Tool (the arrow tool in the toolbar) to select a waypoint to delete and press the DEL key.

The waypoint is removed and the remaining waypoints renumbered.

1.3.7.3 C. Viewing Feature Attributes

C1. Click on the Pointer Tool, then double click a waypoint to bring up a form displaying all of the waypoints' attribute names and values.

The form shows the record's attributes.

C2. Use the keys Page Up, Page Down, arrow up, and arrow down if the window is not large enough to show all attributes.

C3. Use the Next and Previous buttons to view adjacent records.

C4. Click the form window close control to close the form.

The form closes.

Note: You can use RDBMS tools to add additional columns to the data tables and these columns will also show up here. You can determine which columns from the table are shown in the form using a special query named "FORM_QUERY" in your "queries.txt" file. To explore this use notepad or another text editor to remove the "//" from the FORM_QUERY in "queries.txt" in the tutor7 folder.

1.3.7.4 D. Working with Existing Tables

D1. Click on the map window to bring it to the front.

D2. Move the map window to the side to expose the SQL - ODBC Databases control window. This window represents an open connection to an ODBC data source.

D3. Operate the list button control "Table" and choose the table named "points".

"points" appears in the "Table" control.

D4. Operate the list button control "Name" and choose the query "Draw"

D5. Click the Execute button.

A collection of point features are drawn from the table "points".

Note: You can have different data in different tables and switch from one table to another.

1.3.7.5 E. Creating New Tables

E1. Choose the menu command Settings / RDBMS / Table Contents / None. ( If you don't see the full menu, click on the map to restore it.)

Removes all checks in the Settings / RDBMS / Table Contents menu.

E2. Choose the menu command Settings / RDBMS / Table Contents / Line Features.

The Line Features item is checked.

E3. Choose the menu command Data / RDBMS Query (ODBC) / New Table.

A prompt for the table name appears.

E4. Enter "lines" as the table name.

A prompt for the number of points per record appears.

E5. Enter "2" as the number of points per record.

The new table "lines" is created. The table has columns for 2 points in each record.

Note: If you draw polylines containing more than 2 points into the table using the Line Feature Tool, multiple records will be created.

E6. In the SQL - ODBC Databases control window, re-chose the database "tutor7". (This lets it find the new table).

E7. In the SQL - ODBC Databases control window, choose the table your just created - "lines".

The table name in the query is changed to "lines".

E8. In the SQL - ODBC Databases control window press the execute.

The draw query is executed on the (currently empty) table "lines", the map is brought to the front.

E9. Click the Line Feature Tool in the toolbar.

The Line Feature Tool stays down.

E10. Click 2 points on the map, then press the ESC key (or click the right mouse button).

The line you drew is inserted into the table "lines", the draw query is re-executed, and the updated draw query result is displayed.

E11. Use the EDIT SYM Tool (Edit Symbology) to select a line style and color of your choice.

The default line style and color for lines yet to be drawn is reset.

E12. Once again click the Line Feature Tool in the toolbar.

The Line Feature Tool stays down.

E113. Once again click 2 points on the map, then press the ESC key (or click the right mouse button).

The new line is drawn in the style and color that you selected.

1.3.8 Tutorial 8: Realtime Mapping

Realtime mapping is used to display the positions of one or more moving objects on a map. Two programs run at the same time. The program Realtime processes the input from position sensors (GPS or NMEA strings) and creates a new output file every few seconds. This file is added into a Fusion map as an Overlay File with the attribute "Automate" so it will be reloaded and redrawn every few seconds.

A1. Launch and configure the NIMAMUSE Program Realtime, noting the folder and file name used for the Realtime output file.

A2. Choose Fusion's menu item Data / Overlay Files...

The Vector Overlay List control window appears.

A3. In the Overlay List control window, press the Add button, and choose the file you assigned to the Realtime output in step A1.

The overlay file appears in the list.

A4. In the Overlay List control window, click in the column labeled "Timer(sec)", in the row corresponding to the Realtime output.

A box for entering the timer setting appears.

A5. Enter a 5 into the edit control and press OK.

The box disappears and the 5 appears in the Timer column in the Overlay List window.

A6. In the Overlay List control window, click the OK button.

The Overlay List control window closes. Every 5 seconds, the Realtime output file is reloaded automatically to display its updated contents.

A7. Choose Fusion's menu command Location / Scroll by Timed Overlay to have the map follow the contents of the Realtime output file.

When the Realtime objects get near the edge of the map window, the map window scrolls automatically.

Note: If it is desired to use VPF data as the map background, it is recommended that the desired VPF map first be created and Fusion's menu command Data / Fuse Overlays be used to convert the VPF map into a raster map.

1.3.9 Tutorial 9: Importing and Registering a TIFF Map Image

In addition to NIMA raster and vector data products, scanned images of maps may be imported into Fusion maps. These images are clipped to the desired map corner points but are not warped, reprojected, resampled, or rotated.

1.3.9.1 A. Cylindrical Equidistant Example

A1. Choose menu command File / New to create a new map.

A new map window appears.

A2. Choose menu command Data / Raster File / Import TIFF.

The open file dialog appears.

A3. Move to the folder /NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor9 and choose the file "tutor9.tif".

A4. At the prompt, choose "Color Map".

The image appears. This image was created using the DCW Browse library and exported as a TIFF file, but it could also have come from a scanner.

Note the "Unregistered Image" message at the bottom of the map window, and the prompts to enter the corner points.

A5. At the prompt (bottom of map window) "Click lower left corner", click the map image at the intersection of graticule lines at latitude 25N, longitude 90W.

A point entry dialog appears.

A6. Similarly and following the prompt, click the image point at 25N 70W for the lower right corner.

A7. Similarly and following the prompt, click the image point at 40N 90W for the upper left corner.

A8. Similarly and following the prompts, click the image point at 40N 70W for the upper right corner.

A9. Move the cursor over the map comparing the position readout to the graticule intersections points to see the accuracy of the image registration.

A10. Add a graticule to the map (if it does not already have one).

Differences between the graticule that appeared in the original TIFF image and the overlay graticule show any inaccuracy in the registration.

1.3.9.2 B. Mercator Example

This tutorial shows how to register a map in a Mercator projection.

The image registration does not reproject the image. You must configure the map display coordinate system correctly before importing the TIFF image. Since no Mercator system is provided, we have to start with a Lambert Conformal Conic and modify it.

B1. Choose menu command File / New to create a new map.

A new map window appears.

B2. Choose menu command Data / Graticule / Add to add a graticule.

The graticule is drawn.

B3. Choose menu command Settings / Map Display Coordinate System.

The Coordinate System Selection control window appears.

B4. Since no Mercator system is provided, choose "Lambert Conformal Conic US | USLCC, and then press the Configure New System button.

The Coordinate System Configuration control window appears.

B5. Enter "Mercator" in the field labeled "Name".

B6. Use the Projection list button to select Mercator.

"Mercator" is displayed to the right of "Projection".

B7. Press the "Other Projection Parameters" button.

The Other Projection Parameters window appears.

B8. Since you will be working with a larger area of the world than was allowed by the Lambert system, change the System Extents by entering 20S, 140W, 75N, and 10W for the Min Latitude, Min Longitude, Max Latitude, and Max Longitude, respectively. Press the OK button.

The Other Projection Parameters window closes, and the Coordinate System Configuration window appears.

B9. Press the OK button in the Coordinate System Configuration control window.

The window closes.

B10. Press the OK button in Coordinate System Selection control window.

The window closes.

B11. If you get a prompt to "Clip" the map area, press the Clip button. At the "Reset map cursor coordinate system" prompt, press the No button.

The graticule is redrawn in the Mercator projection.

B12. Choose menu item Settings / Map Cursor / Coordinate System.

The Coordinate System Selection control window appears.

B13. Click the Pre-defined List button and then choose "World Geodetic System 1984 | WGS84" from the list.

B14. Press the OK button in Coordinate System Selection control window.

The window closes.

B15. Choose menu command Data / Raster File / Import TIFF.

The open file dialog appears.

B16. Move to the folder /NIMAMUSE / data / fusion / tutor9 and choose the file "mercator.tif".

B17. At the prompt, choose "Color Map".

The image appears. This image was created using the DCW Browse library and exported as a TIFF file, but it could also have come from a scanner.

Note the "Unregistered Image" message at the bottom of the map window, and the prompts to enter the corner points.

B18. At the prompt (bottom of map window) "Click lower left corner", click the map image at the intersection of graticule lines at latitude 0N, longitude 120W.

A point entry dialog appears.

B19. Similarly and following the prompt, click the image point at 0N 20W for the lower right corner.

B20. Similarly and following the prompt, click the image point at 60N 120W for the upper left corner.

B21. Similarly and following the prompts, click the image point at 60N 20W for the upper right corner.

