DTCC4.1 Users Guide

Datum Transformation and Coordinate Conversion 4.1


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Table of Contents

1. ABOUTDTCC4.1

2. WINDOWDETAILS

1. DTCC4.1 TransformWindow

A. DTCC4.1 Transform Menu Bar

B. Input/Output System Description Area

C. Point Entry Area

D. Input Output Table Area

2. Distance and AzimuthCalculations

A. Distance and Azimuth Menu Bar

B. Point Entry AreaC. Output Table Area

3. Define User SystemWindow

A. Define User System Menu Bar

B. System Input Area

C. System Information Area

4. Define User GridWindow

A. Define User Grid Menu Bar

B. Projection Area

C. Grid Constants Area

D. Bounding Rectangle Area

E. Exit

3. DTCC4.1TUTORIALS

1. Coordinate ConversionTutorial

A. Selecting an Input and Output System

B. Manually Input the Geographics to be Converted

C. Transform, Replace, Delete and Cancel Selected Points

D. Transform Ellipsoid Height to Height Above Mean Sea Level

E. Saving or printing the Output Table

F. Saving Output Point Data

G. Reading Points from a File

H. Creating and Saving a User Defined System

I. Creating and Saving a User Defined Grid

2. Distanceand Azimuth Calculation Tutorial

A. Displaying the Distance and Azimuth Calculation window

B. Examining options

C. Doing an inverse calculation

D. Doing a forward calculation

E. Doing a series of inverse calculations

F. Clearing the output table

G. Selecting a previous calculation and editing it (replace,insert, add,delete)

H. Saving the output table

I. Printing the output table and clearing it

4. GLOSSARY

5. INPUT ANDOUTPUT POINT FILE FORMATS

6. DATUMSSORTED BY CONTINENT AND ELLIPSOID

7. PROJECTIONS ANDGRIDS


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Related NIMAMUSE Documents


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1. ABOUTDTCC4.1

DTCC4.1 is the latest step in the progression of NIMA datum transformationprograms. This progression has two branches. The NIMAMUSE branch startedfrom MUSE MADTRAN with limited capabilities. Next came the DT&CC2 andCC3 programs which had greater capabilities but had difficult user interfaces.DTCC4.1 is a step to improve the user interface while maintaining the flexiblecapabilities of previous programs. The NIMAMUSE branch of programs is writtenin ANSI C and are multi-platform.

The other branch of datum transformation programs is the G&G (Gravity& Geodesy) branch. This progression started with MADTRAN 1, (2, 3, 4)with the latest version MADTRAN 4.2. The G&G branch of programs are PCDOS based, written in BASIC and are not part of the NIMAMUSE development.

This program supports all NIMA approved operations for converting coordinatesamong various systems (geodetic position, grids, and map projections), andfor transforming points between datums.

DTCC4.1 conforms to the standards of the Mapping, Charting and Geodesy UtilitySoftware Environment (NIMAMUSE) and runs on all of the computer systems uponwhich all of the NIMAMUSE applications run.

This guide provides detailed instruction on the operation of the DTCC4.1software.

See DMATR 8350.2-B for a complete technical description of the datums,ellipsoids, projections and grids used in this program.

DTCC4.1 allows you to perform:

- Datum transformation only or,

- Coordinate conversion only or,

- Combined datum transformation and coordinate conversion.

- Ellipsoid height to Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL) and vise versa

- Inverse and forward distance and azimuth calculations.

- Build new coordinate systems from supported datums.

- Define new grids using supported projections and datums.

Choosing different datums for the input and output systems automaticallyproduces a datum transformation.

Choosing different coordinate systems as well as different datums in theinput and output systems results in a combined datum transformation andcoordinate conversion. If the input and output datums are identical, notransformation takes place, only coordinate conversion.


2. WINDOWDETAILS

This section describes each window of the DTCC4.1 software and describesthe pull-down menus and dialog boxes.

1. DTCC4.1 TransformWindow

The Main or Transform window allows the user to transform coordinates fromone coordinate system to another. The user may select input and output coordinatesystems from a list of the most commonly used systems distributed in thedata files plus any systems defined by the user. The user may change eitherinput or output coordinate systems at any time. The resultant output tablemay be saved as a file, or the output points may be saved in a text formusable as input to this program, or other programs. Figure 1 shows the DTCC4.1Transform window as it comes up at the start of the program.



Figure 1. DTCC4.1 Transform Window

A. DTCC4.1 Transform Menu Bar

This section describes all of the pulldown menu selections from the DTCC4.1Transform (Main) Menu Bar (see top of Figure 1 and Figure 2).

1. File

Open Input Point File

Opens the Input Point File Dialog Box. Any user defined points file in thecorrect format can be input by this method. For point file formats see Appendix1.

Save Table

Whenever a point is transformed, the input and output coordinates andtransformation information are written to the input/output table for theuser to see. See the bottom of Figure 2 for an example of what the tablelooks like. This menu item opens the Save Table Dialog Box where the tablecan be saved to a file which can be printed or viewed off-line.

Save Output Point Data

Opens the Output Point Data Dialog Box where the transformed points (output)can be saved to a file in a format that can be read back into the DTCC4.1program.

Print Table

Allows printing of the Table (input and output calculations). On UNIX platforms,a print command dialog is displayed allowing the user to customize the printingcommand

Print Setup

This command activates the system dependent print setup dialog. It is notactive on UNIX platforms.

Exit

Exits the DTCC4.1 program.

2. Options

Swap Input and Output Systems

Causes the Input and Output Systems to exchange positions. The point in thePoint Entry area is transformed to the new input coordinate system.

Vertical Datums

Allows the user to optionally also do transformations between vertical datums.Causes an elevation field to appear in the Point Entry section of the DTCC4.1main Dialog Box. See Figure 2. If this menu item is selected again, the elevationfield will disappear.

Clear Output Table

Erases the output table.

Distance and Azimuth Calculations

Brings up the "Distance and Azimuth Calculations" window (See Figure 4).

Define User System

Brings up the "DTCC4.1 Define User System" window (See Figure 6).


Figure 2. DTCC4.1 Transform Window with Vertical Datums

3. Input Systems

Opens the Standard Systems Selection Menu with the most used coordinate systemsto select from for use as an input system. User defined system names appearat the bottom of this list. The coordinates in the Point Entry section ofthe menu will be transformed to the new coordinate system.

4. Output Systems

Opens the Standard Systems Selection Menu with the most used coordinate systemsto select from for use as an output system. User defined system names appearat the bottom of this list.

5. Help

On Context

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

On Help

How to use Help.

On Window

How to search for Help Topics.

On Keys

Lists keyboard commands to navigate in Help.

Contents

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

Index

How to search for Help Topics.

On Version

Describes software used to develop DTCC4.

The pulldown Help selections above produce a window much like the followingdiagram, which is an abbreviated Help Window with the Menu Bar on top, andnavigation buttons on the bottom.


Figure 3. Help Screen

B. Input/Output System Description Area

The Input/Output System area (upper third of the Transform window) is usedto:

- Display the selected Input system

- Display the selected Output system

- Allow for selection of input and output Horizontal and Vertical datumformat.

For the input and output systems the dialog box displays: System Name, DatumName, Ellipsoid Name, Coordinate Type (Latitude & Longitude, MGRS, orEasting & Northing), Projection Name, Horizontal Data Format and VerticalData Format. The Vertical Datum format is only displayed when "Vertical Datums"is selected from the "Options" menu (Compare Figure 1 to Figure 2). TheHorizontal Data Format and Vertical Datum Format have selection boxes associatedwith them. When you click on the Horizontal Data Format selection box, threechoices are available: 1) dd, the default (decimal degrees), 2) dm (degreesand decimal minutes) and 3) dms (degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds).When you click on the Vertical Datum Format selection box the choices availabledepend on the selected Input System. The three possibilities are: 1) N/A(not applicable), 2) AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level) or 3) ELLP (Ellipsoid).


C. Point Entry Area

The Point Entry area (middle third of the Transform window) is used to:

- Manually input geographics and elevation (opt.) to be converted.

- Select between output options on the selected point (Transform, Replace,Delete, Cancel).

The right hand section normally has text entry boxes for Latitude, N, S,Longitude, E, W, and Height. When the MGRS grid system is selected as theinput system, then Grid Zone Designation, 100,000-meter Square, Easting andNorthing dialog boxes are displayed. When a UTM grid is selected as the inputsystem, then Zone, Easting and Northing are displayed. All other grids justdisplay Easting and Northing.

The following operations buttons are displayed at the left:

Transform

The Transform button performs the coordinate system transformation specifiedby the input information and adds the results to the end of the Output Table.Dialogs are displayed if there are problems in the input or calculations.

Replace

The Replace button performs coordinate system transformation specified bythe input information and uses the results to replace the currently selectedpoint in the Output Table. Dialogs are displayed if there are problems inthe input or calculations.

Delete

The Delete button deletes the currently selected point from the OutputTable.

Cancel

The Cancel button cancel operations on the currently selected point.



D. Input/Output Table Area

The Output Table area (lower third of the Transform window) is used to:

- Display the input and output systems and coordinates of the transformationsperformed by the user.

- Select points (double click) to Transform, Replace or Delete.

When a point in the "Output Table" section is selected, (by double clickingon it), all of the input and output system and coordinate information iscopied to the Input/Output System and Point Entry sections of the DTCC4.1window ready for subsequent actions by the user.

2. Distance and AzimuthCalculations

The Distance and Azimuth Calculations window allow the user to work withdistances and azimuths between points. Distance and Azimuth Calculationstake place on ellipsoids, so a selection of ellipsoids is available. Distancesare calculated along geodesics (the shortest distance between points on anellipsoid). Operations are of two types: forward (Figure 5) and inverse (Figure4). In forward operations, the user enters a starting point and a distanceand azimuth. An end point and backward azimuth are calculated. In inverseoperations, the user enters two points. The distance and forward and backazimuths are calculated. In addition, series of points may be calculated,with the end point being moved to the starting point for the next calculation.Angles may be entered in decimal degrees (dd), degrees and decimal minutes(dms), or degrees, minutes and decimal seconds (dms).

To display the Distance and Azimuth window, select "Distance and AzimuthCalculations "from the Options Pulldown Menu.

A. Distance and Azimuth Menu Bar

This section describes all of the pulldown menu selections from the DTCC4.1Distance and Azimuth Calculation Menu Bar.

1. File

Save Table

Opens the Save Table Dialog box where the user selects a file to which thetable can be saved. The file can then be printed or viewed offline.

Print Table

Allows printing of the Table (input and output calculations). On UNIX platforms,a print command dialog is displayed allowing the user to customize the printingcommand.

Print Setup

This command activates the system dependent print setup dialog. It is notactive on UNIX platforms.

Return to DTCC4.1

Leaves the Distance and Azimuth Calculations window and returns to the mainDTCC4.1 window.

Exit

Brings up a confirmation box to either Cancel, Return to the Main DTCC4.1Window, or Exit the program.

2. Options

Operations

Inverse

Allows the user to do inverse distance and azimuth calculations. The userenters two points, and the distance, and forward and backward azimuths betweenthem are calculated.

Forward

Allows the user to do forward distance and azimuth calculations. The userenters a starting point, a distance and a forward azimuth. The ending pointand backward azimuth are calculated.

Ordering Options

Independent Points

When this option is in effect, all points are independent of each other.

Serial Points

When this option is in effect, as soon as a distance and azimuth calculationis made, the end point becomes the current beginning point. Editing pointsin a series of forward operations is not allowed, since a change in any onepoint affects the entire sequence of subsequent points.

Begin New Series

When the user chooses the option, the program is put into series mode, anda new series is started. If the program is already in series mode, a newseries is started.

Figure 4. Distance and Azimuth Inverse Calculations window

Format Options

This submenu brings up a choice of input formats to be used for enteringand writing the point location and azimuth angles. The choices are:

dd (decimal degrees)

dm (degrees and decimal minutes)

dms (degrees, minutes and decimal seconds)

Distance Unit Options

This submenu brings up a choice of units for distances. The choices are:

m (meters)

km (kilometers)

mi (statute miles)

nm (nautical miles)

Clear Table

Erases the output table.

3. Ellipsoids

Opens a pulldown menu with the list of supported ellipsoids to choose from.


Figure 5. Distance and Azimuth Forward Calculations window

4. Help (See Figure 3)

On Context

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

On Help

How to use Help.

On Window

How to search for Help Topics.

On Keys

Lists keyboard commands to navigate in Help.

Contents

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

Index

How to search for Help Topics.

On Version

Describes software used to develop DTCC4.

B. Point Entry Area

The Point Entry area (top half of the Distance and Azimuth Calculations window)is used to:

- Manually input geographics and/or distance and azimuth values to be usedin the calculations.

- Select between output options on the selected point (Add, Insert, Replace,Delete, Cancel).

The following operations buttons are displayed at the left:

Add

The Add button performs the distance and azimuth calculations specified bythe input information and adds the results to the end of the Output Table.Dialogs are displayed if there are problems in the input or calculations.

Insert

The Insert button performs the distance and azimuth calculations specifiedby the input information and inserts the results in the Output Table beforethe currently specified calculation. If the point is part of a series ofinverse calculations, the next and previous points are recalculated to preservethe series. Dialogs are displayed if there are problems in the input orcalculations. If the selected point is part of a forward series, this buttonremains inactive.

Replace

The Replace button performs the distance and azimuth calculations specifiedby the input information and replaces the current calculation in Output Tablewith the results. If the point is part of a series of inverse calculations,the previous point is recalculated to preserve the series. Dialogs are displayedif there are problems in the input or calculations. If the selected pointis part of a forward series, this button remains inactive.

Delete

The Delete button deletes the currently selected calculation from the OutputTable. If the point is part of a series of inverse calculations, the nextand previous points are recalculated to preserve the series. If the selectedpoint is part of a forward series, this button remains inactive.

Cancel

The Cancel button cancel operations on the currently selected calculation.If the selected point is part of a forward series, this button remainsinactive.

The right hand section allows entry of input values. For inverse calculations,this area has text entry boxes for two points, including Latitude, N/S,Longitude, E/W. (See Figure 4.) For forward calculations, the area has textentry boxes for one point and a second area for entering distance and azimuthvalues. (See Figure 5.) In addition, the selected ellipsoid name is displayedin the point entry boxes.

C. Output Table Area

The Output Table area(lower half of the Distance and Azimuth Calculationswindow) is used to:

- Display the input and results of the Distance and Azimuth calculations.

- Select points (double click) to Transform, Replace or Delete or Insert(before).

When a point in the "Output Table" section is selected, (by double clickingon it), all of the input information is copied to the Point Entry sectionsof the DTCC4.1 window ready for subsequent actions by the user.


3. Define User SystemWindow

The User Defined System window allows the user to construct a coordinatesystem not on the existing system list. This window is selected from the"Options/Define User Systems..." pulldown from the DTCC4 Main Menu Bar.

There are three starting points for the process of building a user definedsystem:

1. Start with one of the existing systems and modify it.

2. Start with a standard ellipsoid from the ellipsoid list, then choose oneof the datums defined on it, then an area of coverage and an optional grid.If no grid is chosen, the system is in geographics.

3. Start with a standard datum from one of the datum lists (which determinesthe ellipsoid), then choose an area of coverage and an optional grid.

After defining a system, the user may validate and save it, or validate itwithout saving it. Saving a user defined system adds it to the data files.See Figure 6 and Figure 7.


Figure 6. Define User System Window

A. Define User System Menu Bar

1. File

Validate _ Save System

Validates and saves the user defined system using a system supplied nameor a user supplied name. A dialog appear s displaying a "System is Valid"messageif the system is valid, or an error message if the system is not.

Validate System

Validates the user defined system. A dialog appear s displaying a "Systemis Valid"message if the system is valid, or an error message if the systemis not.

Return to DTCC4.1

Leaves the User Defined System window and returns to the main DTCC4.1 window.

Exit Program

Brings up a confirmation box to either Cancel, Return to the Main DTCC4.1window or Exit the program.

2. Options

Define User Grid...

This brings up the Define User Grid window where a grid may be defined fromuser inputs.

Delete User Systems...

This brings up the Delete User Systems From List dialog so that previoususer defined systems can be deleted.

3. Standard Systems

Opens the Standard Systems Pulldown menu with the most used Datums, Projectionsand Grids to select from for use as a system. User defined system names appearat the bottom of this list. This is the same list displayed in the DTCC4.1main menu for input and output systems.

4. Ellipsoids

Opens a pulldown menu with supported ellipsoids to choose from. The Ellipsoidchosen will determine which datums come up in the Datum selection menu; onlydatums defined for the chosen ellipsoid will be displayed.

5. Datums

Opens a pulldown menu with fifteen datum categories. These categories generallyare associated by continent. When a datum category is selected, a side pulldown menu appears with a list of all the supported datums available in thatcategory. In this way, any supported datum can be accessed and used fortransformations.


6. Help (See Figure 3)

On Context

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

On Help

How to use Help.

On Window

How to search for Help Topics.

On Keys

Lists keyboard commands to navigate in Help.

Contents

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

Index

How to search for Help Topics.

On Version

Describes software used to develop DTCC4.

B. System Input Area

The upper third of the Define user System window is the System Input section(see Figure 6). It displays the ellipsoid selected from the menu choicesunder Standard Systems or Ellipsoids. This is the first step the user shouldperform. There are four selection boxes. The Horizontal Datum selection boxhas a number of entries dependent on which datum or ellipsoid was selected.After selecting a horizontal datum, the Area of Coverage selection box willdisplay a number of choices dependent on the previous selections. Next isthe Vertical Datum selection box. The choices are either AMSL (Above MeanSea Level), ELLP (Ellipsoid) or N/A if the user defined system doesn't havea defined vertical datum. The Grid selection box contains 3 standard gridsand the last entry is "User Defined...". If this last entry is selected,the "User Defined Grid" window appears, see the next section and Figure 7for more information.