B22. Move the cursor over the map comparing the position readout to the graticule intersections points to see the accuracy of the image registration.

1.3.10 Tutorial 10: Raster and VPF Products

This tutorial shows you how to add both raster and VPF products into a map and then use dead reckoning to move across the map data. Sample data is provided by the DBDB5 database and the sample VPF database on the NIMAMUSE 2.1 Distribution page under /data/dbdb5 and /data/dcw.

1.3.10.1 A. Using Raster Products

A1. Use menu command File / New to create a new map.

The new map window appears.

A2. Choose menu command Data / Raster Product / DBDB5

The file selection dialog appears with instructions to locate the "bath" file.

A3. Move to the downloaded folder /data/dbdb5 and choose the file "bath".

The file selection dialog goes away and the Raster Product Area Reset dialog appears.

A4. Click the "Click New Map Center" radiobutton in the Browse Map box, and the "Use Product Scale" radiobutton in the "Scale" box.

A browse map showing the area covered by the DBDB5 product is displayed.

A5. Click a point of interest on the browse map.

The DBDB5 data is loaded and used to generate a map image whose center is the point that was clicked on the browse map.

A6. Choose the menu command Location / New Map Center / Click on map. Then click a new map center point.

The DBDB5 data for the new location is loaded and used to generate the map image.

Notes:

The other Location Menu items are also available for use.

The size of the map image can be changed using menu command Location / By Dialog.

Zooming out on raster products results in the reading of large amounts of data and can become quite slow.

The command Location / Raster Zoom Reset can be used to reset the pixel to pixel correspondence between the raster product and the map display. Raster products usually look best at this scale.

1.3.10.2 B. Adding VPF Overlays

B1. Select the menu command Data / VPF View / Add.

The open file dialog appears prompting you to open the file "dht". Dht stands for Database Header Table. It is a file that sits atop each and every VPF database. On some systems you must press the Database Add button to get this prompt.

B2. Move to the NIMAMUSE CDROM, then to the folder "data / DCW" and select the file "dht".

The Add Library control window appears.

B3. Select "BROWSE" and press the OK button.

Note: This list shows all VPF libraries not already added to the view. This small demonstration VPF database contains only the one library "BROWSE".

After a pause in which a default view is being created based on the chosen library's contents, the Add Library control window disappears and the Feature Selection control window comes to the front.

B4. Choose the Coverage "Political / Oceans".

"Political / Oceans" appears to the right of the word "Coverage".

The default themes contained in the "Political / Oceans" coverage appear in the list in the bottom half of the Feature Selection control window.

B5. Click the check box next to the themes "Political / Oceans Lines".

The check box next to "Political / Oceans Lines" appears checked.

B6. Click OK in the Feature Selection control window.

Coastlines and political boundaries is drawn on top of the DBDB5 map.

1.3.10.3 C. Using Dead Reckoning

C1. Choose menu command Location / By Dead Reckoning.

C2. At the prompt: "Enter speed and direction" enter the following:

10000, 90.

The dead reckoning mode is entered. The current location is shown by a black diamond, moving at a speed of 10000 knots toward the east.

Raster and VPF data are reloaded as needed.

C3. Choose menu command Location / Dead Reckoning again.

Dead reckoning is turned off.

Notes:

Dead reckoning is provided for demonstration purposes only and is not intended to support navigation.

The speed at which you can fly over the maps depends on the scale of the data products you are using, and the speed of you computer system.

This tutorial can be run at a speed of 200,000 knots on a 90Mz Pentium and 4X CDROM.

1.3.10.4 D. Other Uses

Using raster and vector products together can be very useful. Other good combinations are :

Operational Navigation Charts (ADRG, CADRG, CAC product formats) and VMAP0.

Joint Operations Graphics (ADRG, CADRG, CAC product formats) and VMAP1.

Topographic Line Maps (ADRG, CADRG, CAC product formats) and VMAP2.

CIB and VMAP2.

1.4 Using Fusion with other Programs

The Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Utility Software Environment (NIMAMUSE) provides the capability to exploit NIMA's digital data products and to perform other MC&G functions such as Map Projections, Coordinate Conversions, and Datum Transformations.

NIMAMUSE is comprised of data import programs (Raster Importer and VPF Importer), utility programs, and data viewing programs such as Fusion.

Fusion allows you to create digital maps using data extracted from the data products by the import programs.

1.4.1 NIMAMUSE Raster and VPF Data Importers

The Fusion tutorials have shown you how to "fuse" basemaps, VPF Views, annotations, overlay files, and RDBMS queries into maps. The Raster Import program is used to extract the basemap data from the standard products. The VPF Import program is used to formulate and execute queries that interact with the VPF products to create vector overlay files. The imported data is added to maps in the Fusion program, where the user is allowed to display diverse data products in conjunction with one another as basemaps and overlays. Please consult the on-line help and user guides while using these programs. The following is just a brief description.

1.4.1.1 Raster Import

The program Raster Import selects raster data from the NIMA raster data products and saves it as a file in a common format called a NIMAMUSE raster file.

1.4.1.2 VPF Import

In addition to the capability of configuring a View of one or more VPF products using Fusion's menu command Data / VPF View / Add, you can use the VPF Import program to create overlay files that can be added to a map using Fusion's menu command Data / Overlay Files / Add.

1.4.2 NIMAMUSE Perspective Scene and Line of Sight

Fusion can be used to fuse user overlays and VPF Views into a NIMAMUSE Raster file for used in Perspective Scene and Line of Sight. First use Fusion to build the map you want. Then use Fusion's menu command Data / Fuse Overlays to merge the overlays into the basemap image. Then Fusion's menu command Data / Export Map Image / As NIMAMUSE Raster to create the NIMAMUSE raster file. You can then load this "fused" basemap image in the 3D Perspective Scene program or the Line of Sight program as a Generic NIMAMUSE Raster (file type .IMA).

1.4.3 Other Software Packages

1.4.3.1 Printing to Image Files

Use Fusion's Menu Command File / Print to save the map image into a file for printing by another application program or for import into non-NIMAMUSE software. File formats include TIFF, BMP, and NIMAMUSE Raster.

1.4.3.2 Screen Capture

Screen capture utilities can be used with the system clipboard to move the entire screen image into non-NIMAMUSE software. This capability is particularly useful when a multi-map image is desired. For example, on MS Windows, press the Print Screen key to capture the image. Then in the MS Windows Accessory Paintbrush, use the menu command "Edit / Paste" to paste the screen image into Paintbrush, where it can be edited or printed.

1.5 Fusion Menu Details

1.5.1 File Menu

The File Menu includes commands for saving and accessing map documents in the computer file system. The commands included are:

New - Creates a new map document in computer memory and opens a map document window.

Open - Opens an existing map document from a disk file. Follow the drive, directory, and file prompts or enter the file name directly (enter the entire pathname for the map file when necessary).

Close - Closes the currently selected map document.

Save - Saves an open map document under its current file name. Fusion gives maps names such as map0.map or map1.map. Use Save As... to give your map a different name. The '.map' extension is required.

Save As... - Renames and saves an open map document to disk under a user-chosen file name and file format. The '.map' extension is required for Fusion's map documents.

Revert to Saved - Discards any changes made to the map document since it was previously saved and replaces it by reading in the last saved version of that map document from the file system.

Print - Prints the currently selected map document or map description.

Print Setup - Opens the platform specific printer setup dialog.

Exit - Terminates Fusion. A save change dialog appears if any open map documents have been modified.

1.5.2 Data Menu

The Data Menu includes items that add, modify, and remove map data. The menu items included are:

Data / Raster File - Adds or changes a map background file that was created using the NIMAMUSE application RAST_IMP.

Data / Raster Product - Adds or changes a direct connection to a NIMA raster or image data product. Supported products include ADRG, CAC, CADRG, CIB, DTED, DBDB5. When a raster product is added to a map, a browse map shows the area covered by the product and is used to select a location of interest. The Location Menu commands may then be used to move around within the raster product.

Data / Graticule - Adds, modifies, or removes the current graticule. The graticule includes the markers across the face of the map and the along the map sides.

Data / UTM Grid - Adds or removes UTM grid lines and labels.

Data / Overlay Files - Adds, modifies, or removes a vector overlay file. The vector format is chosen by selecting Settings / Vector Overlay / Binary or Settings / Vector Overlay / ASCII

Data / RDBMS Query (ODBC) - Adds, modifies, or removes a query to ODBC data sources.

Data / VPF View - Adds, modifies, or removes a view of VPF products.

Data / Annotation File - Controls the input and output of data for the annotation editor.

Data / Export Map Image - Saves the map image into a file for exchange with other programs.

Data / Fuse Overlays - Moves all map overlays into the raster basemap image.

Data / Display Palette - Displays the map palette.

Data / Declutter - - Toggles display of annotations on and off.