C. System Information Area

The lower two-thirds of the dialog box displays all of the relevant systeminformation that has been selected (see Figure 6). It changes any time anysystem input is changed. The information displayed describes the horizontaldatum, the bounding rectangle, and the grid information.

When the user has completed the inputs, the next step is to Validate theSystem, or to Validate and Save the System, and finally Return to the DTCC4.1Main Menu. All of these options are pulldown selections from the "File" selectionon the Menu Bar.

4. Define User GridWindow

The Define User Grid window allows the user to define a grid on a standardprojection. This window is raised from the "Options/Define User Grid..."pulldown from the Define User System Menu Bar. Begin by selecting a projection,then enter values for the parameters described. See Figure 7 below.


Figure 7. Define User Grid Window

A. Define User Grid Menu Bar

1. File

Validate Grid

Validates the user defined grid and displays a "Grid is Valid" message oran error message with an indication of the data input problem.

Save And Return

Validates the user defined grid and displays a "Grid is Valid" message oran error message with an indication of the data input problem. If the gridis valid, the program returns to the Define User System window. To save thegrid for future sessions, select "Validate & Save System" from the "File"menu item in the Define User System window. A dialog box will appear forthe user to input a name for the system or grid in this case.

Cancel And Return

Returns to the Define User System window without any action on the grid.

Exit Program

Brings up a confirmation box to either Cancel, Return to the previous screen(User Defined System) or Exit the program.

2. Help

On Context

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

On Help

How to use Help.

On Window

How to search for Help Topics.

On Keys

Lists keyboard commands to navigate in Help.

Contents

Gives a clickable table of contents of topics where help is available.

Index

How to search for Help Topics.

On Version

Describes software used to develop DTCC4.

B. Projection Area

The Projection area of the Define User Grid window (see Figure 7) containsa projection selection box labeled "Name:". It has all the standard projectionnames to choose from. The origin of the projection is input by latitude andlongitude. The projection parameters are dependent on which projection isselected. Values for the parameters need to be input.

C. Grid Constants Area

The Grid Constants area is located in the upper right area of the DefineUser Grid window (see Figure 7). Input either False Easting or False Westing,and either False Northing or False Southing coordinates.

D. Bounding Rectangle Area

The Bounding Rectangle area is in the lower right of the window (see Figure7). A bounding rectangle is input next to define the scope of the grid. Ifit is a world wide grid, then simply select the world wide button. Otherwisefour bounding rectangle coordinates need to be entered.

E. Exit

Exit and return to the Define User System window by selecting either "File/Saveand Return" or "File/Cancel and Return" from the Define User Grid Menu Bar.


3. DTCC4.1TUTORIALS

These tutorials present procedures for typical program use.

The coordinate conversion tutorial demonstrates procedures for convertingbetween coordinate systems, and also for developing custom coordinate systemsfor situations not covered by the distributed coordinate systems. This coverscapability formerly found in MADTRAN and DTCC2.

The distance and azimuth calculation tutorial demonstrates procedures fordoing inverse and forward distance and azimuth calculations. This coverscapability formerly found in CC3.

1. Coordinate ConversionTutorial

There are eight steps in this tutorial:

A. Selecting an input and output system

B. Manually inputting the geographics to be converted

C. Transform, replace, delete and cancel selected points

D. Transform ellipsoid height to height above mean sea level

E. Saving or printing the output table

F. Saving output point data to a file

G. Reading points from a file

H. Creating and saving a user defined system

I. Creating and saving a user defined grid

A. Selecting an Input and Output System

On the menubar of the DTCC4.1 Main Window you can select the input and outputsystems to be used in the transformation. The default input system is the"WGS 84" datum and the default output system is the "MGRS 84" grid. To changethe default, select the "Input System" from the Menu Bar. From the choicesselect "North American". Note that the input system information changed.Now select the "Output System" from the Menu Bar. From the choices select"WGS 84". When these selections are made, the Input/Output System sectionof the DTCC4.1 Dialog box will display the basic information about thesesystems. Step 8 of this tutorial shows how to select or create a datum,projection or grid that is not on the input or output system list on theDTCC4.1 main window.

B. Manually Input the Geographics to be Converted

In the Point Entry section of the DTCC4.1 Dialog box, select the Latitudeentry box and input "30.5" then select "North". Now select the Longitudeentry box and input "100.3" then select "West". On the "Options" menu, select"Vertical Datums". This action will add Vertical Datum dialog boxes in theinput and output system section so that the vertical datum can be selected.The choices are ELLP (Ellipsoid), AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level) or N/A in thecase of systems with no vertical datum defined. In both input and outputsystems, select ELLP for the vertical system. An elevation entry box in thePoint entry section will also appear so that an elevation can be input. Selectthe elevation entry box and input "1000". (Note that if the MGRS grid hadbeen selected as the input system above, that an error message would havebeen displayed after selecting "Vertical Datums" because a vertical systemis not defined in MGRS and some other systems.)

C. Transform, Replace, Delete and Cancel Selected Points

Now that a coordinate pair has been input, we can convert the coordinates.Select "Transform" in the point entry section. This generated an entry inthe Input/Output Table area of the window. Next, on the "Options" pulldownmenu, select "Swap Input and Output Systems". This will switch all the systeminformation in the Input/Output systems section of the window. Now select"Transform" in the Point entry section. This generated another entry in theInput/Output table. To replace an entry in the output table, select it bydouble clicking on an entry in the output table (it will become highlighted).Notice how all the input/output system and coordinate information valueschanged to whatever the table values are. Now change the latitude longitudeand/or height in the point entry section. Then select "Replace". The tablevalues will now reflect the values that were changed. To delete the secondentry, double click on the second entry, then select "Delete". The entryis gone. To cancel a selection, double click on an entry in the output table.Now select "Cancel". The selection is no longer highlighted.

D. Transform Ellipsoid Height to Height Above Mean Sea Level

Normally, the horizontal reference system is the same for the input and outputsystem when transforming from ellipsoid height to AMSL or visa versa. Ifyou want to transform a height from ellipsoid to above mean sea level selectELLP from the Vertical Datum pull down in the Input System section and selectthe AMSL from the Vertical Datum pull down in the Output System section.(Note that the vertical dialog boxes are not visible unless Vertical Datumsis selected from the Options menu.) Now select "Transform". If the horizontalsystems are different, both the vertical and the horizontal coordinates aretransformed at the same time.

E. Saving or printing the Output Table

The output table can be printed or saved as a text file. This file isnot readable as input by the program. It contains the data visiblein the Output Table area of the window, including input and output information.To save the Output Table to a text file,

F. Saving Output Point Data

To save the points that are in the output table in a form readable bythe program, select the "File" from the Menu Bar. Then select "Save OutputPoint Data". A dialog box will appear where you should input the name ofthe output file. Enter the desired file name, e.g., "data.txt" , and select"Save" (this file will be used in the next step of the tutorial). Only theOutput column numbers are saved. The Input column is not saved, and the systeminformation is not saved. You can also save the output table if desired byselecting that option. The output table cannot, however be read as inputback into the program. You can clear the output table by selecting "ClearOutput Table" under the "Options" pulldown menu.

G. Reading Points from a File

To read a points file into the program for conversion, choose the coordinatesystem to which the points in the file are to be converted using the OutputSystem selection on the Menu Bar. Then select "File" from the Menu Bar andthe choose "Open Input Point File". In the Dialog box select or type in"data.txt" or whatever name you selected and select "Open". Notice that theoutput table now has entries in it from the input point file saved previously.The input column has the geographics that were read in from the file, theoutput column shows the transformed geographics of those points based onthe current transformation defined in the DTCC4.1 main window. For thesetransformations to make sense, it is important that the input system definedin the main window and the system of the input point file are the same. Theinput point file must have all been saved in the same system for correctsubsequent transformations to be correct.

H. Creating and Saving a User Defined System

To create a user defined system (i.e.. a combination of a datum and/or gridnot included in the standard list) select "Define User System" under "Options"on the Menu Bar. The DTCC4.1-Define User System window will now be displayed.From this window you can select a Horizontal Datum, an Area of Coverage,a Vertical Datum and a Grid. The menu allows the user a selection of thestandard systems, ellipsoids currently defined and the type of datum. Selectunder the "Ellipsoids" menu the "Bessel 1841 [BR]" ellipsoid. Note how theselection boxes changed. Now click on the Horizontal Datum selection boxscroll bar and select "Bukit Rimpah". Now select the Area of Coverage selectionbox scroll bar and note that for this Horizontal Datum there is only onearea of coverage. Now select the Vertical Datum selection box. Note the choicebetween AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level) and ELLP (Ellipsoid). Select AMSL.Now select the Grid selection box and note the grid choices. For thissection of the tutorial, leave the grid system undefined. In Step 8, a userdefined grid will be developed. Now that all the user defined boxes havebeen selected you need to see if the system is a valid one. Under "File"from the Menu Bar select "Validate System". If the system is a valid onea message box comes up to tell you it is valid. Otherwise an error messagewill be displayed. After validation, select "Validate and Save System" under"File" from the Menu Bar to save your system to be used in subsequenttransformations. A dialog box will come up and ask you to enter a name forthe new system or accept the system generated name. Select Save. You cannow return to the main DTCC4.1 window by selecting Return to DTCC4 underFile. To use the system you just created, select the input or output systemsmenu item, the user created system name will be at the bottom of the pulldown list.

I. Creating and Saving a User Defined Grid

During Step 7 of this tutorial, a user defined system was created. In theDTCC4.1-Define User System window, select the Grid selection box and thenselect "Define User Grid...". This will bring up the "Define User Grid" window.Another way to bring up the "Defined User Grid" window is to select "DefineUser Grid..." from "Options" from the Menu Bar. The Define User Grid windowallows the user to create a non-standard grid by entering projection information,grid constants and boundary rectangle coordinates. This example assumesthat Step 7 of the tutorial has just been performed. Select Projection Name"Mercator [MRC]". Under "Origin" enter 0.0 degree Latitude and 110 degreesLongitude. Click on "Scale Factor at Origin:" dialog box and enter 0.997.Click on the "False Easting:" dialog box and enter 3,900,000. Click on the"False Northing:" dialog box and enter 900,000. Now you are readyto validate the grid. Under "File" from the Menu Bar, select "Validate Grid".A message box will appear and say "Grid is Valid" or an error box will appearthat indicates the improper data entry. Next select "Save and Return" from"File" from the Menu Bar. This will temporarily keep the grid informationin memory and return you to the "Define User System" window. To permanentlysave the user defined grid to a file, select "Validate _ Save System" fromthe File menu. You can enter a grid name or accept the system generated name.The user defined grid is now ready for use in the DTCC4.1 main menu. Select"Return to DTCC4" from the File Menu. It will appear at the bottom of the"Input Systems" and "Output Systems" pull down menus.

2. Distanceand Azimuth Calculation Tutorial

In DTCC4.1, distance and azimuth calculations take place in the "InverseOperation" window (see Figure 4), and in the "Forward Operation" window (seeFigure 5). In both of these windows, your intended calculations take placeby clicking the "Add" button in the upper left of the window. This actionwill also display the results of the calculation by "adding" it (appendingit) to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows in the lower half of theDistance and Azimuth Calculation Window (see Figures 4 & 5). These subwindowsare also known as the "Output Table".

A. Displaying the Distance and Azimuth Calculation Window.

- Be sure that you are at the DTCC4.1 Transform window. If not, select "Returnto DTCC4" under "File" on the Menu Bar.

- Select "Distance and Azimuth Calculations..." under "Options" on the MenuBar. The Distance and Azimuth window will appear.

B. Examining options on the Menu Bar

- Pull down the "Options" submenu on the Menu Bar. You will see four options.

- Move the mouse down the "Options" submenu and examine the options availableunder each category.

- Under "Operations" you will find "Inverse" and "Forward" operations.

- Under "Ordering Options" you will find "Independent Points", "Serial Points",and "Begin New Series".

- Under "Format Options" there are three options for the input and outputgeographics: "Decimal Degrees", "Degrees and Minutes", and "Degrees, Minutesand Seconds".

- Under "Distance Units Options" you will find four linear distance units:"meters", "kilometers", "statute miles" and "nautical miles".

- For all of these four options, the option checked on the submenu will bethe one currently in use.

C. Doing an inverse calculation (see Figure 4)

- From the "Options" submenu on the Menu Bar, choose "Inverse" from the"Operations" submenu.

- Choose "Independent Points" from the "Ordering Options" submenu.

- Choose "Decimal Degrees" from the "Format" submenu, and "kilometers" fromthe "Distance Units" submenu.

- In the "Origin" (left) point entry box, enter 30 degrees in the latitudetext entry area, and click North.

- Enter 45 degrees in the longitude text entry area, and click East.

- Enter latitude 31.5 degrees North, and longitude 44.525 degrees East inthe "Terminus" (right) point entry box.

- Click the "Add" button, and the points you defined and the calculated resultswill be appended to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows.

- Your results should be :

Distance: 172.40466 km

Azimuths: 344.824636 164.581749

- You can continue by defining new points, then calculating and appendingthe new results to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows.

D. Doing a forward calculation (see Figure 5)

- From the "Options" menu on the Menu Bar, choose "Forward" from the "Operations"submenu. Notice the change in the right point entry area.

- Choose "Independent Points" from the "Ordering Options" submenu.

- Choose "Degrees and Minutes" from the "Format" submenu, and "nautical miles"from the "Distance Units" submenu.

- In the "Origin" (left) point entry box, enter 15 degrees, 45.0 minutesin the latitude text entry area, and click North.

- Enter 103 degrees 0.0 minutes in the longitude text entry area, and clickWest.

- In the "Input Distance and Azimuth" (right) entry area, enter a distanceof 60 nautical miles.

- Enter 30 degrees, 0 minutes in the Forward Azimuth entry area.

- Click the "Add" button, and the points you defined and the calculated resultswill be appended to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows.

- Your results should be :

Latitude: N 16 37.139

Longitude: W102 28.758

Back Azimuth: 210 8.708

- You can continue by defining new points, then calculating and appendingthe new results to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows.

E. Doing a series of inverse calculations

- From the "Options" menu on the Menu Bar, choose "Inverse" from the "Operations"submenu.

- Choose "Serial Points" from the "Ordering Options" submenu.

- Choose "Decimal Degrees" from the "Format Options" submenu, and "meters"from the "Distance Units Options" submenu.

- In the "Origin" (left) point entry box, enter latitude 20 degrees North,and longitude 70 degrees West.

- In the "Terminus" (right) point entry box enter latitude 20.2 degrees North,and longitude 71.4 degrees West.

- Click the "Add" button, and the points you defined and the calculated resultswill be appended to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows. In addition,the coordinates from the "Terminus" box will be entered into the "Origin"box. Note: these new values in the "Origin" box are not editable.

- Your results should be :

Distance: 148077.32 m

Azimuths: 278.839455 98.358309

- Since you chose "Serial Points" above, you are set up to continue to addpoint to your series. Enter a third point in the "Terminus" (right) pointentry box: latitude 20.4 degrees North, and longitude 72.8 degrees West.

- Click the "Add" button again, and this point and the calculated resultswill be appended to the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows. Notice thatthe Origin of the newly added point is the same as the Terminus of the previouspoint.

- Your results should be :

Distance: 147892.68 m

Azimuths: 278.852762 98.367030

F. Clearing the output table

- To clear the table, click "Clear Table" under the "Options" menu.

G. Editing a series of points/calculations (replace, insert, add,delete)

After performing a series of calculations as in step E above, you are ableto edit the output on a point-by-point basis. The following steps will showhow to 1) replace the coordinates of existing points in a series with newcoordinate values, 2) insert a new point in an existing series of points,3) add (append) a new point to an existing series of points and 4) deletean existing point from a series of points.

Set Up

- From the "Options" menu on the Menu Bar, choose "Inverse" from the "Operations"submenu.

- Choose "Serial Points" from the "Ordering Options" submenu.

- Choose "Decimal Degrees" from the "Format Options" submenu, and "nauticalmiles" from the "Distance Units Options" submenu.

- Enter this point in the "Origin" point entry area: latitude 40.0 North,longitude 50.0 East.

- Enter this point in the "Terminus" point entry area: latitude 41.0 North,longitude 51.0 East.

- Click the "Add" button to appended these points and the calculated resultsto the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows. Since this is a series ofpoints, the Terminus values will now be copied into the Origin area and theOrigin area will be inactivated.

- Now add the following points in the Terminus area to create your series:

latitude 42.0 North, longitude 52.0 East, click "Add";

latitude 43.0 North, longitude 53.0 East, click "Add";

- The calculated results appearing in the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows(a.k.a. Output Table) should look like this:


Figure 8: Results of Point Series


Replace

- This example will replace the values of two points within a single calculation.Select the second calculation by double clicking on it in the table (doubleclicking on any of the three lines of the second calculation will selectand highlight all three lines of the calculation). A "Series Edit Dialog"dialog box will appear telling you that the point is part of a series ofpoints, and asking you what you want to do with it (see Figure 9).


Figure 9: Series Edit Dialog

- Click the "Replace or Delete a Point?" button in the "Series Edit Dialog"dialog box. The Origin and Terminus values will automatically be placed inthe point entry area.

- In the point entry area, change (replace, that is) the value of the Originto the new values of latitude 40.5 North, longitude 50.5 East, and the valueof the Terminus to new values of latitude 41.5 North, longitude 51.5 East.