1.5.2.1 Data / Raster File

Data / Raster File - Adds or changes a map background file that was created using the NIMAMUSE application RAST_IMP.

None - Removes the current basemap.

ADRG - Arc Digitized Raster Graphic.

ASRP - Arc Standard Raster Product.

CAC - Compressed Aeronautical Chart.

CADRG - Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphics.

SRG - Standard Raster Graphic.

USRP - Universal Standard Raster Product.

ADRI - Arc Digitized Raster Imagery.

CIB - Controlled Imagery Base.

DBDB5 - Digital Bathymetric Data Base 5min.

DBDBV - Digital Bathymetric Data Base Variable resolution.

DTED - Digital Terrain Elevation Data.

IMAGE - Opens a Generic NIMAMUSE Raster file as the basemap.

Other - Opens any of the above file types.

Import TIFF File - Imports and registers a map image from a file conforming to the TIFF specification.

1.5.2.2 Data / Raster Product

Adds or changes a direct connection to a NIMA raster or image data product.

Supported products include ADRG, CAC, CADRG, CIB, DTED, DBDB5.

When a raster product is added to a map, a browse map showing area covered by the product may be used to select a location of interest. The Location Menu commands may then be used to move around within the raster product.

None - Removes the current raster product from the map.

ADRG - Arc Digitized Raster Graphic.

CAC - Compressed Aeronautical Chart.

CADRG - Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphics.

CIB - Controlled Imagery Base.

DBDB5 - Digital Bathymetric Data Base 5min.

DTED - Digital Terrain Elevation Data.

MUSE Tiled GeoTIFF -

1.5.2.3 Data / Graticule

Add - Opens the Graticule Configuration Windowand adds a new graticule. Only one graticule may be present at a time. This option is unavailable when a graticule is already present, but the current graticule may be modified.

Modify - Opens the Graticule Configuration Windowand allows user to modify an existing graticule. Only one graticule may be present at a time. This option is unavailable when no graticule is present.

Remove - Removes the graticule currently displayed. This option is only valid when a graticule is present.

1.5.2.4 Data / UTM Grid

Add - Adds the UTM Grid.

Remove - removes the UTM Grid.

1.5.2.5 Data / Overlay Files

Opens the Vector Overlay List window, which allows vector overlay files generated using the NIMAMUSE VPF_IMPort program or another program that generates a NIMAMUSE VEC file to be added to the map. Files may be either ASCII or binary as selected using Setting / Vector Overlay.

1.5.2.6 Data / RDBMS Query (ODBC)

These data sources are configured using the ODBC Administrator program (not a part of NIMAMUSE). They provide a good means of viewing and editing user data.

Add - Opens the RDBMS Query Windowto add a RDBMS query to the map. These data sources are configured using the ODBC Administrator program (not a part of NIMAMUSE).

Modify - Opens the RDBMS Query Windowto modify the query.

Remove - Removes the RDBMS query.

1.5.2.7 Data / VPF View

Adds and configures a view of VPF data. The view can contain any combination of VPF databases, libraries, coverages, and feature classes. A view includes information defining what data will be selected for display and how it will be symbolized.

Views configured using VPFVIEW V2.0 and be imported.

Add - Adds a view of VPF products onto the map.

Modify - Modifies the view configuration.

Remove - Removes the view of VPF from the map.

1.5.2.8 Data / Annotation File

Controls the input and output of data to the annotation editor. The file format is a NIMAMUSE VEC either ASCII or binary as set using Settings / Overlay / File Format.

Open - Loads an existing NIMAMUSE VEC file into the map annotation editor.

Clear - Clears the annotation editor of all data. This data can not be recovered if it has not been saved.

Save as... - Saves the current annotations into a NIMAMUSE VEC file.

1.5.2.9 Data / Export Map Image

As BMP - Saves the map image as a bitmap.

As NIMAMUSE Raster - Saves the map image as a NIMAMUSE raster file.

As TIFF - Saves the map image as a TIFF file.

1.5.2.10 Data / Fuse Overlays

Fuses all map overlays into the basemap image. After the overlays are fused into the basemap they are removed.

1.5.2.11 Data / Display Palette

Displays the map palette. The default map palette contains window system colors, a gray scale ramp, and a color cube having 5 levels of red, green, and blue.

1.5.3 Location Menu

The Location Menu includes items for modifying the map configuration. The menu items included are:

Zoom In

Enlarges view of the currently selected map window using pixel replication to magnify the viewing resolution.

Zoom Out

Shrinks view of the currently selected map window using pixel down-sampling to decrease the viewing resolution.

Raster Zoom Reset

This command is enabled only when a Raster Product is included in the map data. It reloads the raster product at the raster product's scale. Each pixel or data value will be represented by exactly one pixel in the map display.

Zoom Out Max

Resets the map area to the entire part of the world for which the Map Display coordinate System is valid.

New Map Center

Changes the map center to the position of the next mouse click or using a point entry dialog.

Sweep Out Area

Allows you to sweep out with the mouse the area that you want to zoom in to.

By Dialog...

Opens the Map Area Configuration Component allowing the map image size, map area, map center, and map scale to be set. This is the only place where the size of the map image can be set.

By Overlay

Zooms to the area of an overlay file, if only one overlay file has been added to the map. Invokes the "Select Overlay to Reset By" window if there are multiple overlays.

VPF Browse Map

- This item is enabled only when a VPF View is included in the map data. If Settings / VPF View / Show Reset Dialog is checked, this item opens the Product Area Reset Dialog, in which you can choose how to use the browse map, and modify the map setup. Then a browse map showing the area covered by the product is shown. The browse map is constructed from the Library Reference coverages of all the libraries in the view. If you choose to click on a new center point in the browse map, the map area will be automatically centered on that point. If you choose to use the Product Scale, the map will be scaled appropriately for that VPF library. If scale information is not found in the VPF library, you can enter a map scale.

Raster Browse Map

This command is enabled only when a Raster Product is included in the map data. If Settings / Raster Basemap / Show Reset Dialog is checked, this item opens the Product Area Reset Dialog, in which you can choose how to use the browse map, and modify the map setup. Then a browse map showing the area covered by the product is shown. If you choose to click on a new center point in the browse map, the map area will be automatically centered on that point. If you choose to use the Product Scale, the map will be scaled appropriately for the product. Browse maps for ADRG use the overview image included with the ADRG product. For the other Raster Products, the browse map consists of a map graticule and the vector file "browse.vec".

Scroll By Dead Reckoning

This command moves the map center according to a user entered speed and direction. Raster and VPF product data is reloaded as needed. To turn this feature off, choose the command again.

Scroll By Timed Overlay

This command moves the map center to the position of the first point feature in a Vector Overlay file that has a timer set. It is used in conjunction with the Realtime program to provide a route monitoring capability.

1.5.4 Settings Menu

The Settings Menu includes items for modifying the various map settings. The settings for any map can be saved as default values for maps created later using Settings / Save Settings as Defaults.

The menu items included are:

Map Description - Opens the Text Edit Windowwhich contains user-entered map information. This information is associated with a particular map. The user may add additional information and save it when the text edit window is closed.

Map Display Coordinate System - Opens the Coordinate System Selection Window

Monitor Calibration - Opens the Monitor Calibration Windowwhich allows calibration of the monitor by actually measuring a rectangle.

Units of Measure - Opens the Units Configuration Window

Working Directory - Opens a file selection dialog. Select a file from the desired directory. This directory becomes the default directory for map data.

Map Cursor - This contains options for changing the Coordinate Systemand Style.

Measurement - Settings for the measure tool and VPF queries.

Raster Basemap - Contains Terrain Renderingand Palette Usageoptions. Also, when the "Show Reset Dialog" menu item is checked, the Product Area Reset Dialogwill be displayed every time Raster Product data is added or modified.

Vector Overlay - Sets attributes for the vector overlay. Attributes include format (ASCII or Binary) and the automate timer interval used for realtime mapping applications.

RDBMS - Settings for the ODBC database queries.

VPF View - Sets attributes for the VPF View. Attributes include the buffer size (loading an area larger than the map area to permit map recentering without reloading data) and Keep Unused Data (save data for feature classes that are not currently displayed).

CIB Enhancement - These commands allow you to choose an image processing option to improve the contrast in the CIB raster product.

Max Maps Displayed - Sets the maximum number of map windows that can be open at one time.

Save Settings As Defaults - Establishes the settings for the current map as defaults for maps created later.

1.5.4.1 Settings / Map Cursor

Coordinate System - Modifies the Status Bar cursor location display. This is accomplished by opening the Coordinate System Selection Windowand selecting or configuring a user coordinate system.

Style - Sets the default map cursor shape. There are three map cursor styles:

Arrow - Sets the default map cursor shape to be an arrow symbol.

Plus - Sets the default map cursor shape to be a plus symbol.