- Now Click the "Replace" button to the left of the point entry area. Anotherdialog will appear notifying you that this point is part of a series, andasking you if you want to integrate it into the series (see Figure 10).


Figure 10: Series Integration Dialog

- Click the "Yes" button. Notice that both the Terminus Point of the firstcalculation and the Origin Point of the third calculation have been changedto keep the series intact.

- The calculated results appearing in the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows(a.k.a. Output Table) should look like this:


Figure 11: Results After "Replace"


Insert

- Next double click on the third calculation in the table. A dialog willappear telling you that the point is part of a series of points, and askingyou what you want to do with it (see Figure 9).

- Click the "Insert a Point (Before this one)?" button. Only the Origin willbe editable.

- In the point entry area, change the value of the Origin to 42.5 North,52.5 East, then click the "Insert" button to the left of the point entryarea. The Series Integration Dialog will appear (see Figure 10).

- Click the "Yes" Button. Notice that the third point has been changed tokeep the series intact.

- The calculated results appearing in the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows(a.k.a. Output Table) should look like this:


Figure 12: Results After "Insert"


Add

- Now double click on the fourth calculation. The Series Edit Dialog willappear.

- Click the "ADD a Point (After this one)?" button.

- In the point entry area, enter the value of the Terminus to new valuesof latitude 44.0 North, longitude 54.0 East.

- Click the "Add" button to append these points and the calculated resultsto the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows.

- The calculated results appearing in the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows(a.k.a. Output Table) should look like this:


Figure 13: Results After "Add"


Delete

- Now double click on the third calculation to delete the Origin point ofthat calculation. The Series Edit Dialog will appear.

- Click the "Replace or Delete a Point?" button.

- Now click the "Delete" button to the left of the point entry area. Theseries integration dialog will appear. Click the "Yes" button. The Originpoint will be deleted and the points on either side of it will be updatedto keep the series intact.

- The calculated results appearing in the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows(a.k.a. Output Table) should look like this:


Figure 14: Results After "Delete"


[Note: The process of editing points that are NOT in a series is the sameas described above, except that the series edit dialog boxes will not appear.]

H. Saving the output table

As was stated above, the "Input" and "Output" display subwindows in the lowerhalf of the Distance and Azimuth Calculation Window are also known as the"Output Table". Your output results (the output table) can be saved as atext file. This file will contain the text that is currently displayed inthe Output Table area of the window.

- To save the Output Table to a text file, choose "Save Table" from the "File"menu on the Menu Bar. A File Selection dialog typical for your platform willappear.

- Choose a directory or folder where you have write permissions, if it isrelevant for your platform.

- Save the Output Table (for this exercise) as "table.txt". (In practice,you can assign this text file any name you like.) You can now view the file"table.txt" using any text editor.

I. Printing the output table and clearing it

- To print the Output Table, click on "Print Table" (your computer must beattached to a printer. Check the printer setup by clicking "Print Setup"under the "File" menu. (The "Print Setup" button is inactive on UNIX platforms)


4. GLOSSARY

area of coverage: An area within which the datum shifts (from itsdefined ellipsoid) are further refined.

azimuth: The angle from north (0, 360) made by the geodesic connectingtwo points.

coordinate conversion: The conversion of a geodetic point (Lat., Long.)to a metric (Easting, Northing) on a specified grid, or vice versa.

coordinate system: A completely defined system consisting of adatum with the corresponding ellipsoid, an area of coverage,and an optional grid. Commonly used systems are pre-defined, andadditional systems may be defined by the user.

datum: As used in this manual, datum refers to the geodetic or horizontaldatum. The classical datum is defined by five elements giving the positionof the origin (two elements), the orientation of the network (one element)and the parameters of a reference ellipsoid (two elements). More recentdefinitions express the position and orientation as a function of the deviationsin the meridian and in the prime vertical, the geoid-ellipsoidseparations, and parameters of a reference ellipsoid with respect to thecenter of mass of the Earth. As used in DTCC4, local datums are defined bytheir transformations from WGS84.

datum transformation: The transformation of a geodetic point on onedatum to its equivalent position on another datum.

distance: The distances calculated by DTCC4.1 are calculated alongthe geodesic between two points.

easting: Eastward (that is, left to right) reading of grid valueson a map.

ellipsoid: A three-dimensional figure generated by the revolutionof an ellipse about one of its axes. The ellipsoid that approximates thegeoid is an ellipse rotated about its minor axis.

geodesic: The shortest distance between two points on the surfaceof an ellipsoid.

geoid: The equipotential surface in the Earth's gravity field approximatesthe undisturbed mean sea level extended continuously through the continents.The direction of gravity is perpendicular to the geoid at every point. Thegeoid is the surface of reference for astronomic observations and for geodeticleveling.

grid: Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles andforming squares; a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system that is superimposedon maps, charts and other similar representations of the Earth's surfacein an accurate and consistent manner to permit identification of ground locationswith respect to other locations and the computation of direction and distanceto other points.

map projection: An orderly system of lines on a plane representinga corresponding system of imaginary lines on an adopted terrestrialdatum surface. A map projection may be derived by geometrical constructionor by mathematical analysis.

projection: See map projection.

Military Grid Reference System( MGRS): The alphnumeric position reportingsystem used by the U.S. military. A full description can be found in DMATM 8358.1, chapter 3.

non-universal grids: Grids other than UTM and UPS grids, suchas British National Grid, Irish Transverse Mercator Grid, Madagascar Grid,and New Zealand Grid. Also referred to as non-standard grids.

northing: Northward (bottom to top) reading of grid values on a map.

spheroid: A mathematical figure closely approaching the geoid in formand size, used as a surface of reference for geodetic surveys. (See alsoellipsoid).

standard system: A coordinate system in the list of systemsdistributed in data files meant to be used with DTCC4.

universal grids: The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) gridand the Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) grid. Also referred to as standardgrids.

World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF): A worldwide position referencesystem that may be applied to any map or chart graduated in latitude andlongitude (with Greenwich as the prime meridian) regardless of projection.It provides a method of expressing positions in a form suitable for reportingand plotting. The primary use is for interservice and interallied reportingof aircraft and air target positions.


5. INPUT ANDOUTPUT POINT FILE FORMATS

INPUT FILE FORMAT

The input point file consists of a list of points, one to a line. Optionally,the file can contain points in more than one coordinate system, in whichcase the different groups of points are separated by comments specifyingthe coordinate system. See OUTPUT FILE FORMAT for an example.

There are actually six formats used: three geographic and three grid.

The three geographic formats are:

decimal degrees (dd)

degrees and minutes (dm)

degrees, minutes and seconds(dms)

The three grid formats are:

Military Grid Reference System (MGRS)

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

a generalized grid format for other grids

Example input for each:

decimal degrees:N   0.49695,   E   0.08047S   0.49695,   W   0.0804714.72485, -1.58383-14.96538, 1.55860degrees and minutes:N  34  0.000,   W 123  0.000S  45  0.000,   E 123  0.00034  0.000,    -123  0.000-45  0.000, 123  0.000 degrees, minutes and seconds:S  45  0  0.0,   E 123  0  0.0N  45 32 34.8,   W  76 27 54.0-45  0  0.0,    123  0  0.045 32 34.8,    -76 27 54.0Cartesian10000000    36000    47000123Military Grid Reference System:19NGP2143731893 10WDK997012986510SDN9970161397Universal Transverse Mercator42N       453588.98,     8659162.0019S       546411.02,     1340838.0019N       722292.17,      331796.29Other grid:25285041.29 m,  28636768.94 m453588.98,      8659162.00

Output File Format

Since the output file may contain more than one system, a system is designatedfor each group of one or more points. This designation consists of a singleline, starting with a '#' sign followed by the system name. This output fileis readable by the program, which will change the input system to correspondwith the designated system.

There are actually six formats used: three geographic and three grid.

The three geographic formats are:

decimal degrees (dd)

degrees and minutes (dm)

degrees, minutes and seconds(dms)

The three grid formats are:

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

Military Grid Reference System (MGRS)

a generalized grid format for other grids

This is an example of an output file containing all six formats:

# World Geodetic System 1984:N   0.49695, E   0.08047N  14.72485, W   1.58383N  14.96538, W   1.55860# World Geodetic System 1984:N  34  0.000    W 123  0.000S  45  0.000    E 123  0.000# World Geodetic System 1984:S  45  0  0.0    E 123  0  0.0S  45 32 34.8    W  76 27 54.0# Universal Transverse Mercator 84:42N       453588.98,     8659162.0019S       546411.02,     1340838.0019N       722292.17,      331796.29# Military Grid Reference System TD:19NGP214373189310WDK997012986510SDN9970161397# New Zealand Map Grid:25285041.29 m,  28636768.94 m722292.17 m,      331796.29 m


6. DATUMSSORTED BY CONTINENT AND ELLIPSOID

DATUMS BY CONTINENT

CONTINENT

[DATUM NAME ABBREVIATION] DATUM NAME

AREA OF COVERAGE

WORLD_WIDE_DATUMS

[W66] WGS 1966

Global Definition I

[W72] WGS 1972

Global Definition I

[W84] WGS 1984

Global Definition II

NORTH_AMERICAN_DATUMS

[CAC] Cape Canaveral

Bahamas, Florida

[NAR-A] North American 1983

Alaska (Excluding Aleutian Islands)

[NAR-B] North American 1983

Canada

[NAR-C] North American 1983

CONUS

[NAR-D] North American 1983

Mexico, Central America

[NAR-E] North American 1983

Aleutian Ids

[NAS-A] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (East, Incl LA,MO,MN)

[NAS-B] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (West, Excl LA,MN,MO)

[NAS-C] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS

[NAS-D] North American 1927

Alaska (Excluding Aleutian Ids)

[NAS-E] North American 1927

MEAN FOR Canada

[NAS-F] North American 1927

Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)

[NAS-G] North American 1927

Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland,Nova Scotia, Quebec)

[NAS-H] North American 1927

Canada (Manitoba, Ontario)

[NAS-I] North American 1927

Canada (Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan)

[NAS-J] North American 1927

Canada (Yukon)

[NAS-L] North American 1927

Mexico

[NAS-N] North American 1927

MEAN FOR NAD27 Central America

[NAS-O] North American 1927

Canal Zone

[NAS-P] North American 1927

MEAN FOR NAD27 West Indies

[NAS-Q] North American 1927

Bahamas (Except San Salvador Island)

[NAS-R] North American 1927

Bahamas (San Salvador Island)

[NAS-T] North American 1927

Cuba

[NAS-U] North American 1927

Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)

[NAS-V] North American 1927

Alaska (Aleutian Ids East of 180W)

[NAS-W] North American 1927

Alaska (Aleutian Ids West of 180W)

[QUO] Qornoq

Greenland (South)

[NAR-H] North American 1983

Hawaii

[OHA-A] Old Hawaiian

Hawaii

[OHA-B] Old Hawaiian

Kauai

[OHA-C] Old Hawaiian

Maui

[OHA-D] Old Hawaiian

Oahu

[OHA-M] Old Hawaiian

MEAN FOR Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Oahu

SOUTH_AMERICAN_DATUMS

[BOO] Bogota Observatory

Colombia

[CAI] Campo Inchauspe

Argentina

[CHU] Chua Astro

Paraguay

[COA] Corrego Alegre

Brazil

[DAL] Dabola

Guinea

[HIT] Provisional South Chilean 1963

Chile (South, Near 53ØS) (Hito XVIII)

[PRP-A] Provisional South American 1956

Bolivia

[PRP-B] Provisional South American

1956 Chile (Northern, Near 19ØS)

[PRP-C] Provisional South American 1956

Chile (Southern, Near 43ØS)

[PRP-D] Provisional South American 1956

Colombia

[PRP-E] Provisional South American 1956

Ecuador

[PRP-F] Provisional South American 1956

Guyana

[PRP-G] Provisional South American 1956

Peru

[PRP-H] Provisional South American 1956

Venezuela

[PRP-M] Provisional South American 1956

MEAN FOR PSAD56

[SAN-A] South American 1969

Argentina

[SAN-B] South American 1969

Bolivia

[SAN-C] South American 1969

Brazil

[SAN-D] South American 1969

Chile

[SAN-E] South American 1969

Colombia

[SAN-F] South American 1969

Ecuador

[SAN-G] South American 1969

Guyana

[SAN-H] South American 1969

Paraguay

[SAN-I] South American 1969

Peru [69]

[SAN-J] South American 1969

Ecuador (Baltra, Galapagos)

[SAN-K] South American 1969

Trinidad & Tobago

[SAN-L] South American 1969

Venezuela

[SAN-M] South American 1969

MEAN FOR SAD69

[YAC] Yacare

Uruguay

AFRICAN_DATUMS

[ADI-A] Adindan

Ethiopia

[ADI-B] Adindan

Sudan

[ADI-C] Adindan

Mali

[ADI-D] Adindan

Senegal

[ADI-E] Adindan

Burkina Faso

[ADI-F] Adindan

Cameroon

[ADI-M] Adindan

MEAN FOR Ethiopia, Sudan

[AFG] Afgooye

Somalia

[ARF-A] Arc 1950

Botswana

[ARF-B] Arc 1950

Lesotho

[ARF-C] Arc 1950

Malawi

[ARF-D] Arc 1950

Swaziland

[ARF-E] Arc 1950

Zaire

[ARF-F] Arc 1950

Zambia

[ARF-G] Arc 1950

Zimbabwe

[ARF-H] Arc 1950

Burundi

[ARF-M] Arc 1950

MEAN FOR ARC50 (except Burundi)

[ARS] Arc 1960

MEAN FOR Kenya, Tanzania

[BID] Bissau

Guinea-Bissau

[CAP] Cape

South Africa

[CGE] Carthage

Tunisia

[LEH] Leigon

Ghana

[LIB] Liberia 1964

Liberia

[MAS] Massawa

Ethiopia (Eritrea)

[MER] Merchich

Morocco

[MIN-A] Minna

Cameroon

[MIN-B] Minna

Nigeria

[MPO] M'Poraloko

Gabon

[NSD] North Sahara 1959

Algeria

[OEG] Old Egyptian 1907

Egypt

[PTB] Point 58

MEAN FOR Burkina Faso & Niger

[PTN] Pointe Noire 1948

Congo

[SCK] Schwarzeck

Namibia

[SLE] Sierra Leone 1960

Sierra Leone

[TAN] Tananarive Observatory 1925

Madagascar

[VOR] Voirol 1960

Algeria

[ZAN] Zanderij

Suriname

[EUR-F] European 1950

Egypt

[EUR-T] European 1950

Tunisia

ASIAN_DATUMS

[AIN-A] Ain el Abd 1970

Bahrain

[AIN-B] Ain el Abd 1970

Saudi Arabia

[FAH] Oman

Oman

[HEN] Herat North

Afghanistan

[HKD] Hong Kong 1963

Hong Kong

[HTN] Hu-Tzu-Shan

Taiwan

[IDN] Indonesian

Indonesia

[IND-B] Indian

Bangladesh

[IND-I] Indian

India, Nepal

[IND-P] Indian

Pakistan

[INF-A] Indian 1954

Thailand, Vietnam

[ING-A] Indian 1960

Vietnam (Near 16N)

[ING-B] Indian 1960

Vietnam (Con Son Island)

[INH-A] Indian 1975

Thailand

[KAN] Kandawala

Sri Lanka

[KEA] Kertau 1948

West Malaysia & Singapore

[KOR] Korean Geodetic System

South Korea

[LUZ-A] Luzon

Philippines (Excluding Mindanao)

[LUZ-B] Luzon

Philippines (Mindanao)

[NAH-A] Nahrwan

Oman (Masirah Island)

[NAH-B] Nahrwan

United Arab Emirates

[NAH-C] Nahrwan

Saudi Arabia

[QAT] Qatar National

Qatar

[SOA] South Asia

Singapore

[TIL] Timbalai 1948

Brunei, East Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

[TOY-A] Tokyo

Japan

[TOY-B] Tokyo

South Korea

[TOY-C] Tokyo

Okinawa

[TOY-M] Tokyo

MEAN FOR Japan, South Korea, Okinawa

[EUR-H] European 1950

Iran

[EUR-S] European 1950

MEAN FOR ED50 Near East

[PUK] Pulkovo 1942

Russia

EUROPEAN_DATUMS

[CCD] S-JTSK

Czechoslovakia (Prior 1 JAN 1993)

[EUR-A] European 1950

MEAN FOR NW Europe

[EUR-B] European 1950

Greece

[EUR-C] European 1950

Finland, Norway

[EUR-D] European 1950

Portugal, Spain

[EUR-E] European 1950

Cyprus

[EUR-G] European 1950

England, Channel Islands, Scotland, Shetland Islands

[EUR-I] European 1950

Italy (Sardinia)

[EUR-J] European 1950

Italy (Sicily)

[EUR-K] European 1950

England, Ireland, Scotland, Shetland Islands

[EUR-L] European 1950

Malta

[EUR-M] European 1950

MEAN FOR ED50 W Europe

[EUS] European 1979

MEAN FOR ED79

[HER] Hermannskogel

Croatia,Serbia,Bosnia-Herzegovina,Slovenia

[HJO] Hjorsey 1955

Iceland

[IRL] Ireland 1965

Ireland

[MOD] Rome 1940

Italy (Sardinia)