Cross - Sets the default map cursor shape to be a cross symbol.

1.5.4.2 Settings / Raster Basemap

Terrain Colors - Opens the Terrain Color Look Up Table Window

Terrain Sun Position - If the data source is DTED or DBDB5, the sun position can be set to simulate hill shading from one of the following sun positions: NW, W, SW, S, SE, E, NE, and N

Colors Only - Basemap colors are chosen from the color section of the default color palette typically 125 colors mixed using 5 levels of Red, 5 levels of Green, and 5 levels of Blue.

Grays Only - Basemap colors are chosen from the gray section of the palette. 91 shades of gray are usually available.

Both Grays and Colors - Basemap colors are chosen from both the RGB and the Gray sections of the palette.

Native Raster Palette - This option is available for basemap images that have their own 2 and 4 bit color palettes such as those imported from CRG. The native raster palette is copied into the bottom of the map palette, overwriting some or all of the grays and perhaps also the RGB colors.

1.5.4.3 Settings / CIB Enhancement.

Linear Stretch - Stretches the CIB pixel intensity range linearly over the gray scale palette. It provides contrast enhancement.

2 Standard Deviation Stretch - Stretches the mean +/- 2 standard deviation over the gray scale palette.

3 Standard Deviation Stretch - Stretches the mean +/- 3 standard deviation over the gray scale palette.

4 Standard Deviation Stretch - Stretches the mean +/- 4 standard deviation over the gray scale palette.

Histogram Equalize - Redistributes the CIB intensities such that each value in the gray scale palette gets about the same number of pixels.

Show Reset Dialog - Determines whether the Product Area Reset Dialogwill be displayed every time Raster Product data is added or modified.

1.6 Fusion Control Window Details

1.6.1 Coordinate Systems

1.6.1.1 Map Area Configuration Dialog

The Map Area Configuration Dialog provides goal-oriented map size and map area configuration. It is disabled when a raster file is present. Choose one of the three radio buttons at the top according to your goal. The button you choose determines which of the other controls are enabled. For example, if you know the map center, scale, and how big you want it to be, you should choose Center Point, Scale, and Image Size (Compute Geo-Extent). The Corners and Map Scale button is usually most useful for defining maps on map projections and for duplicating the geometry of paper maps. You can re-compute values for the disabled controls at any time using the Compute ... button near the bottom.

The map image size is shown as both a limit and a computed size. Normally one of the computed dimensions will be less than the limit in order to maintain the aspect ratio of the map.

Maps may cross the International Date Line.

1.6.1.2 Coordinate System Configuration

The Coordinate System Configuration dialog box is invoked by pressing the Configure New System button in the Coordinate System Selection box. Its main purpose is to create or "configure" a new "user-defined" system that is similar to the current system. It can also be used to simply view the parameters of the current coordinate system. Most of the controls are initialized with the values from the system that is currently highlighted in the Coordinate System Selection box.

The controls are used for configuring and viewing the parameters of a wide variety of coordinate systems. Not all of the parameters apply to any one particular coordinate system. Parameters that do not apply to the current coordinate system will have their controls disabled and labeled "NA".

If you only want to view these parameters, not create a new system, press the "Cancel" button when you are ready to return to the Selection box. If you want to create a user-defined system, change one or more parameters using any enabled controls, enter a unique name for the new system in the "Name" edit control, and then press the OK button. Each new system MUST have a unique name (see "Name Edit Box" below). Pressing the OK button is equivalent to defining a new coordinate system, even if no parameters except the name have been changed. Before invoking this dialog box, you will want to select a system in the Selection box that is similar to the user-defined system that you want to create, so that the controls you need are enabled. For example, if you want to define a grid system that uses northings and eastings and a particular map projection, you would not base it on one of the "Geodetic Position" systems from the top of the Selection list, because they will cause the False Northing, False Easting, and Projection controls to be disabled. Note that there is no control for entering an abbreviation for a new system--all user-defined systems are assigned an abbreviation.

The following controls are located in the Coordinate System Configuration box:

Name Edit Box

The Name control is used for entering a new name for a user-defined system. Because the main function of the Coordinate System Configuration Box is to create new systems, and because each new system must have a unique name, this is the one control that is not initialized with the name of the current system highlighted in the Selection list. Instead, it is initialized with a default name created from some of the parameter values of the current system. You will probably want to change the default name each time you create a new system. You will HAVE to change the default name if you have already used it once.

Coordinate Unit List Button

The Coordinate Unit list button displays the current units choice. Push the down arrow to see a list of alternate units, and click on your choice. When the current coordinate system is one of the Geodetic Position systems that defines map positions in terms of latitudes and longitudes, the list contains angular units. For all other systems the list contains linear units.

Horizontal Datum Push Button

The Horizontal Datum push button controls the viewing and selection of horizontal datums. It displays the name of the datum used for the current coordinate system. To choose a different datum, click on the push-button, which invokes the Local Datum Selection dialog box. For more information on choosing a new datum, press the Help button in the Local Datum Selection dialog box.

Projection List Button

The Projection List button displays the projections that you may choose from when configuring a new grid coordinate system. This button will be disabled if the current system is one of the Geodetic Position systems.

False Northing Edit Box

The False Northing box is used for viewing or modifying the value that is assigned to the origin of northings in a grid coordinate system. Often it is set to a number that is large enough to prevent the inconvenience of negative northing values for points of interest that lie to the south of the origin.

False Easting Edit Box

The False Easting box is used for viewing or modifying the value that is assigned to the origin of eastings in a grid coordinate system. Often it is set to a number that is large enough to prevent the inconvenience of negative easting values for points of interest that lie to the west of the origin.

Origin Latitude Push Button

The Origin Latitude button displays the current value of the latitude at the system origin, if applicable. If you are configuring a new system, press the button to invoke another dialog box for entering a different origin latitude.

Origin Longitude Push Button

The Origin Longitude button displays the current value of the longitude at the system origin, if applicable. If you are configuring a new system, press the button to invoke another dialog box for entering a different origin longitude.

Other Projection Parameters Push Button

Press the Other Projection Parameters button to invoke the Other Projection Parameters dialog box, which allows you to view or modify additional coordinate system parameters. For more information on these parameters, press the Help button in the Other Projection Parameters dialog box.

Reset Button

Press this button to restore all parameter values to the default values that were used to initialize the controls when the Configuration box was first drawn.

1.6.1.3 Coordinate System Selection

The Coordinate System Selection dialog box displays a list of coordinate systems. It allows you to select one of the existing systems or invoke a dialog box for creating a new coordinate system. The concept of a "coordinate system" may be different than what you are used to. A coordinate system defines many parameters that determine how the system axes are set up, and also includes the choice of a horizontal datum. The names and parameters for the existing coordinate systems are in a text file called "systmlst.txt," which should be in the same directory as the program.

The following controls are located in the Coordinate System Selection window:

Coordinate System List Box

The Coordinate System list box displays the names and abbreviations of the coordinate systems that are defined in the binary file "systmlst.txt." The original "systmlst.txt" that was shipped with the program contained only "pre-defined" systems. Whenever the current coordinate system is a pre-defined system, the list box will be initialized with the entire list of pre-defined systems. In the list of pre-defined systems are systems that use decimal degrees, degrees and minutes, or degrees/minutes/seconds to describe the location of a point on a map (the x-axis is longitude and the y-axis is latitude). These will be referred to as "Geodetic Position" systems. There are also several common grid systems that use easting and northing to describe the location of a point.

Systems can also differ from each other because they use different horizontal datums or are valid for different regions of the world.

You can create new "user-defined" systems, which are added to "systmlst.txt". The list box displays either the pre-defined systems or the user-defined systems, but not both. Whenever the current coordinate system is a user-defined system, the list box will be initialized with the entire list of user-defined systems. You will also see the list of the user-defined systems after you create a new system.

You can switch back and forth between the two lists by clicking on the "User-defined List" and "Pre-defined List" radio buttons.

Select one of the coordinate systems by double-clicking on it with the mouse or by single-clicking it and then pressing OK. See "Configure New System" for how to view the parameters that define a system and how to create a user-defined system.

Pre-defined List Radio Button

Click the Pre-defined List radio button to see the list of pre-defined coordinate systems.

User-defined List Radio Button

Click the User-defined List radio button to see the list of user-defined coordinate systems. The button will be disabled if no user-defined systems exist.

Configure New System Push Button

The Configure button invokes another dialog box, the "Coordinate System Configuration" box, that displays the parameters that define the selected coordinate system. You can use this box to merely view the system's parameters, or you can use it to create a new system that is based upon the selected system. If you only want to view the parameters, press "Cancel" in that box when you are ready to return to the Coordinate System Selection box. To learn more about how to create a new coordinate system, press the "Help" button in the "Coordinate System Configuration" box.