[OGB-A] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

England

[OGB-B] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

England, Isle of Man, Wales

[OGB-C] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

Scotland, Shetland Islands

[OGB-D] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

Wales

[OGB-M] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

MEAN FOR OSGB36

[SPK-A] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Albania

[SPK-C] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Czechoslavakia

[SPK-H] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Hungary

[SPK-K] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Kazakhstan

[SPK-L] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Latvia

[SPK-P] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Poland

[SPK-R] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Romania

[EUR-F] European 1950

Egypt

[EUR-T] European 1950

Tunisia

[EUR-H] European 1950

Iran

[EUR-S] European 1950

MEAN FOR ED50 Near East

[PUK] Pulkovo 1942

Russia

MICRONESIAN_DATUMS

[AUA] Australian Geodetic 1966

Australia, Tasmania

[AUG] Australian Geodetic 1984

Australia, Tasmania

[BAT] Djakarta (Batavia)

Indonesia (Sumatra)

[CHI] Chatham Island Astro 1971

New Zealand (Chatham Island)

[GEO] Geodetic Datum 1949

New Zealand

[GSE] Gunung Segara

Indonesia (Kalimantan)

MISC_ISLAND_DATUMS

[AIA] Antigua Island Astro 1943

Antigua (Leeward Islands)

[AMA] American Samoa 1962

American Samoa Islands

[ANO] Anna 1 Astro 1965

Cocos Islands

[ASC] Ascension Island 1958

Ascension Island

[ASM] Montserrat Island Astro 1958

Montserrat (Leeward Islands)

[ASQ] Astronomical Station 1952

Marcus Island

[ATF] Astro Beacon E 1945

Iwo Jima

[BER] Bermuda 1957

Bermuda

[BUR] Bukit Rimpah

Indonesia (Bangka & Belitung Islands)

[CAO] Canton Astro 1966

Phoenix Islands

[DID] Deception Island

Deception Island, Antarctia

[DOB] GUX 1 Astro

Guadalcanal Island

[EAS] Easter Island 1967

Easter Island

[ENW] Wake-Eniwetok 1960

Marshall Islands

[FLO] Observatorio Meteorologico 1939

Azores (Corvo & Flores Islands)

[FOT] Fort Thomas 1955

Nevis, St. Kitts (Leeward Islands)

[GAA] Gan 1970

Republic of Maldives

[GIZ] DOS 1968

New Georgia Islands (Gizo Island)

[GRA] Graciosa Base SW 1948

Azores (Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira)

[GUA] Guam 1963

Guam

[IBE] Bellevue (IGN)

Efate & Erromango Islands

[ISG] ISTS 061 Astro 1968

South Georgia Islands

[IST] ISTS 073 Astro 1969

Diego Garcia

[JOH] Johnston Island 1961

Johnston Island

[KEG] Kerguelen Island 1949

Kerguelen Island

[KUS] Kusaie Astro 1951

Caroline Islands

[LCF] L. C. 5 Astro 1961

Cayman Brac Island

[MID] Midway Astro 1961

Midway Islands

[MIK] Mahe 1971

Mahe Island

[MVS] Viti Levu 1916

Fiji (Viti Levu Island)

[NAP] Naparima BWI

Trinidad & Tobago

[PHA] Ayabelle Lighthouse

Djibouti

[PIT] Pitcairn Astro 1967

Pitcairn Island

[PLN] Pico de las Nieves

Canary Islands

[POS] Porto Santo 1936

Porto Santo, Madeira Islands

[PUR] Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

[REU] Reunion

Mascarene Islands

[SAE] Santo (DOS) 1965

Espirito Santo Island

[SAO] Sao Braz

Azores (Sao Miguel, Santa Maria Islands)

[SAP] Sapper Hill 1943

East Falkland Island

[SGM] Selvagem Grande 1938

Salvage Islands

[SHB] Astro DOS 71/4

St Helena Island

[TDC] Tristan Astro 1968

Tristan da Cunha

[TRN] Astro Tern Island (FRIG) 1961

Tern Island

[WAK] Wake Island Astro 1952

Wake Atoll

[NAR-H] North American 1983

Hawaii

[OHA-A] Old Hawaiian

Hawaii

[OHA-B] Old Hawaiian

Kauai

[OHA-C] Old Hawaiian

Maui

[OHA-D] Old Hawaiian

Oahu

[OHA-M] Old Hawaiian

MEAN FOR Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Oahu

[DID] Deception Island

Deception Island, Antarctia

ANTARCTIC_DATUMS

[CAZ] Camp Area Astro

Antarctica (McMurdo Camp Area)

DATUMS BY ELLIPSOID

ELLIPSOID

[DATUM NAME ABBREVIATION] DATUM NAME

AREA OF COVERAGE

Airy 1830

[OGB-A] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

England

[OGB-B] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

England, Isle of Man, Wales

[OGB-C] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

Scotland, Shetland Islands

[OGB-D] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

Wales

[OGB-M] Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

MEAN FOR OSGB36

Modified Airy

[IRL] Ireland 1965

Ireland

Australian National

[ANO] Anna 1 Astro 1965

Cocos Islands

[AUA] Australian Geodetic 1966

Australia, Tasmania

[AUG] Australian Geodetic 1984

Australia, Tasmania

Bessel 1841 (Namibia)

[SCK] Schwarzeck

Namibia

[HER] Hermannskogel

Croatia,Serbia,Bosnia-Herzegovina,Slovenia

Bessel 1841

[BAT] Djakarta (Batavia)

Indonesia (Sumatra)

[BUR] Bukit Rimpah

Indonesia (Bangka & Belitung Islands)

[CCD] S-JTSK

Czechoslavakia (Prior 1 JAN 1993)

[GSE] Gunung Segara

Indonesia (Kalimantan)

[MAS] Massawa

Ethiopia (Eritrea)

[TOY-A] Tokyo

Japan

[TOY-B] Tokyo

South Korea

[TOY-C] Tokyo

Okinawa

[TOY-M] Tokyo

MEAN FOR Japan, South Korea, Okinawa Clarke 1866

[AMA] American Samoa 1962

American Samoa Islands

[BER] Bermuda 1957

Bermuda

[CAC] Cape Canaveral

Bahamas, Florida

[GUA] Guam 1963

Guam

[LCF] L. C. 5 Astro 1961

Cayman Brac Island

[LUZ-A] Luzon

Philippines (Excluding Mindanao)

[LUZ-B] Luzon

Philippines (Mindanao)

[NAS-A] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (East, Incl LA,MO,MN)

[NAS-B] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (West, Excl LA,MN,MO)

[NAS-C] North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS

[NAS-D] North American 1927

Alaska (Excluding Aleutian Ids)

[NAS-E] North American 1927

MEAN FOR Canada

[NAS-F] North American 1927

Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)

[NAS-G] North American 1927

Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Quebec)

[NAS-H] North American 1927

Canada (Manitoba, Ontario)

[NAS-I] North American 1927

Canada (Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan)

[NAS-J] North American 1927

Canada (Yukon)

[NAS-L] North American 1927

Mexico

[NAS-N] North American 1927

MEAN FOR NAD27 Central America

[NAS-O] North American 1927

Canal Zone

[NAS-P] North American 1927

MEAN FOR NAD27 West Indies

[NAS-Q] North American 1927

Bahamas (Except San Salvador Island)

[NAS-R] North American 1927

Bahamas (San Salvador Island)

[NAS-T] North American 1927

Cuba

[NAS-U] North American 1927

Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)

[NAS-V] North American 1927

Alaska (Aleutian Ids East of 180W)

[NAS-W] North American 1927

Alaska (Aleutian Ids West of 180W)

[OHA-A] Old Hawaiian

Hawaii

[OHA-B] Old Hawaiian

Kauai

[OHA-C] Old Hawaiian

Maui

[OHA-D] Old Hawaiian

Oahu

[OHA-M] Old Hawaiian

MEAN FOR Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Oahu

[PUR] Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Clarke 1880

[ADI-A] Adindan

Ethiopia

[ADI-B] Adindan

Sudan

[ADI-C] Adindan

Mali

[ADI-D] Adindan

Senegal

[ADI-E] Adindan

Burkina Faso

[ADI-F] Adindan

Cameroon

[ADI-M] Adindan

MEAN FOR Ethiopia, Sudan

[AIA] Antigua Island Astro 1943

Antigua (Leeward Islands)

[ARF-A] Arc 1950

Botswana

[ARF-B] Arc 1950

Lesotho

[ARF-C] Arc 1950

Malawi

[ARF-D] Arc 1950

Swaziland

[ARF-E] Arc 1950

Zaire

[ARF-F] Arc 1950

Zambia

[ARF-G] Arc 1950

Zimbabwe

[ARF-H] Arc 1950

Burundi

[ARF-M] Arc 1950

MEAN FOR ARC50 (except Burundi)

[ARS] Arc 1960

MEAN FOR Kenya, Tanzania

[ASM] Montserrat Island Astro 1958

Montserrat (Leeward Islands)

[CAP] Cape

South Africa

[CGE] Carthage

Tunisia

[DAL] Dabola

Guinea

[DID] Deception Island

Deception Island, Antarctia

[FAH] Oman

Oman

[FOT] Fort Thomas 1955

Nevis, St. Kitts (Leeward Islands)

[LEH] Leigon

Ghana

[LIB] Liberia 1964

Liberia

[MER] Merchich

Morocco

[MIK] Mahe 1971

Mahe Island

[MIN-A] Minna

Cameroon

[MIN-B] Minna

Nigeria

[MPO] M'Poraloko

Gabon

[MVS] Viti Levu 1916

Fiji (Viti Levu Island)

[NAH-A] Nahrwan

Oman (Masirah Island)

[NAH-B] Nahrwan

United Arab Emirates

[NAH-C] Nahrwan

Saudi Arabia

[NSD] North Sahara 1959

Algeria

[PHA] Ayabelle Lighthouse

Djibouti

[PTB] Point 58

MEAN FOR Burkina Faso & Niger

[PTN] Pointe Noire 1948

Congo

[SLE] Sierra Leone 1960

Sierra Leone

[VOR] Voirol 1960

Algeria

Everest 1830

[IND-B] Indian

Bangladesh

[INF-A] Indian 1954

Thailand, Vietnam

[ING-A] Indian 1960

Vietnam (Near 16N)

[ING-B] Indian 1960

Vietnam (Con Son Island)

[INH-A] Indian 1975

Thailand

[KAN] Kandawala

Sri Lanka

Everest (Sabah & Sarawak)

[TIL] Timbalai 1948

Brunei, East Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

Everest 1956

[IND-I] Indian

India, Nepal

Everest 1948

[KEA] Kertau 1948

West Malaysia & Singapore

Everest (Pakistan)

[IND-P] Indian

Pakistan

Modified Fischer 1960

[SOA] South Asia

Singapore

Helmert 1906

[OEG] Old Egyptian 1907

Egypt

Hough 1960

[ENW] Wake-Eniwetok 1960

Marshall Islands

Indonesian 1974

[IDN] Indonesian

Indonesia

International

[AIN-A] Ain el Abd 1970

Bahrain

[AIN-B] Ain el Abd 1970

Saudi Arabia

[ASC] Ascension Island 1958

Ascension Island

[ASQ] Astronomical Station 1952

Marcus Island

[ATF] Astro Beacon E 1945

Iwo Jima

[BID] Bissau

Guinea-Bissau

[BOO] Bogota Observatory

Colombia

[CAI] Campo Inchauspe

Argentina

[CAO] Canton Astro 1966

Phoenix Islands

[CAZ] Camp Area Astro

Antarctica (McMurdo Camp Area)

[CHI] Chatham Island Astro 1971

New Zealand (Chatham Island)

[CHU] Chua Astro

Paraguay

[COA] Corrego Alegre

Brazil

[DOB] GUX 1 Astro

Guadalcanal Island

[EAS] Easter Island 1967

Easter Island

[EUR-A] European 1950

MEAN FOR NW Europe

[EUR-B] European 1950

Greece

[EUR-C] European 1950

Finland, Norway

[EUR-D] European 1950

Portugal, Spain

[EUR-E] European 1950

Cyprus

[EUR-F] European 1950

Egypt

[EUR-G] European 1950

England, Channel Islands, Scotland, Shetland Islands

[EUR-H] European 1950

Iran

[EUR-I] European 1950

Italy (Sardinia)

[EUR-J] European 1950

Italy (Sicily)

[EUR-K] European 1950

England, Ireland, Scotland, Shetland Islands

[EUR-L] European 1950

Malta

[EUR-M] European 1950

MEAN FOR ED50 W Europe

[EUR-S] European 1950

MEAN FOR ED50 Near East

[EUR-T] European 1950

Tunisia

[EUS] European 1979

MEAN FOR ED79

[FLO] Observatorio Meteorologico 1939

Azores (Corvo & Flores Islands)

[GAA] Gan 1970

Republic of Maldives

[GEO] Geodetic Datum 1949

New Zealand

[GIZ] DOS 1968

New Georgia Islands (Gizo Island)

[GRA] Graciosa Base SW 1948

Azores (Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira)

[HEN] Herat North

Afghanistan

[HIT] Provisional South Chilean 1963

Chile (South, Near 53ØS) (Hito XVIII)

[HJO] Hjorsey 1955

Iceland

[HKD] Hong Kong 1963

Hong Kong

[HTN] Hu-Tzu-Shan

Taiwan

[IBE] Bellevue (IGN)

Efate & Erromango Islands

[ISG] ISTS 061 Astro 1968

South Georgia Islands

[IST] ISTS 073 Astro 1969

Diego Garcia

[JOH] Johnston Island 1961

Johnston Island

[KEG] Kerguelen Island 1949

Kerguelen Island

[KUS] Kusaie Astro 1951

Caroline Islands

[MID] Midway Astro 1961

Midway Islands

[MOD] Rome 1940

Italy (Sardinia)

[NAP] Naparima BWI

Trinidad & Tobago

[PIT] Pitcairn Astro 1967

Pitcairn Island

[PLN] Pico de las Nieves

Canary Islands

[POS] Porto Santo 1936

Porto Santo, Madeira Islands

[PRP-A] Provisional South American 1956

Bolivia

[PRP-B] Provisional South American 1956

Chile (Northern, Near 19ØS)

[PRP-C] Provisional South American 1956

Chile (Southern, Near 43ØS)

[PRP-D] Provisional South American 1956

Colombia

[PRP-E] Provisional South American 1956

Ecuador

[PRP-F] Provisional South American 1956

Guyana

[PRP-G] Provisional South American 1956

Peru

[PRP-H] Provisional South American 1956

Venezuela

[PRP-M] Provisional South American 1956

MEAN FOR PSAD56

[QAT] Qatar National

Qatar

[QUO] Qornoq

Greenland (South)

[REU] Reunion

Mascarene Islands

[SAE] Santo (DOS) 1965

Espirito Santo Island

[SAO] Sao Braz

Azores (Sao Miguel, Santa Maria Islands)

[SAP] Sapper Hill 1943

East Falkland Island

[SGM] Selvagem Grande 1938

Salvage Islands

[SHB] Astro DOS 71/4

St Helena Island

[TAN] Tananarive Observatory 1925

Madagascar

[TDC] Tristan Astro 1968

Tristan da Cunha

[TRN] Astro Tern Island (FRIG) 1961

Tern Island

[WAK] Wake Island Astro 1952

Wake Atoll

[YAC] Yacare

Uruguay

[ZAN] Zanderij

Suriname

Krassovsky

[AFG] Afgooye

Somalia

[PUK] Pulkovo 1942

Russia

[SPK-A] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Albania

[SPK-C] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Czechoslavakia

[SPK-H] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Hungary

[SPK-K] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Kazakhstan

[SPK-L] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Latvia

[SPK-P] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Poland

[SPK-R] S-42 (Pulkovo 1942)

Romania

GRS 1980

[KOR] Korean Geodetic System

South Korea

[NAR-A] North American 1983

Alaska (Excluding Aleutian Islands)

[NAR-B] North American 1983

Canada

[NAR-C] North American 1983

CONUS

[NAR-D] North American 1983

Mexico, Central America

[NAR-E] North American 1983

Aleutian Ids

[NAR-H] North American 1983

Hawaii

South American 1969

[SAN-A] South American 1969

Argentina

[SAN-B] South American 1969

Bolivia

[SAN-C] South American 1969

Brazil

[SAN-D] South American 1969

Chile

[SAN-E] South American 1969

Colombia

[SAN-F] South American 1969

Ecuador

[SAN-G] South American 1969

Guyana

[SAN-H] South American 1969

Paraguay

[SAN-I] South American 1969

Peru [69]

[SAN-J] South American 1969

Ecuador (Baltra, Galapagos)

[SAN-K] South American 1969

Trinidad & Tobago

[SAN-L] South American 1969

Venezuela

[SAN-M] South American 1969

MEAN FOR SAD69

WGS 66

[W66] WGS 1966

Global Definition I

WGS 72

[W72] WGS 1972

Global Definition I

WGS 84

[W84] WGS 1984

Global Definition II


7. PROJECTIONS ANDGRIDS

PROJECTIONS

PROJECTION NAME,     PROJECTION ABBREVIATION

Albers,     ALB

Azimuthal Equidistant,     AED

Cylindrical Equal Area,     CEA

Equidistant Conic,     EDC

Lambert Conformal Conic,     LCC

Lambert Equal Area,     LEA

Mercator,     MRC

Oblique Mercator,     OMA

Orthographic,     ORT

Rectangular,     REC

Stereographic,     STE

Transverse Mercator,     TMR

GRIDS

GRID NAME :     DATUM

Universal Transverse Mercator 84 :     WGS 1984

Lambert Conformal Conic US :     WGS 1984

Military Grid Reference System 84 :     WGS 1984

Universal Polar Stereographic 84 :     WGS 1984

British National Grid :     Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936

Irish Transverse Mercator :     Ireland 1965

Netherlands East Indies :     Djakarta (Batavia)

_________________________





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