Delete Push Button

The Delete button allows you to remove the selected user-defined coordinate system from the list. Pre-defined systems can not be deleted, and the Delete button is disabled when the Coordinate System Selection list box contains the pre-defined systems.

1.6.1.4 Other Projection Parameters

The Other Projection Parameters dialog box contains controls for viewing or modifying additional coordinate system parameters. Some of the controls will be labeled "NA", since no single coordinate system uses all of the parameters. All the controls except the Central Scale Factor field are buttons which invoke a dialog box that is a form for helping you to enter a valid latitude, longitude, or azimuth value.

System Extents Push Buttons

The four System Extents push buttons allow you to view or modify the range of geodetic positions for which the current system is valid. If you are creating a user-defined system, you should be careful to conform these extents the local datum and/or the projection you may have chosen.

Central Scale Factor Edit Box

The Central Scale Factor edit box contains the scale factor of the map at the origin. It is used to correct for the differences between ground distance and projection or grid distance when long distances are involved. For conformal projections, scale factor at a point depends on the location of the point and the scale factor at the origin. See NIMA TM 8358.1 for details.

Central Azimuth Push Button

The Central Azimuth push button is used for coordinate systems that use an "OBM" (Oblique Mercator) projection, to display and/or modify the azimuth of the central line at the center point. Use the "E" radio button to indicate that the azimuth is positive, or eastward in a clockwise direction from true north. Use the "W" radio button to show that it is negative.

Upper Std Parallel Push Button

The Upper Std Parallel Push button currently is used only for the Lambert Conformal Conic projection. It allows the northern standard parallel to be displayed or modified.

Lower Std Parallel Push Button

The Lower Std Parallel Push button currently is used only for the Lambert Conformal Conic projection. It allows the southern standard parallel to be displayed or modified.

Fixed Zone Check Box

The Fixed Zone check box is enabled only for systems that use the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. Check it if you want all UTM northings and eastings to be calculated in reference to the central meridian of a single UTM zone, and then enter that zone number in the Zone edit box.

Zone Edit Box

The Zone Edit Box is enabled only for systems that use the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. If you want all UTM northings and eastings to be calculated in reference to the central meridian of a single zone, check the Fixed Zone check box and then enter the zone number into the Zone Edit box. You probably will want to edit the System Extents longitude values so that the system does not extend too far to the east or west of the chosen zone.

1.6.1.5 Local Datum Selection

The Local Datum Selection dialog box displays a list of horizontal datums. The names and parameters for the horizontal datums are in a text file called "hdatmlst.txt," which should be in the same directory as the program. The following controls are located in the Local Datum Selection window:

Datums List Box

The Datums list box displays the names, abbreviations, and countries or areas of the horizontal datums that are defined in the file "hdatmlst.txt." Although most pre-defined datums are local datums, the global datums WGS 1972 and WGS 1984 are included near the end of the list. The area/country names of some datums are so long that they have been truncated, and ",etc." has been tacked on to the end of the line. Select one of the datums by double-clicking on it with the mouse or by single-clicking it and then pressing OK. See "View Datum" for how to view the parameters that define a horizontal datum.

View Datum Push Button

The View Datum button invokes another dialog box, the "Datum Definition" box, that displays the parameters that define the selected horizontal datum.

1.6.1.6 Datum Definition

The Datum Definition dialog box is invoked by pressing the View Datum button in the Local Datum Selection box. It can be used to view the parameters of the datum that is currently highlighted in the Local Datum Selection box. The following controls are located in the Datum Definition window:

Datum Name

The Name box displays the name of the datum.

County/Area

The Country/Area box displays the country or area of the world that is associated with the datum.

Dx, Dy, Dz

These values are the shifts in the x, y, and z directions between the ellipsoid center of the local datum and the center of the WGS 1984 datum. The MANDATORY sign convention is WGS 1984 minus local datum. Values are displayed to the nearest meter.

Ellipsoid Push Button

This button displays the name of the ellipsoid used to define the current datum. To view the parameters of the ellipsoid, click on the button.

1.6.1.7 Ellipsoid Definition

The names and parameters for the existing ellipsoids are in a text file called "ellplst.txt," which should be in the same directory as the program.

The Ellipsoid Definition dialog box is invoked by pressing the Ellipsoid button in the Datum Definition box. It can be used to view the parameters of the ellipsoid used to define the current datum. The following controls are located in the Ellipsoid Definition window:

Name

The Name box displays the name of the ellipsoid.

a(meters)

The a(meters) box contains the semi-major axis (a) of the ellipsoid, in meters .

1/f

The 1/f box contains the reciprocal of the flattening (1/f) of the ellipsoid.

1.6.1.8 Decimal Degrees Point Entry

The Decimal Degrees Point Entry box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a valid point in the Geodetic Position coordinate system, when the units are decimal degrees. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Type in new latitude and/or longitude values using the following format:

Enter fractional degrees with at most five digits to the right of the decimal point.

Longitudes must be between 0 and 180 degrees.

Use the N/S and E/W radio buttons to indicate hemisphere do not use a minus sign nor type the hemisphere letters into the edit field.

ERROR CHECKING

The above restrictions are enforced via character-by-character error checking that refuses to display invalid entries, such as a third digit to the left of the decimal point in the latitude field. Out-of-range errors, such as latitudes greater than 90 degrees, generate an error message when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

1.6.1.9 Degrees/Minutes Point Entry

The Degrees/Minutes Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a valid point in the Geodetic Position coordinate system, when the units are degrees and minutes. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Type in new latitude and/or longitude values using the following format:

Enter whole degrees and fractional minutes.

Minutes values should have at most three digits to the right of the decimal point.

Longitudes must be between 0 and 180 degrees.

Use the N/S and E/W radio buttons to indicate hemisphere do not use a minus sign nor type the hemisphere letters into the edit field.

ERROR CHECKING

The above restrictions are enforced via character-by-character error checking that refuses to display invalid entries, such as a third digit in the latitude degrees field. Out-of-range errors, such as latitudes degrees greater than 90, or minutes greater than 60.000, generate an error message when you try to operate any other control except the Help and Cancel buttons. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

1.6.1.10 Degrees/Minutes/Seconds Point Entry

The Degrees/Minutes/Seconds Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a valid point in the Geodetic Position coordinate system, when the units are degrees, minutes, and seconds. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Type in new latitude and/or longitude values using the following format:

Enter whole degrees and whole minutes.

Enter fractional seconds with at most one digit to the right of the decimal point.

Longitudes must be between 0 and 180 degrees.

Use the N/S and E/W radio buttons to indicate hemisphere do not use a minus sign nor type the hemisphere letters into the edit field.

ERROR CHECKING

The above restrictions are enforced via character-by-character error checking that refuses to display invalid entries, such as a third digit in the latitude degrees field. Out-of-range errors, such as latitudes degrees greater than 90 or seconds greater than 60.0, generate an error message when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

1.6.1.11 UTM Point Entry

The UTM Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a point whose format and values are valid for the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid. If you are completely unfamiliar with UTM, you should consult NIMA TM 8358.1, Chapter 2. This help file contains guidelines which summarize some of the information in that reference. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Enter new values using the following formats:

Enter a value between 1 and 60 in the Zone field.

Enter a value between 100000 and 900000 in the Easting field. Although the program will not reject any eastings in this range, remember that, depending on the northing, many values in this range will lie outside the zone. See "ERROR CHECKING" for details.

Enter a value between 0 and 10000000 meters in the Northing field. False Northing is 0 meters at the Equator for the Northern Hemisphere and 10,000,000 meters at the Equator for the Southern Hemisphere. Although the program will not reject any northings in the given range, remember that points near the poles will lie outside the UTM region of the globe (80 S to 84 N). See "ERROR CHECKING" for details.

Use the N/S radio button to indicate hemisphere do not use a minus sign nor type the hemisphere letter into the edit field.

ERROR CHECKING

Character-by-character error checking prevents you from entering non-digits. Some out-of-range errors, such as eastings smaller than 100000 or greater than 900000, generate an error message when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

CAUTION: Some errors are not trapped in Utmpnt, and will probably generate an error in the program. These include:

1. Entering an Easting value that is outside the zone at the current northing value. Even at the Equator, eastings less than about 166000 or greater than about 834000 will lie outside the chosen zone. As points approach the poles, eastings must get closer and closer to the False Easting value of 500000 at the Central Meridian, in order to stay within the zone.

  1. Entering a Northing value that lies outside the UTM area of the globe. Northings greater than about 9,300,000 in the Northern Hemisphere, or less than about 1,100,000 in the Southern Hemisphere, lie outside the UTM system limits.

1.6.1.12 UPS Point Entry

The UPS Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a point whose format and values are valid for the Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) Grid. If you are completely unfamiliar with UPS, you should consult NIMA TM 8358.1, Chapter 2. This help file contains guidelines which summarize some of the information in that reference. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Enter a new point using the following formats:

Enter a value between 0 and 4000000 meters in the Northing field.

False Northing is 2000000 at 90 S and 90 N.

Use the N/S radio button to indicate hemisphere do not use a minus sign nor type the hemisphere letter into the edit field.

Enter a value between 0 and 4000000 in the Easting field. False Easting is 2000000 at the origin longitude, which is the 0 - 180 degree line.

Although the program will not reject any northings or eastings between 0 and 4000000, some of these values lie outside the UPS regions of the globe (South Pole to 80 S and 84 N to North Pole).

See "ERROR CHECKING" for details.

ERROR CHECKING

Character-by-character error checking prevents you from entering non-digits. Some out-of-range errors, such as eastings and northings that are smaller than 0 or greater than 4000000, generate an error message when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

CAUTION: Some invalid values are not trapped by UPS Point Entry Entering a Northing and/or Easting value that causes the point to lie outside the UPS area of the globe may instead generate an error in the program. If either the Easting or the Northing is near the extremes of the allowed range, the point will not be in the UPS area. Numerous other Northing/Easting pairings may also lie outside the area. Whether or not this causes an error in the program depends what the program tries to do with the point. For example, the program might be able to convert any values returned by the dialog box into valid Geodetic Positions, but not be able to convert values that lie outside the UPS areas into valid MGRS points.

1.6.1.13 MGRS Point Entry

The MGRS Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a point whose format and values are valid for the Military Grid Reference System. If you are completely unfamiliar with MGRS, you should consult NIMA TM 8358.1, Chapter 3 and Appendix B. See the other Help topics for guidelines which summarize some of the information in that reference. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value.

Grid Zone Designation

This value consists of two fields. The first edit box is for the zone. The second is for the latitude band. In the zone field, enter a blank or a 0 for UPS-range points. Enter number between 1 and 60 for UTM areas. In the latitude band field, enter a single letter. The valid range for UTM-area points are the letters C through X, omitting I and O. The valid values for UPS-area points are a Y or Z for points near the North Pole, or A or B for points near the South Pole. The first letter for each UPS polar area is for points west of the 0 - 180 degree longitude line.

100,000-meter Square

Enter two letters to identify the 100,000-meter grid square within the current zone. In very general terms, the first letter can be any value except I or O, and the second ranges from A to V, also omitting I and O. However, the first letter must be compatible with the zone. See Appendix B of NIMA TM 8358.1.

Coordinates

This value consists of two fields for the grid coordinates (also called rectangular coordinates).

NOTE: Easting is the first field; Northing is the second. Enter the desired accuracy, up to 5 digits for each field. Trailing zeroes are added to a coordinate value, if necessary, to bring its width up to five digits.

ERROR CHECKING

MGRS is a complex system with problems in its practical application, and its continued use is uncertain. For these reasons, the MGRS Point Entry dialog box does not try to instruct the user in how to formulate an MGRS value "from scratch," nor does it guarantee that every point entered by the user is in a valid MGRS format. In general, it that you are attempting to enter a valid MGRS point obtained from a map or other source.

Some of the restrictions of the MGRS format are enforced via character-by-character error checking that rejects invalid entries like a digit in the latitude band field.

Some out-of-range errors, such as zones greater than 60, generate an error message when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box.

CAUTION: Some errors are not trapped in Mgrspnt, and will probably generate an error message in the program that tries to use the point entered. These include:

1. Entering a non-blank or non-zero zone value with a UPS-range latitude band.

2. Out-of-range or incompatible values that are not specifically mentioned above, such as a latitude band that is incompatible with the second letter of the 100,000-meter square.

  1. Incompatibilities that can only be discovered by the program, such as trying to use MGRS with an ellipsoid that doesn't support this system. See NIMA TM 8358.1 for supported ellipsoids, and note that user-defined ellipsoids are not supported. Another example is trying to convert a UTM-range MGRS value to UPS or a UPS-range value to UTM.

1.6.1.14 Georef Point Entry

GEOREF POINT ENTRY DIALOG

The Georef Point Entry Dialog displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a point whose format and values are valid for the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF). If you are completely unfamiliar with GEOREF, you should consult NIMA TM 8358.1, Chapter 5. See "The GEOREF Format" for a brief summary of the information in that reference. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value.

THE GEOREF FORMAT

GEOREF divides the surface of the earth into quadrangles, the sides of which are arc lengths of 15 degrees of latitude or longitude. The quadrangles are formed from longitudinal zones and bands of latitude. There are 24 longitudinal zones, lettered from A to Z (omitting I and O), extending from the 180 degree meridian. There are 12 latitude bands, lettered from A to M (omitting I), extending from the South Pole northward. Each of the 288 quadrangles is identified by two letters, where the first stands for the longitude zone and the second stands for the latitude band. Each 15 degree quadrangle is subdivided into 15 one degree longitude zones and 15 one degree latitude bands which form 225 one degree quadrangles. The zones and bands are lettered from A to Q (omitting I and O), starting at the western meridian and southern parallel of the quadrangle, respectively. A one degree quadrangle is identified by four letters, the first two designating its 15 degree quadrangle, the second two indicating its one degree zone and band. Each one degree quadrangle is divided into 60 minutes of longitude, numbered eastward from its western meridian, and 60 degrees of latitude, numbered northward from its southern parallel. The direction of numbering is the same in all hemispheres, and minutes values that are less than ten must be written with a leading zero. Thus four letters and four numerals uniquely define the position of a point to an accuracy of one minute in latitude and longitude. Each one degree quadrangle can be further divided into decimal parts (1/10th or 1/100th) eastward and northward by adding an additional one or two digits to each half of the numeric part of the reference (no decimal point is used). I.e. four letters and six digits define a location to 0.1-minutes; four letters and eight digits define it to 0.01-minutes.

ENTERING POINTS

Type a new point position into the four fields, using the description in "The GEOREF Format" as a guide. Note the following when entering minutes:

1. Trailing zeroes are added to the Lon Minutes and Lat Minutes fields, if necessary, to bring their width up to four digits, before it sends the point back to the client program. Therefore you must obey the convention of writing a leading zero whenever the whole minutes value that is less than ten. E.g., if you type only a "5" in the Lon Minutes field, it will be interpreted as 50 latitude minutes. To indicate 5 minutes, enter "05".

2. Similarly, whenever a minutes value is less than one, you will need to enter two leading zeroes before the digit that indicates the 0.1-minute value. If the minutes value is less than one-tenth, you must enter three leading zeroes.

ERROR CHECKING

Most of the rules for entering a valid GEOREF position are enforced via character-by-character error checking that refuses to display invalid entries, such as an "I" or a digit in one of the quadrangle fields. However, the program does not prevent certain out-of-range errors, including:

Blank quadrangle fields, or quadrangle values containing only one letter.

1.6.1.15 Other Point Entry

The Other Point Entry dialog box displays a form tailored to guide you in entering a grid point consisting of a northing and an easting. It got its name from the fact that it handles point entry for all coordinate systems (grids and projections) OTHER than those that require their own specialized point entry program, like MGRS, UTM, and UPS. The controls in this screen will be initialized with a default value. Type the desired Northing and Easting values into their respective edit fields. Values can be negative, although whether negative values are valid or not depends on the current coordinate system. For example, in the Mercator system, you can set the False Northing to any arbitrary value between -10000000 and +10000000. If you set it to 0, then you would use negative northings for any point south of the origin . On the other hand, in the New Zealand Map Grid System, the False Northing is internally defined to be +6023150, and the range of valid northings is +4000000 to +8000000. See also "Error Checking."

ERROR CHECKING

Character-by-character error checking accepts only digits, decimal points, and minus signs. The Other Point Entry dialog box generates out-of-range messages for some Northing and Easting values. What is considered "out-of-range" depends on the current coordinate system. You will see these messages when you try to leave the field with the invalid value. When you get an error message, press OK, and you will be returned to the offending edit field. If it is not clear to you why the value entered is invalid, consult NIMA TM 8358.1 or another reference, or press Cancel to dismiss the dialog box. Because the Other Point Entry dialog box serves as the point-entry program for many different grids and projections, the valid ranges for the various coordinate systems are not displayed in the program's error messages or listed in this guide. The range limits that are enforced are quite wide. They were chosen to prevent math errors during transformation and conversion calculations, while still retaining maximum flexibility for point-entry. This means that a Northing or Easting value that you enter may fail to generate an "out-of-range" message, yet still be "unreasonable" enough for the current coordinate system to create an error in the program.

1.6.2 Symbol Selection Window

Allows selection of symbols and their colors for point, line, area, and text objects. If a symbol is currently selected on the map changes made in the Symbol Selection Dialog will apply to it only. If no selection exists then the changes will apply to all new symbols.

Allows selection of symbols and corresponding colors for point, line, area, and text features. Whether or not the user can edit a certain symbol type is dependent upon the nature by which the component has been launched. The user will know which symbols might by edited by observing the text over each section. If the text is black, then that particular symbol type may be edited. If the text is gray, then that particular symbol type may not be edited.

1.6.3 Graticule Configuration Window

In this dialog, 'Border' refers to tics and labels along the sides, and 'Graticule' refers to markers on the face of the map. The geographic units, spacing, and color can be set as desired for each border and graticule. Borders or graticules can be disabled by clicking in the check boxes. Reasonable defaults are computed based on map scale. The Default Border and Default Graticule buttons will recompute the defaults. The defaults are derived from and compatible with NIMA TM 8358.1 DATUMS, ELLIPSOIDS, GRIDS, AND GRID REFERENCE SYSTEMS.

Color: Each item can be displayed in a different color by selecting the color buttons located directly beneath the item.

Marker Type: Markers drawn across the face of the map can be either lines of various styles, or individual symbols of various shapes. Major and minor markers can differ.

1.6.4 Overlay Files Window

The Overlay Files Window is activated using the menu item Data / Overlay Files / Modify. It allows you to add, remove, or reorder overlay files and to assign symbology.

Overlay files may be generated using the NIMAMUSE VPF_IMPort program or another program that generates a NIMAMUSE VEC file. The file may be either ASCII or binary as selected using Setting / Vector Overlay.

1.6.5 Product Area Reset Window

The Product Area Reset window controls the map area configuration when either a Raster Product or a VPF View is added or modified. It contains the following controls:

"Browse Map" Radiobuttons

If "Click New Map Center" is selected, a Browse Map will be drawn for the area covered by the Raster Product, and you will be prompted to click the desired new map center using the left mouse button.

If "Sweep Out New Map Area" is selected, a Browse Map will be drawn for the area covered by the Raster Product, and you will be prompted to use the mouse to sweep out the area that you want to zoom in to.

If "Keep Same Map Center (No Browse Map)" is selected, a Browse Map will not be drawn. The new map will have the same center as the current map.

"Scale" Radiobuttons

If "Use Product Scale" is selected, the new map will use a default scale associated with the data product.

For Raster Products, the default scale produces a one-to-one pixel correspondence between the map display and the raster product. Raster Products usually look best at this scale.

For VPF Views, the scale is usually found from information on the VPF CD-ROM. Sometimes the scale information is not available. In this case, the "Use Product Scale" radiobutton will be disabled.

If "Choose Scale" is selected, you can select the desired map scale from the list to the right of the button. The list contains the current map scale and several other frequently-used scales.

"Image Size in Pixels" Edit Boxes

Enter the desired height and width, in pixels.

"Don't show this dialog again" Checkbox

When this box is unchecked, the Product Area Reset Dialog will appear every time the user adds a Raster or VPF Product or selects the menu items Location / Raster Browse Mapor Location / VPF Browse Map.

When this box is checked, the dialog will not appear again until the following menu item is chosen:

For Raster Products, choose Settings / Raster Basemap / Show Reset Dialog.

For VPF Views, choose Settings / VPF View / Show Reset Dialog .

1.6.6 VPF View Configuration Component

1.6.6.1 Feature Selection Window

The Feature Selection Window is the main window with which the user will make any changes, additions, or deletions to the VPF data. The Theme Tableand the following controls are located in the Feature Selection Window:

Database Listbutton - Lists all the VPF databases which are currently included in the VPF data. The user can add and delete a database by pressing the Database Add and Database Delete pushbuttons respectively.

Database Add Pushbutton - Adds a VPF database to the existing VPF data. This pushbutton is also used to change the database path

Database Delete Pushbutton - Deletes the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton.

Library Listbutton - Lists the included VPF libraries of the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton. The user can add and delete a library by pressing the Library Add and Library Delete pushbuttons respectively.

Library Add Pushbutton - Launches the Add Library Dialogenabling the user to add a VPF library associated with the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton.

Library Delete Pushbutton - Deletes a VPF library associated with the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton.

Coverage Listbutton - Lists the included VPF coverages of the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton and the library currently selected in the Library Listbutton.

All Pushbutton - Makes the Selection Stateof the entire list of themes in the Theme Tableselected so that they will be displayed.

None Pushbutton - Makes the Selection Stateof the entire list of themes in the Theme Tableunselected so that they will not be displayed.

Add Theme Pushbutton - Activates the Theme Properties Windowallowing the user to create a new theme and place it in the Theme Table

Modify Theme Pushbutton - Activates the Theme Properties Windowallowing the modification of the currently selected theme's Description, Expression and Symbol The Modify pushbutton is equivalent to selecting a row in the third column of the Theme Table

Delete Theme Pushbutton - Deletes the currently selected theme(s) in the Theme Table

Import View Pushbutton - Imports a VPFVIEW 2.0 View. WARNING: This action removes all current VPF data.

Go to Drawing Order Pushbutton - Launches the Drawing Order Window

1.6.6.2 Theme Properties Window

The Theme Properties Window is launched when the user presses the Add Themeor Modify Theme pushbuttons located in the Feature Selection Windowor selects a row in the third column from the Theme Table In order to modify the theme expression or add a new theme, the user must have access to a VPF database containing the necessary data.

Adding a Theme

If the Theme Properties Window is used for the creation of a new theme, the user must have access to a VPF database. Pressing the OK pushbutton when adding will add the newly created theme to the appropriate location in the VPF data and Theme Table All controls in the Theme Properties Window can be manipulated when adding a theme.

Modifying a Theme

If the Theme Properties Window is used for theme modification, the following listbuttons will be disabled: Database, Library, Coverage, and Feature Class. Pressing the OK pushbutton when modifying will change the theme's previous DescriptionExpressionand Symbol to the ones which the user has entered.

Database Listbutton - Lists all the VPF databases which are currently included in the VPF data and available to the user.

Library Listbutton - Lists the included VPF libraries of the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton and available to the user.

Coverage Listbutton - Lists all of the VPF coverages coinciding with the database currently selected in the Database Listbutton and the library currently selected in the Library Listbutton.

Feature Class Listbutton - Lists the feature classes of the coverage currently selected in the Coverage Listbutton.

The Description is the theme's descriptive name which is displayed in the Theme Tablefound in the Feature Selection Window

The Expression is the Where Clauseused during the data extraction procedure. If a valid VPF database is unavailable, the Expression field will be disabled. When an invalid path to the database is present, it is considered the same as an unavailable database. The database path can be changed by pressing the Database Add Pushbuttonin the Feature Selection Window

Expression Builder Pushbutton - Launches the Expression Builder Dialog This is used to automate the creation of the Expression If a valid VPF database is unavailable, the Expression field will be disabled. When an invalid path to the database is present, it is considered to be an unavailable database. The database path can be changed by pressing the Database Add Pushbuttonin the Feature Selection Window

Symbol - Placing the mouse pointer on the displayed Symboland clicking launches the Symbol Selection Window

1.6.6.3 Expression Builder Dialog

The Expression Builder Dialog is launched when the user presses the Expression Builderpushbutton located in the Theme Properties Window

The Expression Builder allows the user to create a specific VPF data extraction Expressionwithout having to manually search the contents of the data and write the expression. The user can create up to two (2) where clausesusing the Expression Builder.

1.6.6.4 Add Library Dialog

The Add Library Dialog is launched when the user presses the Library Add pushbuttonor after the user has pressed the Database Add pushbuttonand selected a database. The Add Library Dialog lists the libraries that are available from the specified database and not already a part of the VPF data.

The user may select any combination of libraries in the list using the normal selection process of the current windowing environment.

Note that when a library is selected, the program must go to the location of the VPF database and gather all of the needed data. Thus, when a library is large, or multiple libraries have been selected, this process could be time consuming. As long as the wait cursor is displayed and the VPF data is being accessed, the user should assume that valid operations are taking place.

1.6.6.5 Drawing Order Window

The Drawing Order Window is launched when the user presses the Go to Drawing Orderpushbutton located in the Feature Selection Window

The Drawing Order allows the user to arrange the selected themes in the order that they are to be drawn on the map. During the theme selection process in the Feature Selection Window, the themes are arranged in the order that they are selected. This order is displayed when the Drawing Order Window is initially launched.

Note that the Drawing Order Window is very similar to the Feature Selection Window except that the All and None pushbuttons have been renamed to Up and Down, most of the other controls are disabled, and the Go to Drawing Order pushbutton now is labeled Return to Feature Selection. Be aware that the OK and Cancel pushbuttons do not only accept or discard the changes made to the drawing order, but perform the exact same operations as in the Feature Selection Window. The OK pushbutton will accept all changes made to any of the VPF data, and the Cancel pushbutton will discard all changes made to any of the VPF data.

1.6.6.6 Theme Table

The Theme Table is located at the bottom half of the Feature Selection Window It lists the included themes of the database, library, and coverage currently selected in the Database Listbuttonthe Library Listbuttonand the Coverage Listbuttonrespectively.

The first column in the table shows the theme's display Selection State The selection state of a particular theme can be toggled on or off by using the mouse to click on its checkbox.

The second column shows the theme's Symbol The symbol corresponding to a particular theme may be edited by using the mouse to click on its symbol. This operation launches the Symbol Selection Window

The third column shows the theme's Descriptionand Expression These may be modified for a particular theme by using the mouse to click on the row under the third column for that theme. This operation launches the Theme Properties Window

Line Selection in the theme table is accomplished by selecting any of the blank areas on either side of the theme's checkbox or symbol.

1.6.7 Units Configuration Window

The units of measure may be selected for horizontal linear, vertical linear, area, volume, and azimuth/bearing. These units apply to feature measurement.

1.6.8 Monitor Calibration Window

A window appears containing a rectangle. Enter the correct measurements of the rectangle (using a ruler on the screen) to correct the map geometry to reflect your actual pixel size.

1.6.9 Terrain Color Look Up Table Window

This table defines the color scheme used to render digital elevation data including DBDB5 and DTED.

It is a lot like mixing paint.

Hue is the color wheel (range 0-360 with red=0, yellow=60, green=120, cyan = 180, blue = 240, and red=360).

Saturation is amount of color vs white (0=all white, 1=all color). Low saturation gives pale colors.

Value is the amount of color vs black. (0= all black, 1=all color). Low value gives dark colors.

Each row in the table defines how a particular range of data values is to be colored.

Linearly interpolated is used to assign hue values to the terrain data values. Hue Low is assigned to Data Low. Hue High is assigned to Data Hi.

Areas sloping toward the sun are assigned Sunny Sat and Sunny Val. Level areas are assigned saturation and value defined by Flat Sat and Flat Val. Areas sloping away from the sun are assigned Shady Sat and Shady Val.

1.6.10 RDBMS Query Window

The RDBMS Query window lets you work with data from a variety of Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) configured as ODBC data sources using the ODBC Administrator program (not a NIMAMUSE component). This capability provides the means of interacting with user data from a NIMAMUSE map.

1. Select the data source. If none appear, you must configure one using the ODBC Administrator.

2. Select the table. If none appear, use menu command Settings / RDBMS / Table Contents to set the feature types to support and Data / RDBMS Query (ODBC) / New Table to create a new table .

3. Skip this step if you are trying this for the first time and do not have a file of your own queries.

You may load a file of your own queries created using any text editor using the Load Query File button. The file format is- query_name: query_text.

4. Use the Query list button (at the top) to select the query named Draw.

5. Press the Execute button. The contents of the table are drawn to the map window.

6. You can now use the Map Tool Bar tools to interactively edit the ODBC data source. The menu command Settings / RDBMS / Edit is used to set which editing operations are enabled. You can select features with the Pointer Tool, move features around, delete features, and create new ones. You can double click a feature to bring up a text edit form for the associated data record. After each editing operation the Draw Query is automatically re-executed so that the map always displays the contents of the database.

The database can be manipulated in three ways, interactively using the Map Tool Bar, by update queries stored in the text file of queries, or by using the RDBMS (not a NIMAMUSE component).

1.6.11 Text Edit Window

This text edit window has numerous uses in Fusion. The main things the user should notice are the window title and whether or not any modifications made in the window may be saved. This is determined by the number of pushbuttons available to the user. If the window has two (2) pushbuttons named 'CLOSE' and 'HELP', the information in the window is used for viewing purposes only. If the window has three (3) pushbuttons named 'OK', 'CANCEL', and 'HELP', any user modifications of the information being viewed can be saved by pressing the 'OK' pushbutton, or ignored by pressing the 'CANCEL' pushbutton.

Current uses of the text edit window in Fusion:

Map Description Window

Measure Tool

Spatial Query Tool

1.6.12 Map Tool Bar

The buttons located at the top of the map data window are the Map Tools. These consist of:

Point Feature Tool - When activated, a point feature is added to the map window at the current cursor location whenever a mouse click occurs.

Text Feature Tool - When activated, a text feature is added to the map window at the current cursor location whenever a mouse click occurs.

Line Feature Tool - When activated, a line feature may be drawn.

Polygon Feature Tool - When activated, a polygon feature may be drawn.

Rectangle Feature Tool - When activated, a rectangular line feature may be drawn.

Range Ring Feature Tool - When activated, a range ring line feature may be drawn.

Pointer or Selection Tool - Restores the map cursor to selection functions. When in this mode, the cursor can be clicked on a feature and the feature can be moved, or highlighted. When a feature is double-clicked the Symbol Selection Windowis opened. Multiple selections can be made by holding down the Shift Key, or by drawing a sweeping over the area containing the desired features.

Line Aggregation Tool - When activated, any currently highlighted lines are joined together into a single line feature.

Area Aggregation Tool - When activated, any currently highlighted lines are joined together into a single area feature.

Symbology Tool - Opens the Symbol Selection Window If no features are hilighted defaults for features to be created are set. If features are selected the symbology for those selected features will be set.

Measure Tool - When no feature is currently selected, click any two points to measure the distance between them. When features are selected their measurement is computed.

Spatial Query Tool - Queries VPF databases for information about a selected feature.

Anchor Tool - Sets an anchor point for range bearing measurement. Range and bearing from the anchor point (shown by an anchor symbol) to the cursor is displayed in the status bar. The anchor point can also be attached to a point feature in an automated overlay file. To set an anchor point first press the anchor tool, then click on the map. To turn off range bearing measurement, click the anchor tool again.

Edit Anno Tool - Assigns tool functionality to the annotation layer.

Edit SQL Tool - Assigns tool functionality to the ODBC query layer.

1.6.13 Status Bar

The Status Bar - The Status Bar appears along the bottom of the map. It provides a cursor position readout and tells you how tasks are progressing. The position format can be changed using Settings / Map Cursor / Coordinate System. Most tasks can be interrupted by pressing ESC (the Escape key).

1.7 Known Bugs and Limitations

If you find a bug that is not listed below please call NIMAMUSE technical support.

1.7.1 Bugs On All Systems

1.7.1.1 Fuse Overlays Using CADRG Native Palette

If you use the native color palette to display a CADRG basemap and then you fuse overlays, the image is mapped to the default palette. This causes the image colors to shift somewhat.

1.7.1.2 Fuse Overlays Using Gray Palette

If you use the gray scale palette to display a basemap and then you fuse overlays, the overlays also turn gray.

1.7.1.3 Raster File Zoom

When a map containing a raster file is zoomed, the tool bar and cursor position are not displayed. If the raster products are used directly this problem does not occur.

1.7.1.4 Printing

The menu command File / Print does not print maps directly to a printer, but to a file.

1.7.1.5 Transfer File Corruption

In general, the document files created by the DMAMUSE programs (such as Fusion maps) may be moved among the DMAMUSE supported computers, but be sure to use a binary (as opposed to ASCII) communications mode.

1.7.2 Windows(PC) Specific Bugs

Zooming out when a raster file is present sometimes causes the map colors to appear incorrect.

Some display configurations can make Fusion unusable. In particular, the use of large fonts can cause control windows to by too large to be usable.

Windows95 displays area patterns incorrectly. The patterns do not appear the same in the symbol selection window and on the map.

1.7.3 Sun OS Specific Bugs

When a VPF View is added to a map, you must press the Database Add button to get the prompt to locate the "dht" file.

Occasionally Fusion crashes while creating the default view. Fusion on Solaris does not seem to have this problem.

1.7.4 HP specific Bugs

On the HP the DEL key seems to work like the ESC key so there is no way to delete map annotation features.

Displays X Window warnings on startup.

The window widget colors change sometimes and can make it difficult to see the controls.



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Related NIMAMUSE Documents


Fusion   FUSION.DOC

Datum Transformation and Coordinate Conversion 4, DTCC4    DTCC4.DOC

DTCC4 Users Guide    DTCC4_UG.DOC

Perspective Scene    PSCENE.DOC

Perspective Scene Application Reference    PSC_UG.DOC

Line of Sight    LOS.DOC

Line of Sight Application Reference    LOS_UG.DOC

VPFView   VPFVIEW.DOC

VPFView User's Guide    VPFV_UG.DOC

Raster Importer   RAST_IMP.DOC

Raster Importer Users Guide   RAST_UG.DOC

Vector Importer   VPF_IMP.DOC

Vector Importer Users Guide   VPFI_UG.DOC

Access and Prepare NIMA Digital Data   APNDD.DOC

Build Your Own Map   BYOM.DOC

Run Specialty Applications   RSA.DOC

NIMAMUSE 2.1 Documentation   INTRO.DOC